The primacy of NF1 loss as the driver of tumorigenesis in neurofibromatosis type 1-associated plexiform neurofibromas.
ABSTRACT: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common tumor-predisposition disorder due to germline mutations in the tumor suppressor gene NF1. A virtually pathognomonic finding of NF1 is the plexiform neurofibroma (PN), a benign, likely congenital tumor that arises from bi-allelic inactivation of NF1. PN can undergo transformation to a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, an aggressive soft-tissue sarcoma. To better understand the non-NF1 genetic contributions to PN pathogenesis, we performed whole-exome sequencing, RNASeq profiling and genome-wide copy-number determination for 23 low-passage Schwann cell cultures established from surgical PN material with matching germline DNA. All resected tumors were derived from routine debulking surgeries. None of the tumors were considered at risk for malignant transformation at the time; for example, there was no pain or rapid growth. Deep (~500X) NF1 exon sequencing was also conducted on tumor DNA. Non-NF1 somatic mutation verification was performed using the Ampliseq/IonTorrent platform. We identified 100% of the germline NF1 mutations and found somatic NF1 inactivation in 74% of the PN. One individual with three PNs had different NF1 somatic mutations in each tumor. The median number of somatic mutations per sample, including NF1, was one (range 0-8). NF1 was the only gene that was recurrently somatically inactivated in multiple tumors. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis of transcriptome-wide tumor RNA sequencing identified five significant (FDR<0.01) and seven trending (0.01?FDR<0.02) gene sets related to DNA replication, telomere maintenance and elongation, cell cycle progression, signal transduction and cell proliferation. We found no recurrent non-NF1 locus copy-number variation in PN. This is the first multi-sample whole-exome and whole-transcriptome sequencing study of NF1-associated PN. Taken together with concurrent copy-number data, our comprehensive genetic analysis reveals the primacy of NF1 loss as the driver of PN tumorigenesis.
Project description:Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a genetic disorder characterized by the development of multiple neurofibromas, cafe-au-lait spots, and Lisch nodules. Individuals with NF1 are at increased risk of developing various tumors, such as malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST), pheochromocytoma, leukemia, glioma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and breast cancer. Here, we describe the exome sequencing of breast cancer, MPNST, and neurofibroma from a patient with NF1. We identified a germline mutation in the NF1 gene which resulted in conversion of leucine to proline at amino acid position 847. In addition, we showed independent somatic NF1 mutations in all the three tumors (frameshift insertion in breast cancer (p.A985fs), missense mutation in MPNST (p.G23R), and inframe deletion in dermal neurofibroma (p.L1876del-Inf)), indicating that a second hit in NF1 resulting in the loss of function could be important for tumor formation. Each tumor had a distinct genomic profile with mutually exclusive mutations in different genes. Copy number analysis revealed multiple copy number alterations in the breast cancer and the MPNST, but not the benign neurofibroma. Germline loss of chromosome 6q22.33, which harbors two potential tumor suppressor genes, PTPRK and LAMA2, was also identified; this may increase tumor predisposition further. In the background of NF1 syndrome, although second-hit NF1 mutation is critical in tumorigenesis, different additional mutations are required to drive the formation of different tumors.
Project description:Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a hereditary cancer predisposition syndrome characterized by frequent cutaneous and nervous system abnormalities. Patients with NF1 also have an increased prevalence of multiple gastrointestinal and peripancreatic neoplasms-neuroendocrine tumors of the ampulla that express somatostatin are particularly characteristic of NF1. In this study, we characterize the genetic alterations of a clinically well-characterized cohort of six NF1-associated duodenal neuroendocrine tumors using whole-exome sequencing. We identified inactivating somatic mutations in the NF1 gene in three of six tumors; the only other gene altered in more than one tumor was IFNB1. Copy number analysis revealed deletion/loss of heterozygosity of chromosome 22 in three of six patients. Analysis of germline variants revealed germline deleterious NF1 variants in four of six patients, as well as deleterious variants in other tumor suppressor genes in two of four patients with deleterious NF1 variants. Taken together, these data confirm the importance of somatic inactivation of the wild-type NF1 allele in the formation of NF1-associated duodenal neuroendocrine tumors and suggest that loss of chromosome 22 is important in at least a subset of cases. However, we did not identify any genes altered in the majority of NF1-associated duodenal neuroendocrine tumors that uniquely characterize the genomic landscape of this tumor. Still, the genetic alterations in these tumors are distinct from sporadic neuroendocrine tumors occurring at these sites, highlighting that unique genetic alterations drive syndromic tumors.
