Daytime and Nighttime Sleep Characteristics and Pain Among Adults With Stable Heart Failure.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Pain and sleep disturbance are common among patients with heart failure (HF) and are associated with symptom burden, disability, and poor quality of life. Little is known about the associations between specific sleep characteristics and pain in people with HF. OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to describe the relationships between nocturnal sleep characteristics, use of sleep medication, and daytime sleep characteristics and pain among people with HF. METHODS:We conducted a cross-sectional study of stable participants with HF. We administered the SF36 Bodily Pain Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and Sleep Habits Questionnaire and obtained 3 days of wrist actigraphy and 1 night of home unattended polysomnography. We conducted bivariate analyses and generalized linear models. RESULTS:The sample included 173 participants (mean [SD] age, 60 [16.1] years; 65.3% [n = 113] male). Insomnia symptoms (P = .0010), sleep duration (P = .0010), poor sleep quality (P = .0153), use of sleep medications (P = .0170), napping (P = .0029), and daytime sleepiness (P = .0094) were associated with increased pain. Patients with the longest sleep duration, who also had insomnia, had more pain (P = .0004), fatigue (P = .0028), daytime sleepiness (P = .0136), and poorer sleep quality (P < .0001) and took more sleep medications (P = .0029) than did those without insomnia. CONCLUSIONS:Pain is associated with self-reported poor sleep quality, napping, daytime sleepiness, and use of sleep medication. The relationship between pain and sleep characteristics differs based on the presence of insomnia and sleep duration. Studies are needed to evaluate the causal relationships between sleep and pain and test interventions for these cooccurring symptoms.
Project description:The precise relationship between sleep and physical and mental functioning in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) has not been examined directly, nor has the impact of daytime napping. This study aimed to examine self-reported sleep in patients with CFS and explore whether sleep quality and daytime napping, specific patient characteristics (gender, illness length) and levels of anxiety and depression, predicted daytime fatigue severity, levels of daytime sleepiness and cognitive functioning, all key dimensions of the illness experience.118 adults meeting the 1994 CDC case criteria for CFS completed a standardised sleep diary over 14 days. Momentary functional assessments of fatigue, sleepiness, cognition and mood were completed by patients as part of usual care. Levels of daytime functioning and disability were quantified using symptom assessment tools, measuring fatigue (Chalder Fatigue Scale), sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale), cognitive functioning (Trail Making Test, Cognitive Failures Questionnaire), and mood (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale).Hierarchical Regressions demonstrated that a shorter time since diagnosis, higher depression and longer wake time after sleep onset predicted 23.4% of the variance in fatigue severity (p <.001). Being male, higher depression and more afternoon naps predicted 25.6% of the variance in objective cognitive dysfunction (p <.001). Higher anxiety and depression and morning napping predicted 32.2% of the variance in subjective cognitive dysfunction (p <.001). When patients were classified into groups of mild and moderate sleepiness, those with longer daytime naps, those who mainly napped in the afternoon, and those with higher levels of anxiety, were more likely to be in the moderately sleepy group.Napping, particularly in the afternoon is associated with poorer cognitive functioning and more daytime sleepiness in CFS. These findings have clinical implications for symptom management strategies.
Project description:STUDY OBJECTIVES:Insomnia is a chief complaint among postmenopausal women, and insomnia impairs daytime functioning and reduces quality of life. Recent evidence supports the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTI) for menopausal insomnia, but it remains unclear whether treating insomnia improves daytime function in this population. This study evaluated whether CBTI improves daytime fatigue, energy, self-reported sleepiness, work productivity, and quality of life in postmenopausal women with insomnia, and whether sleep restriction therapy (SRT)-a single component of CBTI-is equally efficacious. METHODS:Single-site, randomized control trial. One hundred fifty postmenopausal women (56.44 ± 5.64 years) with perimenopausal or postmenopausal onset or exacerbation of chronic insomnia were randomized to 3 treatment conditions: sleep hygiene education control (SHE), SRT, and CBTI. Blinded assessments were performed at pretreatment, posttreatment, and 6-month follow-up. RESULTS:CBTI and SRT produced moderate-to-large improvements in fatigue, energy, sleepiness, and work function at posttreatment and 6 months later. The CBTI group reported better quality of life as indicated by substantial improvements in emotional wellbeing and resiliency to physical and emotional problems, whereas the SRT and SHE groups only showed improvements in resiliency to physical problems. Pain complaints decreased as sleep improved but were not associated with specific treatment conditions. Similarly, insomnia remitters reported fewer daytime and nighttime hot flashes, although reductions were not associated with any specific treatment. CONCLUSIONS:CBTI and SRT are efficacious options for postmenopausal women with chronic insomnia. Both interventions improve daytime function, quality of life, and work performance, although CBTI produces superior results including the added benefit of improved emotional health. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:Registry: ClinicalTrials.gov; Title: Behavioral Treatment of Menopausal Insomnia; Sleep and Daytime Outcomes; Identifier: NCT01933295; URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT01933295.
