Identification of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Related to the Resistance Against Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease in the Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei by Target Sequencing Approach.
ABSTRACT: Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) is a major bacterial disease in Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei farming, which is caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus. AHPND has led to a significant reduction of shrimp output since its outbreak. Selective breeding of disease-resistant broodstock is regarded as a key strategy in solving the disease problem. Understanding the relationship between genetic variance and AHPND resistance is the basis for marker-assisted selection in shrimp. The purpose of this study was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with the resistance against AHPND in L. vannamei. In this work, two independent populations were used for V. parahaemolyticus challenge and the resistant or susceptible shrimp were evaluated according to the survival time after Vibrio infection. The above two populations were genotyped separately by a SNP panel designed based on the target sequencing platform using a pooling strategy. The SNP panel contained 508 amplicons from DNA fragments distributed evenly along the genome and some immune-related genes of L. vannamei. By analyzing the allele frequency in the resistant and susceptible groups, 30 SNPs were found to be significantly associated with the resistance of the shrimp against V. parahaemolyticus infection (false discovery rate corrected at P < 0.05). Three SNPs were further validated by individual genotyping in all samples of population 1. Our study illustrated that target sequencing and pooling sequencing were effective in identifying the markers associated with economic traits, and the SNPs identified in this study could be used as molecular markers for breeding disease-resistant shrimp.
Project description:The acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) of Penaeus vannamei shrimp is caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus carrying toxin genes, pirA and pirB We report the complete genome sequence of the novel V. parahaemolyticus strain R14, which did not display AHPND symptoms in P. vannamei despite containing the binary toxin genes.
Project description:Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) has caused sharp declines in aquaculture industries of whiteleg shrimp Penaeus vannamei in Asia and the Americas since 2010. Vibrio parahaemolyticus, V. campbellii, V. owensii, and V. punensis have been proved to cause AHPND. However, the mechanisms underlying the burgeoning number of Vibrio species that cause AHPND is not known. All of AHPND-causing Vibrio bacteria (V AHPND) harbor a highly homologous plasmid (designated as pVA1-type) carrying pirAB vp toxin genes. In this study, we demonstrate conclusively that the pVA1-type plasmid can be transferred from V AHPND to non-pathogenic bacteria. We constructed a pVPGX1-Cm r plasmid (a pVA1-type plasmid) by adding a chloramphenicol resistance gene as a marker in a donor AHPND-causing V. parahaemolyticus 20130629002S01 (Vp2S01). Horizontal transfer of this plasmid was successfully performed from the AHPND-Vp2S01 to a non-pathogenic strain of V. campbellii at the transfer efficiency of 2.6×10-8 transconjugant/recipient, and DNase I treatment did not eliminate the transfer. The recipient V. campbellii acquired the pVA1-type plasmid and was shown to produce pirAB vp RNA and proteins. Challenge studies using the transconjugant caused 100% mortality in exposed groups of P. vannamei. The challenged shrimp, infected with the transconjugant bacteria, showed typical gross signs and histological lesions of AHPND. These results demonstrated the conjugative transfer of an AHPND pVA1-type plasmid. It provides timely information for explaining the increased species of AHPND-causing Vibrio bacteria and will be useful in the development of management strategies leading to the prevention and control of AHPND.
Project description:Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) has caused a heavy loss to shrimp aquaculture since its outbreak. Vibrio parahaemolyticus (VPAHPND) is regarded as one of the main pathogens that caused AHPND in the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. In order to learn more about the mechanism of resistance to AHPND, the resistant and susceptible shrimp families were obtained through genetic breeding, and comparative transcriptome approach was used to analyze the gene expression patterns between resistant and susceptible families. A total of 95 families were subjected to VPAHPND challenge test, and significant variations in the resistance of these families were observed. Three pairs of resistant and susceptible families were selected for transcriptome sequencing. A total of 489 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that presented in at least two pairwise comparisons were screened, including 196 DEGs highly expressed in the susceptible families and 293 DEGs in the resistant families. Among these DEGs, 16 genes demonstrated significant difference in all three pairwise comparisons. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) of all 27,331 expressed genes indicated that some energy metabolism processes were enriched in the resistant families, while signal transduction and immune system were enriched in the susceptible families. A total of 32 DEGs were further confirmed in the offspring of the detected families, among which 19 genes were successfully verified. The identified genes in this study will be useful for clarifying the genetic mechanism of shrimp resistance against Vibrio and will further provide molecular markers for evaluating the disease resistance of shrimp in the breeding program.