Project description:Low-grade brain tumors (pilocytic astrocytomas) arising in the neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) inherited cancer predisposition syndrome are hypothesized to result from a combination of germline and acquired somatic NF1 tumor suppressor gene mutations. However, genetically engineered mice (GEM) in which mono-allelic germline Nf1 gene loss is coupled with bi-allelic somatic (glial progenitor cell) Nf1 gene inactivation develop brain tumors that do not fully recapitulate the neuropathological features of the human condition. These observations raise the intriguing possibility that, while loss of neurofibromin function is necessary for NF1-associated low-grade astrocytoma development, additional genetic changes may be required for full penetrance of the human brain tumor phenotype. To identify these potential cooperating genetic mutations, we performed whole-genome sequencing (WGS) analysis of three NF1-associated pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) tumors. We found that the mechanism of somatic NF1 loss was different in each tumor (frameshift mutation, loss of heterozygosity, and methylation). In addition, tumor purity analysis revealed that these tumors had a high proportion of stromal cells, such that only 50%-60% of cells in the tumor mass exhibited somatic NF1 loss. Importantly, we identified no additional recurrent pathogenic somatic mutations, supporting a model in which neuroglial progenitor cell NF1 loss is likely sufficient for PA formation in cooperation with a proper stromal environment.
Project description:Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is caused by mutations in the NF1 gene encoding neurofibromin, which negatively regulates Ras signaling. NF1 patients have an increased risk of developing early onset breast cancer, however, the association between NF1 and high grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) is unclear. Since most NF1-related tumors exhibit early biallelic inactivation of NF1, we evaluated the evolution of genetic alterations in HGSOC in an NF1 patient. Somatic variation analysis of whole exome sequencing of tumor samples from both ovaries and a peritoneal metastasis showed a clonal lineage originating from an ancestral clone within the left adnexa, which exhibited copy number (CN) loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in the region of chromosome 17 containing TP53, NF1, and BRCA1 and mutation of the other TP53 allele. This event led to biallelic inactivation of NF1 and TP53 and LOH for the BRCA1 germline mutation. Subsequent CN alterations were found in the dominant tumor clone in the left ovary and nearly 100% of tumor at other sites. Neurofibromin modeling studies suggested that the germline NF1 mutation could potentially alter protein function. These results demonstrate early, biallelic inactivation of neurofibromin in HGSOC and highlight the potential of targeting RAS signaling in NF1 patients.
Project description:Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas have a highly diverse genetic background, with a third of the cases carrying a germline mutation in 1 of 14 identified genes.This study aimed to evaluate next-generation sequencing for more efficient genetic testing of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma and to establish germline and somatic mutation frequencies for all known susceptibility genes.A targeted next-generation sequencing approach on an Illumina MiSeq instrument was used for a mutation analysis in 86 unselected pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma tumor samples. The study included the genes EGLN1, EPAS1, KIF1B?, MAX, MEN1, NF1, RET, SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, SDHAF2, TMEM127, and VHL. RESULTS were verified in tumor and constitutional DNA with Sanger sequencing.In all cases with clinical syndromes or known germline mutations, a mutation was detected in the expected gene. Among 68 nonfamilial tumors, 32 mutations were identified in 28 of the samples (41%), including germline mutations in EGLN1, KIF1B?, SDHA, SDHB, and TMEM127 and somatic mutations in EPAS1, KIF1B?, MAX, NF1, RET, and VHL, including one double monoallelic EPAS1 mutation.Targeted next-generation sequencing proved to be fast and cost effective for the genetic analysis of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma. More than half of the tumors harbored mutations in the investigated genes. Notably, 7% of the apparently sporadic cases carried germline mutations, highlighting the importance of comprehensive genetic testing. KIF1B?, which previously has not been investigated in a large cohort, appears to be an equally important tumor suppressor as MAX and TMEM127 and could be considered for genetic testing of these patients.