Project description:Excessive daytime sleepiness is a frequent complaint in Parkinson's disease (PD); however the frequency and risk factors for objective sleepiness remain mostly unknown. We investigated both the frequency and determinants of self-reported and objective daytime sleepiness in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) using a wide range of potential predictors.One hundred and thirty four consecutive patients with PD, without selection bias for sleep complaint, underwent a semi-structured clinical interview and a one night polysomnography followed by a multiple sleep latency test (MSLT). Demographic characteristics, medical history, PD course and severity, daytime sleepiness, depressive and insomnia symptoms, treatment intake, pain, restless legs syndrome, REM sleep behaviour disorder, and nighttime sleep measures were collected. Self-reported daytime sleepiness was defined by an Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) score above 10. A mean sleep latency on MSLT below 8 minutes defined objective daytime sleepiness.Of 134 patients with PD, 46.3% had subjective and only 13.4% had objective sleepiness with a weak negative correlation between ESS and MSLT latency. A high body mass index (BMI) was associated with both ESS and MSLT, a pain complaint with ESS, and a higher apnea/hypopnea index with MSLT. However, no associations were found between both objective and subjective sleepiness, and measures of motor disability, disease onset, medication (type and dose), depression, insomnia, restless legs syndrome, REM sleep behaviour disorder and nighttime sleep evaluation.We found a high frequency of self-reported EDS in PD, a finding which is however not confirmed by the gold standard neurophysiological evaluation. Current treatment options for EDS in PD are very limited; it thus remains to be determined whether decreasing pain and BMI in association with the treatment of sleep apnea syndrome would decrease significantly daytime sleepiness in PD.
Project description:To identify the best screening measure of daytime sleepiness in adults with heart failure (HF).A total of 280 adults with HF completed the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, the Stanford Sleepiness Scale, and a single Likert item measuring daytime sleepiness. The sensitivity and specificity of these self-report measures were assessed in relation to a measure of daytime dysfunction from poor sleep quality.Only 16% of the sample reported significant daytime dysfunction because of poor sleep quality. Those reporting daytime dysfunction were likely to be younger (p < .001), to be unmarried (p = .002), to have New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class IV HF (p = .015), and to report low income (p = .006) and fewer hours of sleep (p = .015). The measure of daytime sleepiness that was most sensitive to daytime dysfunction was a single Likert item measured on a 10-point (1-10) scale. Patients with a score ?4 were 2.4 times more likely to have daytime dysfunction than those with a score <4.Complaints of daytime dysfunction because of poor sleep are not common in adults with HF. Routine use of a single question about daytime sleepiness can help nurse practitioners to identify those HF patients with significant sleep issues that may require further screening.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Insomnia symptoms are a common form of sleep difficulty among people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) affecting sleep quality and health outcomes. Several interventional approaches have been used to improve sleep outcomes in people with T2D. Nonpharmacological approaches, such as cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I), show promising results regarding safety and sustainability of improvements, although CBT-I has not been examined in people with T2D. Promoting sleep for people with insomnia and T2D could improve insomnia severity and diabetes outcomes. OBJECTIVE:The objective of this study is to establish a protocol for a pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) to examine the effect of 6 sessions of CBT-I on insomnia severity (primary outcome), sleep variability, and other health-related outcomes in individuals with T2D and insomnia symptoms. METHODS:This RCT will use random mixed block size randomization with stratification to assign 28 participants with T2D and insomnia symptoms to either a CBT-I group or a health education group. Outcomes including insomnia severity; sleep variability; diabetes self-care behavior (DSCB); glycemic control (A1c); glucose level; sleep quality; daytime sleepiness; and symptoms of depression, anxiety, and pain will be gathered before and after the 6-week intervention. Chi-square and independent t tests will be used to test for between-group differences at baseline. Independent t tests will be used to examine the effect of the CBT-I intervention on change score means for insomnia severity, sleep variability, DSCB, A1c, fatigue, sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, and severity of depression, anxiety, and pain. For all analyses, alpha level will be set at .05. RESULTS:This study recruitment began in February 2019 and was completed in September 2019. CONCLUSIONS:The intervention, including 6 sessions of CBT-I, will provide insight about its effect in improving insomnia symptoms, sleep variability, fatigue, and diabetes-related health outcomes in people with T2D and those with insomnia symptoms when compared with control. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03713996; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03713996. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID):DERR1-10.2196/14647.
