Usefulness of a multiplex PCR for the rapid identification of Candida glabrata species complex in Mexican clinical isolates.
ABSTRACT: Candida glabrata complex includes three species identified through molecular biology methods: C. glabrata sensu stricto , C. nivariensis and C. bracarensis . In Mexico, the phenotypic methods are still used in the diagnosis; therefore, the presence of C. nivariensis and C. bracarensis among clinical isolates is still unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of a multiplex PCR for the identification of the C. glabrata species complex. DNA samples from 92 clinical isolates that were previously identified through phenotypic characteristics as C. glabrata were amplified by four oligonucleotides (UNI-5.8S, GLA-f, BRA-f, and NIV-f) that generate amplicons of 397, 293 and 223-bp corresponding to C. glabrata sensu stricto , C. nivariensis , and C. bracarensis , respectively. The amplicon sequences were used to perform a phylogenetic analysis through the Maximum Likelihood method (MEGA6), including strains and reference sequences of species belonging to C. glabrata complex. In addition, recombination and linkage disequilibrium were estimated (DnaSP version 5.0) for C. glabrata sensu stricto isolate s . Eighty-eight isolates generated a 397-bp fragment and only in one isolate a 223-bp amplicon was observed. In the phylogenetic tree, the sequences of 397-bp were grouped with C. glabrata reference sequences , and the sequence of 223-bp was grouped with C. bracarensis reference sequences, corroborating the PCR identification. The number of recombination events for the isolates of C. glabrata sensu stricto was zero, suggesting a clonal population structure. Three isolates that did not amplify any of the expected fragments were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae through the sequencing of the D1/D2 domain region within the 28S rDNA gene. The multiplex PCR is a fast, cost-effective and reliable tool that can be used in clinical laboratories to identify C. glabrata complex species.
Project description:Occurrence of Candida nivariensis and Candida bracarensis, two species phenotypically similar to Candida glabrata sensu stricto, in human clinical samples from different geographical settings remains unknown. This study developed a low-cost multiplex PCR (mPCR) and three species-specific singleplex PCR assays. Reference strains of common Candida species were used during development and the performance of mPCR and singleplex PCR assays was evaluated with 440 clinical C. glabrata sensu lato isolates. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rDNA was also sequenced from 85 selected isolates and rDNA sequence variations were used for determining genetic relatedness among the isolates by using MEGA X software. Species-specific amplicons for C. glabrata (~360 bp), C. nivariensis (~250 bp) and C. bracarensis (~180 bp) were obtained in mPCR while no amplicon was obtained from other Candida species. The three singleplex PCR assays also yielded expected results with reference strains of Candida species. The mPCR amplified ~360 bp amplicon from all 440 C. glabrata sensu lato isolates thus identifying all clinical isolates in Kuwait as C. glabrata sensu stricto. The results of mPCR were confirmed for all 440 isolates as they yielded an amplicon only in C. glabrata sensu stricto-specific singleplex PCR assay. The rDNA sequence data identified 28 ITS haplotypes among 85 isolates with 18 isolates belonging to unique haplotypes and 67 isolates belonging to 10 cluster haplotypes. In conclusion, we have developed a simple, low-cost mPCR assay for rapid differentiation of C. glabrata sensu stricto from C. nivariensis and C. bracarensis. Our data obtained from a large collection of clinical C. glabrata sensu lato isolates show that C. nivariensis and C. bracarensis are rare pathogens in Kuwait. Considerable genetic diversity among C. glabrata sensu stricto isolates was also indicated by rDNA sequence analyses.