Project description:Plexiform neurofibroma (PN) tumors are a hallmark manifestation of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) that arise in the Schwann cell (SC) lineage. NF1 is a common heritable cancer predisposition syndrome caused by germline mutations in the NF1 tumor suppressor, which encodes a GTPase-activating protein called neurofibromin that negatively regulates Ras proteins. Whereas most PN are clinically indolent, a subset progress to atypical neurofibromatous neoplasms of uncertain biologic potential (ANNUBP) and/or to malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs). In small clinical series, loss of 9p21.3, which includes the CDKN2A locus, has been associated with the genesis of ANNUBP. Here we show that the Cdkn2a alternate reading frame (Arf) serves as a gatekeeper tumor suppressor in mice that prevents PN progression by inducing senescence-mediated growth arrest in aberrantly proliferating Nf1-/- SC. Conditional ablation of Nf1 and Arf in the neural crest-derived SC lineage allows escape from senescence, resulting in tumors that accurately phenocopy human ANNUBP and progress to MPNST with high penetrance. This animal model will serve as a platform to study the clonal development of ANNUBP and MPNST and to identify new therapies to treat existing tumors and to prevent disease progression.
Project description:Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common, autosomal dominant, tumor-predisposition syndrome that arises secondary to mutations in NF1. Glomus tumors are painful benign tumors that originate from the glomus body in the fingers and toes due to biallelic inactivation of NF1. We karyotyped cultures from four previously reported and one new glomus tumor and hybridized tumor (and matching germline) DNA on Illumina HumanOmni1-Quad SNP arrays (? 1 × 10(6) SNPs). Two tumors displayed evidence of copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity of chromosome arm 17q not observed in the germline sample, consistent with a mitotic recombination event. One of these two tumors, NF1-G12, featured extreme polyploidy (near-tetraploidy, near-hexaploidy, or near-septaploidy) across all chromosomes. In the remaining four tumors, there were few cytogenetic abnormalities observed, and copy-number analysis was consistent with diploidy in all chromosomes. This is the first study of glomus tumors cytogenetics, to our knowledge, and the first to report biallelic inactivation of NF1 secondary to mitotic recombination of chromosome arm 17q in multiple NF1-associated glomus tumors. We have observed mitotic recombination in 22% of molecularly characterized NF1-associated glomus tumors, suggesting that it is a not uncommon mechanism in the reduction to homozygosity of the NF1 germline mutation in these tumors. In tumor NF1-G12, we hypothesize that mitotic recombination also "unmasked" (reduced to homozygosity) a hypomorphic germline allele in a gene on chromosome arm 17q associated with chromosomal instability, resulting in the extreme polyploidy.