Project description:The consequences of sleep deprivation and sleepiness have been noted as the most important health problem in our modern society among shift workers. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of sleep disorders and their possible effects on work performance in two groups of Iranian shift workers and nonshift workers. This study was designed as a cross-sectional study. The data were collected by PSQI, Berlin questionnaire, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Insomnia Severity Index, and RLS Questionnaire. Occupational impact of different sleep disorders was detected by Occupational Impact of Sleep Disorder questionnaire. These questionnaires were filled in by 210 shift workers and 204 nonshift workers. There was no significant difference in the age, BMI, marital status, and years of employment in the two groups. Shift workers scored significantly higher in the OISD. The prevalence of insomnia, poor sleep quality, and daytime sleepiness was significantly higher in shift workers. Correlations between OISD scores and insomnia, sleep quality, and daytime sleepiness were significant. We concluded that sleep disorders should receive more attention as a robust indicator of work limitation.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Nocturnal awakening is the most frequent insomnia complaint in the general population. In contrast to a growing knowledge based on adults, little is known about its prevalence, correlated factors, and associations with subjective sleep perception and daytime sleepiness in children. This study was designed to assess the prevalence and the correlate factors of frequent nocturnal awakening (FNA) among Chinese school-aged children. Furthermore, the associations of FNA with subjective sleep perception and daytime sleepiness were examined. METHODS: A random sample of 20,505 children aged 5.00 to 11.92 years old (boys: 49.5% vs. girls: 50.5%) participated in a cross-sectional survey, which was conducted in eight cities of China. Parent-administered questionnaires were used to collect information on children's sleep behaviors, sleep perception, and potential influential factors of FNA from six domains. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of FNA was 9.8% (10.0% for boys vs. 8.9% for girls) in our sampled children. The prominent FNA-related factors inclued biological health problems, such as overweight/obesity (OR = 1.70), chronic pain during night (OR = 2.47), and chronic respiratory condition (OR = 1.23), poor psychosocial condition, such as poor mental and emotional functioning (OR = 1.34), poor sleep hygiene, such as frequently doing exciting activities before bedtime (OR = 1.24) and bedtime resistance (OR = 1.42), and parents' history of insomnia (OR = 1.31). FNA was associated with subjective poor sleep quality (OR = 1.24), subjective insufficient sleep (OR = 1.21), and daytime sleepiness (OR = 1.35). CONCLUSION: FNA was associated with poor sleep and daytime sleepiness. Compared to sleep environment and family susceptibility, chronic health problems, poor psychosocial condition, and poor sleep hygiene had greater impact on FNA, indicating childhood FNA could be partly prevented by health promotion, by psychological intervention, and by improving sleep hygiene routine.