Project description:Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) is a severe shrimp disease originally shown to be caused by virulent strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (VPAHPND). Rare cases of AHPND caused by Vibrio species other than V. parahaemolyticus were reported. We compared an AHPND-causing V. campbellii (VCAHPND) and a VPAHPND isolate from the same AHPND-affected pond. Both strains are positive for the virulence genes pirABvp . Immersion challenge test with Litopenaeus vannamei indicated the two strains possessed similar pathogenicity. Complete genome comparison showed that the pirABvp -bearing plasmids in the two strains were highly homologous, and they both shared high homologies with plasmid pVA1, the reported pirABvp -bearing plasmid. Conjugation and DNA-uptake genes were found on the pVA1-type plasmids and the host chromosomes, respectively, which may facilitate the dissemination of pirABvp . Novel variations likely driven by ISVal1 in the genetic contexts of the pirABvp genes were found in the two strains. Moreover, the VCAHPND isolate additionally contains multiple antibiotic resistance genes, which may bring difficulties to control its future outbreak. The dissemination of the pirABvp in non-parahaemolyticus Vibrio also rises the concern of missing detection in industrial settings since the isolation method currently used mainly targeting V. parahaemolyticus. This study provides timely information for better understanding of the causes of AHPND and molecular epidemiology of pirABvp and also appeals for precautions to encounter the dissemination of the hazardous genes.
Project description:Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) is a shrimp farming disease, caused by a pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus carrying a plasmid encoding Vp_PirAB-like toxin (VpAHPND). Whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei were fed food pellets containing formalin-killed VpAHPND (FKC-VpAHPND) to select for toxin resistance. To identify genes associated with Vp_PirAB-like toxin resistance, total RNA was sequenced to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the stomach and hepatopancreas among surviving shrimp (sur-FKC), AHPND-infected shrimp (Vp-inf) and normal shrimp (control). From a total of 79,591 genes, 194 and 224 DEGs were identified in the stomach and hepatopancreas transcriptomes, respectfully. The expressions of DEGs were validated by qPCR of ten genes. Only one gene, a gene homologous to L vannamei anti-lipopolysaccharide factor AV-R isoform (LvALF AV-R), was expressed significantly more strongly in sur-FKC than in the other groups. The association of LvALF AV-R expression and toxin resistance was affirmed from the surviving shrimp in a second-trial of FKC-VpAHPND feeding. These results suggest that LvALF AV-R may be involved in shrimp defense mechanisms against Vp_PirAB-like toxin virulence. Overall design: Total RNA of stomach and hepatopancreas from 3 groups of control (N =3), Vp-inf (N=3), and sur-FKC (N=4) were prepared library with Truseq Stranded mRNA Library Prep Kit. RNA-seq was genrated by Illumina MiSeq
Project description:In aquaculture, shrimp farming is a popular field. The benefits of shrimp farming include a relatively short grow-out time, high sale price, and good cost recovery. However, outbreaks of serious diseases inflict serious losses, and acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) is an emerging challenge to this industry. In South American white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) and grass shrimp (Penaeus monodon), this disease has a 70-100% mortality. The pathogenic agent of AHPND is a specific strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus which contains PirAvp and PirBvp toxins encoded in the pVA1 plasmid. PirAvp and PirBvp have been shown to cause the typical histological symptoms of AHPND in infected shrimps, and in this review, we will focus on our structural understanding of these toxins. By analyzing their structures, a possible cytotoxic mechanism, as well as strategies for anti-AHPND drug design, is proposed.
Project description:The biofloc system is a relatively new aquaculture technology that offers practical solution to maintain culture water quality by recycling nutrients and improves the health status and resistance of shrimps against microbial infection, yet the mode of action involved remains unclear. This study aimed to unravel the underlying mechanism behind the protective effect of a biofloc system using Litopenaeus vannamei and acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND)-causing Vibrio parahaemolyticus M0904 strain as a host-pathogen model. The results showed that a biofloc system maintained at a C/N ratio of 15, improves the water quality and contributes to the nutrition of cultured animals as bioflocs might serve as an additional protein source. Furthermore, the study demonstrated that the biofloc system enhances the survival of L. vannamei upon challenge with a V. parahaemolyticus AHPND strain. Remarkably, the results highlight that in the biofloc system, AHPND-causing V. parahaemolyticus possibly switch from free-living virulent planktonic phenotype to a non-virulent biofilm phenotype, as demonstrated by a decreased transcription of flagella-related motility genes (flaA, CheR, and fliS), Pir toxin (PirB VP ), and AHPND plasmid genes (ORF14) and increased expression of the phenotype switching marker AlkPhoX gene in both in vitro and in vivo conditions. Taken together, results suggest that biofloc steer phenotype switching, contributing to the decreased virulence of V. parahaemolyticus AHPND strain toward shrimp postlarvae. This information reinforces our understanding about AHPND in a biofloc setting and opens the possibility to combat AHPND not only by trying to eliminate the AHPND-causing V. parahaemolyticus from the system but rather to steer the phenotypic switch.