Project description:Metaplastic breast carcinoma (MBC) is rare and has a poor prognosis. Here we describe genetic analysis of a 41-yr-old female patient with MBC and neurofibromatosis type I (NF1). She initially presented with pT3N1a, grade 3 MBC, but lung metastases were discovered subsequently. To identify the molecular cause of her NF1, we screened for germline mutations disrupting NF1 or SPRED1, revealing a heterozygous germline single-nucleotide variant (SNV) in exon 21 of NF1 at c.2709G>A, Chr 17: 29556342. By report, this variant disrupts pre-mRNA splicing of NF1 transcripts. No pathogenic mutations were identified in SPRED1 A potential association between MBC and NF1 was reported in eight previous cases, but none underwent detailed genomics analysis. To identify additional candidate germline variants potentially predisposing to MBC, we conducted targeted exome sequencing of 279 established cancer-causing genes in a control blood sample, disclosing four rare SNVs. Analysis of her breast tumor showed markedly altered variant allelic fractions (VAFs) for two (50%) of them, revealing somatic loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at germline SNVs. Of these, only the VAF of the pathogenic SNV in NF1 was increased in the tumor. Tumor sequencing demonstrated five somatic mutations altering TP53, BRCA1, and other genes potentially contributing to cancer formation. Because somatic LOH at certain germline SNVs can enhance their impacts, we conclude that increased allelic imbalance of the pathogenic SNV in NF1 likely contributed to tumorigenesis. Our results highlight a need to assess predisposing genetic factors and LOH that can cause rare, aggressive diseases such as MBC in NF1.
Project description:GI stromal tumors (GISTs) are commonly associated with somatic mutations in KIT and PDGFRA. However, a subset arises from mutations in NF1, most commonly associated with neurofibromatosis type 1. We define the anatomic distribution of NF1 alterations in GIST.We describe the demographic/clinicopathologic features of 177 patients from two institutions whose GISTs underwent next-generation sequencing of ?315 cancer-related genes.We initially identified six (9.7%) of 62 GISTs with NF1 genomic alterations from the first cohort. Of these six patients, five (83.3%) had unifocal tumors at the duodenal-jejunal flexure (DJF). Two additional patients with DJF GISTs had non-NF1 (KIT and BRAF) genomic alterations. After excluding one DJF GIST with an NF1 single nucleotide polymorphism, four (57.1%) of seven sequenced DJF tumors demonstrated deleterious NF1 alterations, whereas only one (1.8%) of 55 sequenced non-DJF GISTs had a deleterious NF1 somatic mutation (P < .001). One patient with DJF GIST had a germline NF1 variant that was associated with incomplete penetrance of clinical neurofibromatosis type 1 features along with a somatic NF1 mutation. Of the five DJF GISTs with any NF1 alteration, three (60%) had KIT mutations, and three (60%) had Notch pathway mutations (NOTCH2, MAML2, CDC73). We validated these findings in a second cohort of 115 GISTs, where two (40%) of five unifocal NF1-mutated GISTs arose at the DJF, and one of these also had a Notch pathway mutation (EP300).Broad genomic profiling of adult GISTs has revealed that NF1 alterations are enriched in DJF GISTs. These tumors also may harbor concurrent activating KIT and/or inactivating Notch pathway mutations. In some cases, germline NF1 genetic testing may be appropriate for patients with DJF GISTs.
Project description:Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) (MIM#162200) is a relatively frequent genetic condition that predisposes to tumor formation. The main types of tumors occurring in NF1 patients are cutaneous and subcutaneous neurofibromas, plexiform neurofibromas, optic pathway gliomas, and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. To search for somatic mutations in cutaneous (dermal) neurofibromas, whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed on seven spatially separated tumors and two reference tissues (blood and unaffected skin) from a single NF1 patient. Validation of WES findings was done using routine Sanger sequencing or Sequenom IPlex SNP genotyping. Exome sequencing confirmed the existence of a known familial splice-site mutation NM_000267.3:c.3113+1G>A in exon 23 of NF1 gene (HGMD ID CS951480) in blood, unaffected skin, and all tumor samples. In five out of seven analyzed tumors, we additionally detected second-hit mutations in the NF1 gene. Four of them were novel and one was previously observed. Each mutation was distinct, demonstrating the independent origin of each tumor. Only in two of seven tumors we detected an additional somatic mutation that was not associated with NF1. Our study demonstrated that somatic mutations of NF1 are likely the main drivers of cutaneous tumor formation. The study provides evidence for the rareness of single base pair level alterations in the exomes of benign NF1 cutaneous tumors.