Project description:Human pathogens belonging to the Nakaseomyces clade include Candida glabrata sensu stricto, Candida nivariensis and Candida bracarensis. Their highly similar phenotypic characteristics often lead to misidentification by conventional laboratory methods. Therefore, limited information on the true epidemiology of the Candida glabrata species complex is available. Due to life-threatening infections caused by these species, it is crucial to supplement this knowledge. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of C. bracarensis and C. nivariensis in a culture collection of C. glabrata complex isolates. The study covered 353 isolates identified by biochemical methods as C. glabrata, collected from paediatric and adult patients hospitalised at four medical centres in Southern Poland. The multiplex PCR was used to identify the strains. Further species confirmation was performed via sequencing and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis. One isolate was recognised as C. bracarensis (0.28%). To our knowledge, it is the first isolate in Poland. C. glabrata sensu stricto species has been confirmed for all the remaining isolates. No C. nivariensis was found. Our study has shown that the prevalence of C. nivariensis and C. bracarensis strains is infrequent. However, it should be emphasised that the incidence of these strains may differ locally and depend on environmental factors and the population.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Candida glabrata is a common pathogen that causes invasive candidiasis. Among non-albicans Candida infections, C glabrata infections are associated with the highest fatality rates. Candida glabrata sensu stricto, Candida nivariensis, and Candida bracarensis have been identified and together form the C glabrata species complex. It is difficult to detect the two rare species by traditional laboratory methods. This study established a method for the rapid identification of members of the C glabrata species complex based on high-resolution melting curve (HRM) analysis and evaluated its practical application. METHODS:The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was used as target gene region to design specific primers. HRM analysis was performed with three subspecies of the C glabrata species complex and negative controls to test its specificity and sensitivity. To evaluate its practical application, the HRM technique was tested with clinical isolates, and the results were compared with the DNA sequencing results. RESULTS:Differences were detected among the melting profiles of the members of the C glabrata species complex. The negative controls were not amplified, indicating the high specificity of the method. The minimum detection limits of C glabrata sensu stricto, C nivariensis, and C bracarensis were approximately 1 × 101 copies/µL or less. The results of the HRM analysis of the clinical isolates were consistent with the DNA sequencing results. CONCLUSIONS:The HRM method is sensitive and can be used to rapidly identify the members of the C glabrata species complex. The method can allow early and targeted treatment of patients with invasive candidiasis.
Project description:Neutrophils activated with pathogens or their products induce formation of extracellular traps (NETs), but if this constitutes a general response against all pathogenic species in a single genus or intrageneric differences exist remains unknown, yet this is of great importance for the establishment of effective treatments. To determine this, we analyzed neutrophil extracellular traps formation after the stimulation with bloodstream isolates from different Candida species (Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, and C. glabrata), and found that each species has a different capacity to induce DNA extrusion, which is independent of their morphology (yeast or hyphae). We observed that phospholipase producer's strains and their secretion products were able to induce NETs, a property not observed with phospholipase deficient strains, with exception of some Candida glabrata sensu stricto isolates, which showed no NETs induction although they did show phospholipase production. To further analyze this, we extended our study to include Candida glabrata cryptic species (C. bracarensis and C. nivariensis) and no extracellular traps formation was observed. Here, we contribute to the understanding of how neutrophils initiate NETs, and we found that certain strains may have a differential capacity to trigger these structures, which may explain the high mortality of some isolates.
Project description:Candida nivariensis and C. bracarensis are two emerging cryptic species within the C. glabrata complex. Thirteen of these isolates from 10 hospitals in China were studied for their species identification and antifungal susceptibilities. Phenotypic and molecular [rDNA ITS sequencing, D1/D2 sequencing and ITS sequencer-based capillary gel electrophoresis (SCGE)] and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) MS identification methods were compared for their performance in species identification. Twelve of 13 (92.3%) isolates were identified as C. nivariensis and one as C. bracarensis using ITS sequencing as the reference method. Results obtained by D1/D2 sequencing and ITS SCGE were concordant with ITS sequencing results for all (100%) isolates. SCGE was able to subtype 12 C. nivariensis into four ITS SCGE length types. All isolates failed to be identified by the Vitek MALDI-TOF MS system (bioMérieux), whilst the Bruker MS system (Bruker Daltoniks) correctly identified all C. nivariensis isolates but using a lowered (?1.700) cut-off score for species assignment; the C. bracarensis isolate was identified but with score <1.700. The Vitek 2 Compact system could not identify 11 C. nivariensis and one C. bracarensis isolate and misidentified the remaining C. nivarensis strain as "C. glabrata." All isolates were susceptible-dose dependent to fluconazole [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) range 0.5-4 ?g/mL] and were classed as susceptible to echinocandins (MICs ? 0.06 ?g/mL). All 13 isolates had low MICs for other azoles (MICs ? 0.5 ?g/mL), amphotericin B (MICs ? 2 ?g/mL) and 5-flucytosine (MICs ? 0.25 ?g/mL). Our results reinforce the need for molecular differentiation of species of C. nivarensis and C. bracarensis. The performance of MALDI-TOF may be improved by adding mass spectral profiles (MSPs) into the current databases. The antifungal susceptibility profile of isolates should be monitored.
Project description:The echinocandin susceptibilities of 122 Candida glabrata complex strains (including 5 Candida nivariensis and 3 Candida bracarensis strains) were evaluated by microdilution and compared with the results from a molecular tool able to detect FKS mutations. No echinocandin resistance was detected. The PCR results coincide with the MIC data in 99.25% of the cases (1 C. glabrata strain was misidentified as resistant) but were 20 h faster. C. nivariensis FKS genes were sequenced and showed differences with C. glabrataFKS genes.