Project description:OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND:Poor quality and inadequate sleep are associated with impaired cognitive, motor, and behavioral components of sport performance and increased injury risk. While prior work identifies sports-related concussions as predisposing factors for poor sleep, the role of sleep as a sports-related concussion risk factor is unknown. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effect of poor sleep quality and insomnia symptoms on future sports-related concussion risk. PATIENTS/METHODS:In this study, 190 NCAA Division-1 athletes completed a survey battery, including the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) Sleep module. Univariate risk ratios for future sports-related concussions were computed with ISI and NHANES sleepiness scores as independent predictors. An additional multiple logistic regression model including sport, sports-related concussion history, and significant univariate predictors jointly assessed the odds of sustaining a concussion. RESULTS:Clinically moderate-to-severe insomnia severity (RR = 3.13, 95% CI: 1.320-7.424, p = 0.015) and excessive daytime sleepiness two or more times per month (RR = 2.856, 95% CI: 0.681-11.977, p = 0.037) increased concussion risk. These variables remained significant and comparable in magnitude in a multivariate model adjusted for sport participation. CONCLUSION:Insomnia and daytime sleepiness are independently associated with increased sports-related concussion risk. More completely identifying bidirectional relationships between concussions and sleep requires further research. Clinicians and athletes should be cognizant of this relationship and take proactive measures - including assessing and treating sleep-disordered breathing, limiting insomnia risk factors, improving sleep hygiene, and developing daytime sleepiness management strategies - to reduce sports-related concussion risk and support overall athletic performance.
Project description:Background:In noncancer populations, insomnia is known to affect neurocognitive processes. Although the prevalence of insomnia appears to be elevated in survivors of childhood cancer, relatively little is known about its association with neurocognitive performance in this at-risk population. Methods:A total of 911 survivors (51.9% female; mean [SD] age, 34 [9.0] years; time since diagnosis, 26 [9.1] years) completed direct assessments of attention, memory, processing speed, and executive functioning and self-reported symptoms of sleep (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), fatigue (Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue), and daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale). Sex-stratified general linear models were used to examine associations between insomnia and neurocognitive performance, with adjustment for treatment exposures and chronic health conditions. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results:Insomnia was reported by 22.1% of females and 12.3% of males (P?<?.001). After adjustment for neurotoxic treatment exposures, insomnia (vs healthy sleepers with no daytime fatigue or sleepiness) was associated with worse neurocognitive performance in the domains of verbal reasoning, memory, attention, executive function, and processing speed (verbal reasoning: males ? = -0.34, P?=?.04, females ? = -0.57, P?<?.001; long-term memory: males ? = -0.60, P?<?.001, females ? = -0.36, P?=?.02; sustained attention: males ? = -0.85, P?<?.001, females ? = -0.42, P?=?.006; cognitive flexibility: males ? = -0.70, P?=?.002, females ? = -0.40, P?=?.02). Self-reported sleep disturbance without daytime fatigue or sleepiness or daytime fatigue or sleepiness alone were not consistently associated with poorer neurocognitive performance. Conclusions:Insomnia was highly prevalent and contributed to the neurocognitive burden experienced by adult survivors of childhood cancer. Treatment of insomnia may improve neurocognitive problems in survivors.
Project description:Objective: To determine the relationships between self-reported sleep profile and cortical amyloid load in elderly subjects without dementia. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 143 community-dwelling participants aged ?70 years (median: 73 years [70-85]; 87 females) with spontaneous memory complaints but dementia-free. Sociodemographic characteristics, health status, neuropsychological tests, sleep, and 18F-florbetapir (amyloid) PET data were collected. The clinical sleep interview evaluated nighttime sleep duration, but also daytime sleep duration, presence of naps, and restless leg syndrome (RLS) at time of study. Validated questionnaires assessed daytime sleepiness, insomnia, and risk of sleep apnea. The cortical standardized uptake value ratio (SUVr) was computed across six cortical regions. The relationship between sleep parameters and SUVr (cut-off ratio>1.17 and tertiles) was analyzed using logistic regression models. Results: Amyloid-PET was positive in 40.6% of participants. Almost 40% were at risk for apnea, 13.5% had RLS, 35.5% insomnia symptoms, 22.1% daytime sleepiness, and 18.8% took sleep drugs. No significant relationship was found between positive amyloid PET and nighttime sleep duration (as a continuous variable, or categorized into <6; 6-7; ?7 h per night). Logistic regression models did not show any association between SUVr and daytime sleep duration, 24-h sleep duration, naps, RLS, daytime sleepiness, insomnia symptoms, and sleep apnea risk (before and after adjustment for APOE?4 and depressive symptoms). Conclusion: Our study did not confirm the association between amyloid-PET burden, poor sleep quantity/quality in elderly population, suggesting that the interplay between sleep, and amyloid is more complex than described.