Project description:Vibrio parahaemolyticus carrying binary toxin genes, pirAB, is one of the etiological agents causing acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) in shrimp. This disease has emerged recently as a major threat to shrimp aquaculture worldwide. During a routine PCR screening of AHPND-causing V. parahaemolyticus strains, an isolate tested PCR positive for pirB (R13) and another isolate tested positive for both the pirA and pirB (R14) genes. To evaluate the pathogenicity of these isolates, specific pathogen-free (SPF) Penaeus vannamei were experimentally challenged. For both R13 and R14 isolates, the final survival rate was 100% at termination of the challenge, whereas the final survival with the AHPND-causing V. parahaemolyticus was 0%. The nucleotide sequence of the plasmid DNA carrying the binary toxin genes revealed that R13 contains a deletion of the entire pirA gene whereas R14 contains the entire coding regions of both pirA and pirB genes. However, R14 possesses an insertion upstream of the pirA gene. In R14, mRNA for both pirA and pirB genes could be detected but no cognate proteins. This shows that the genome of AHPND-causing V. parahaemolyticus is highly plastic and, therefore, detection of the pirA and pirB genes alone by DNA-PCR is insufficient as a diagnostic test for AHPND.
Project description:Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) caused by <i>Vibrio parahaemolyticus</i> causing AHPND (VP<sub>AHPND</sub>) is the most serious disease affecting shrimp farming. The PirA<sup>vp</sup> and PirB<sup>vp</sup> toxins of VP<sub>AHPND</sub> are known virulence factors. However, the corresponding target protein in shrimp that mediates their action has not been identified. By screening yeast two-hybrid cDNA libraries from intestine, stomach, and hepatopancreas of <i>Litopenaeus vannamei</i>, the protein with the largest increase in gene expression in shrimp hepatopancreas in response to VP<sub>AHPND</sub> challenge was identified and designated LvFABP. Analysis revealed high sequence homology of the <i>LvFABP</i> gene and a lipocalin/cytosolic fatty acid binding gene. Yeast two-hybrid pairwise analysis, GST-pull down assay, and far-western blot assay were performed to determine the interaction between LvFABP and PirB<sup>vp</sup>. LvFABP was able to directly bind to PirB<sup>vp</sup>. The expression of <i>LvFABP</i> in the hepatopancreas was significantly higher at P23 and P27 developmental stages of <i>L. vannamei</i>. RNA interference (RNAi) of <i>LvFABP</i> reduced the mortality, histopathological signs of AHPND in the hepatopancreas, and the number of virulent VP<sub>AHPND</sub> bacteria in the intestine, stomach, and hepatopancreas after VP<sub>AHPND</sub> challenge. We concluded that the LvFABP was involved in AHPND pathogenesis and acted as a VP<sub>AHPND</sub> toxin interacting protein. This is the first identification of VP<sub>AHPND</sub> toxin interacting protein from the shrimp digestive system by yeast two-hybrid library screening and were confirmed by <i>in vitro</i> protein interaction verification and <i>in vivo</i> challenge experiments. This study provides novel insight into the contributions of LvFABP towards AHPND pathogenesis in shrimp. The findings could inform AHPND preventative measures in shrimp farming.
Project description:Emerging, infectious diseases in shrimp like acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus and mortality caused by other Vibrio species such as Vibrio harveyi are worldwide related to huge economic losses in industrial shrimp production. As a strategy to prevent disease outbreaks, a plant-based phenolic compound could be used as a biocontrol agent. Here, using the brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) as a model system, we showed that phloroglucinol treatment of the parental animals at early life stages resulted in transgenerational inherited increased resistance in their progeny against biotic stress, i.e., bacteria (V. parahaemolyticus AHPND strain and V. harveyi) and abiotic stress, i.e., lethal heat shock. Increased resistance was recorded in three subsequent generations. Innate immune-related gene expression profiles and potential epigenetic mechanisms were studied to discover the underlying protective mechanisms. Our results showed that phloroglucinol treatment of the brine shrimp parents significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced the expression of a core set of innate immune genes (DSCAM, proPO, PXN, HSP90, HSP70, and LGBP) in subsequent generations. We also demonstrated that epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation, m6A RNA methylation, and histone acetylation and methylation (active chromatin marker i.e., H3K4Me3, H3K4me1, H3K27me1, H3 hyperacetylation, H3K14ac and repression marker, i.e., H3K27me3, H4 hypoacetylation) might play a role in regulation of gene expression leading toward the observed transgenerational inheritance of the resistant brine shrimp progenies. To our knowledge, this is the first report on transgenerational inheritance of a compound-induced robust protected phenotype in brine shrimp, particularly protected against AHPND caused by V. parahaemolyticus and vibriosis caused by V. harveyi. Results showed that epigenetic reprogramming is likely to play a role in the underlying mechanism.