Project description:We report here a PCR-based assay using a single primer pair targeting the RPL31 gene that allows discrimination between Candida glabrata, Candida bracarensis, and Candida nivariensis according to the size of the generated amplicon.
Project description:Candida glabrata follows C. albicans as the second or third most prevalent cause of candidemia worldwide. These two pathogenic yeasts are distantly related, C. glabrata being part of the Nakaseomyces, a group more closely related to Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although C. glabrata was thought to be the only pathogenic Nakaseomyces, two new pathogens have recently been described within this group: C. nivariensis and C. bracarensis. To gain insight into the genomic changes underlying the emergence of virulence, we sequenced the genomes of these two, and three other non-pathogenic Nakaseomyces, and compared them to other sequenced yeasts.Our results indicate that the two new pathogens are more closely related to the non-pathogenic N. delphensis than to C. glabrata. We uncover duplications and accelerated evolution that specifically affected genes in the lineage preceding the group containing N. delphensis and the three pathogens, which may provide clues to the higher propensity of this group to infect humans. Finally, the number of Epa-like adhesins is specifically enriched in the pathogens, particularly in C. glabrata.Remarkably, some features thought to be the result of adaptation of C. glabrata to a pathogenic lifestyle, are present throughout the Nakaseomyces, indicating these are rather ancient adaptations to other environments. Phylogeny suggests that human pathogenesis evolved several times, independently within the clade. The expansion of the EPA gene family in pathogens establishes an evolutionary link between adhesion and virulence phenotypes. Our analyses thus shed light onto the relationships between virulence and the recent genomic changes that occurred within the Nakaseomyces.Nakaseomyces delphensis: CAPT01000001 to CAPT01000179Candida bracarensis: CAPU01000001 to CAPU01000251Candida nivariensis: CAPV01000001 to CAPV01000123Candida castellii: CAPW01000001 to CAPW01000101Nakaseomyces bacillisporus: CAPX01000001 to CAPX01000186.
Project description:To examine the role of nucleosome occupancy in the evolution of gene expression, we measured the genome-wide nucleosome profiles of four yeast species, three belonging to the Saccharomyces sensu stricto lineage and the more distantly related Candida glabrata. Nucleosomes and associated promoter elements at C. glabrata genes are typically shifted upstream by ?20 bp, compared to their orthologs from sensu stricto species. Nonetheless, all species display the same global organization features first described for Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a stereotypical nucleosome organization along genes and a division of promoters into those that contain or lack a pronounced nucleosome-depleted region (NDR), with the latter displaying a more dynamic pattern of gene expression. Despite this global similarity, however, nucleosome occupancy at specific genes diverged extensively between sensu stricto and C. glabrata orthologs (?50 million years). Orthologs with dynamic expression patterns tend to maintain their lack of NDR, but apart from that, sensu stricto and C. glabrata orthologs are nearly as similar in nucleosome occupancy patterns as nonorthologous genes. This extensive divergence in nucleosome occupancy contrasts with a conserved pattern of gene expression. Thus, while some evolutionary changes in nucleosome occupancy contribute to gene expression divergence, nucleosome occupancy often diverges extensively with apparently little impact on gene expression.
Project description:In 2005, Candida nivariensis, a yeast species genetically related to Candida glabrata, was described following its isolation from three patients in a single Spanish hospital. Between 2005 and 2006, 16 fungal isolates with phenotypic similarities to C. nivariensis were submitted to the United Kingdom Mycology Reference Laboratory for identification. The strains originated from various clinical specimens, including deep, usually sterile sites, from patients at 12 different hospitals in the United Kingdom. PCR amplification and sequencing of the D1D2 and internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) regions of the nuclear ribosomal gene cassette confirmed that these isolates from the United Kingdom are genetically identical to C. nivariensis. Biochemically, C. glabrata and C. nivariensis are distinguished by their differential abilities to assimilate trehalose. However, in contrast to the original published findings, we found that C. glabrata isolates, but not C. nivariensis isolates, are capable of assimilating this substrate. Antifungal susceptibility tests revealed that C. nivariensis isolates are less susceptible than C. glabrata isolates to itraconazole, fluconazole, and voriconazole and to have significantly higher flucytosine MICs than C. glabrata strains. Finally, C. nivariensis could be rapidly distinguished from the other common pathogenic fungus species by pyrosequencing of the ITS2 region. In the light of these data, we believe that C. nivariensis should be regarded as a clinically important emerging pathogenic fungus.