Soil health indicators impacted by long-term cattle manure and inorganic fertilizer application in a corn-soybean rotation of South Dakota.
ABSTRACT: Manure impacts labile pools of soil organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen (N) which can influence soil microbial composition (MCC) and enzyme activities, and hence soil health. The present study was conducted to investigate the impacts of long-term dairy manure and inorganic fertilizers (INF) on soil carbon (C) as well as nitrogen (N) fractions, enzyme activities, and microbial community structure in different time horizons at planting (P), one month after planting (1MAP), and after harvesting (H) under corn (Zea mays L.)-soybean (Glycine max L.) rotation. Study treatments included three manure application rates (low, phosphorus-based recommended rate; medium, nitrogen-based recommended rate; and high, the double rate of medium nitrogen based recommended rate), two INF rates (medium only nitrogen additions; and high nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, and sulfur additions) and a control (no application of manure and/or inorganic fertilizer). In comparison to the INF, the dairy manure not only significantly increased chemical fractions of C and N but also impacted the enzyme activities. Average urease activity after manure was applied was shown to be 26.8% higher than it was with INF applied at planting. The ?-Glucosidase activity was 6 and 14% higher with manure than it was with INF at 1MAP and harvesting, respectively. The cold-water extractable nitrogen (CWEN) was enhanced with high manure rate at all timings of sampling compared to the high fertilizer rate (53%), and CK (90%). Principal component analysis indicated that MCC under manure differed from those under the INF treatments. The total bacteria/total fungi ratio at planting was increased with the INF compared to the manure addition. Pearson's correlation analysis showed that CWEC, CWEN, and enzyme activities especially ?-Glucosidase activity were the key determinants of MCC. Data from this study showed that, compared to inorganic fertilizers, manure can be beneficial in enhancing soil health indicators.
Project description:A greenhouse pot test was conducted to study the impacts of replacing mineral fertilizer with organic fertilizers for one full growing period on soil fertility, tomato yield and quality using soils with different tomato planting history. Four types of fertilization regimes were compared: (1) conventional fertilizer with urea, (2) chicken manure compost, (3) vermicompost, and (4) no fertilizer. The effects on plant growth, yield and fruit quality and soil properties (including microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, [Formula: see text]-N, [Formula: see text]-N, soil water-soluble organic carbon, soil pH and electrical conductivity) were investigated in samples collected from the experimental soils at different tomato growth stages. The main results showed that: (1) vermicompost and chicken manure compost more effectively promoted plant growth, including stem diameter and plant height compared with other fertilizer treatments, in all three types of soil; (2) vermicompost improved fruit quality in each type of soil, and increased the sugar/acid ratio, and decreased nitrate concentration in fresh fruit compared with the CK treatment; (3) vermicompost led to greater improvements in fruit yield (74%), vitamin C (47%), and soluble sugar (71%) in soils with no tomato planting history compared with those in soils with long tomato planting history; and (4) vermicompost led to greater improvements in soil quality than chicken manure compost, including higher pH (averaged 7.37 vs. averaged 7.23) and lower soil electrical conductivity (averaged 204.1 vs. averaged 234.6 ?S/cm) at the end of experiment in each type of soil. We conclude that vermicompost can be recommended as a fertilizer to improve tomato fruit quality and yield and soil quality, particularly for soils with no tomato planting history.
Project description:Biogeochemical cycling of phosphorus in the agro-ecosystem is mediated by soil microbes. These microbes regulate the availability of phosphorus in the soil. Little is known about the response of functional traits of phosphorus cycling microbes in soil fertilized with compost manure (derived from domestic waste and plant materials) or inorganic nitrogen fertilizers at high and low doses. We used a metagenomics investigation study to understand the changes in the abundance and distribution of microbial phosphorus cycling genes in agricultural farmlands receiving inorganic fertilizers (120 kg N/ha, 60 kg N/ha) or compost manure (8 tons/ha, 4 tons/ha), and in comparison with the control. Soil fertilization with high level of compost (Cp8) or low level of inorganic nitrogen (N1) fertilizer have nearly similar effects on the rhizosphere of maize plants in promoting the abundance of genes involved in phosphorus cycle. Genes such as <i>ppk</i> involved in polyphosphate formation and <i>pstSABC</i> (for phosphate transportation) are highly enriched in these treatments. These genes facilitate phosphorus immobilization. At a high dose of inorganic fertilizer application or low compost manure treatment, the phosphorus cycling genes were repressed and the abundance decreased. The bacterial families <i>Bacillaceae</i> and <i>Carnobacteriaceae</i> were very abundant in the high inorganic fertilizer (N2) treated soil, while <i>Pseudonocardiaceae, Clostridiaceae</i>, <i>Cytophagaceae, Micromonosporaceae</i>, <i>Thermomonosporaceae</i>, <i>Nocardiopsaceae, Sphaerobacteraceae</i>, <i>Thermoactinomycetaceae, Planococcaceae, Intrasporangiaceae, Opitutaceae</i>, <i>Acidimicrobiaceae</i>, <i>Frankiaceae</i> were most abundant in Cp8. <i>Pyrenophora</i>, <i>Talaromyces</i>, and <i>Trichophyton</i> fungi were observed to be dominant in Cp8 and <i>Methanosarcina</i>, <i>Methanobrevibacter</i>, <i>Methanoculleus</i>, and <i>Methanosphaera</i> archaea have the highest percentage occurrence in Cp8. Moreover, N2 treatment, <i>Cenarchaeum</i>, <i>Candidatus Nitrososphaera,</i> and <i>Nitrosopumilus</i> were most abundant among fertilized soils. Our findings have brought to light the basis for the manipulation of rhizosphere microbial communities and their genes to improve availability of phosphorus as well as phosphorus cycle regulation in agro-ecosystems.
Project description:Soil microbial communities and enzyme activities together affect various ecosystem functions of soils. Fertilization, an important agricultural management practice, is known to modify soil microbial characteristics; however, inconsistent results have been reported. The aim of this research was to make a comparative study of the effects of different nitrogen (N) fertilizer rates and types (organic and inorganic) on soil physicochemical properties, enzyme activities and microbial attributes in a greenhouse vegetable production (GVP) system of Tianjin, China. Results showed that manure substitution of chemical fertilizer, especially at a higher substitution rate, improved soil physicochemical properties (higher soil organic C (SOC) and nutrient (available N and P) contents; lower bulk densities), promoted microbial growth (higher total phospholipid fatty acids and microbial biomass C contents) and activity (higher soil hydrolase activities). Manure application induced a higher fungi/bacteria ratio due to a lower response in bacterial than fungal growth. Also, manure application greatly increased bacterial stress indices, as well as microbial communities and functional diversity. The principal component analysis showed that the impact of manure on microbial communities and enzyme activities were more significant than those of chemical fertilizer. Furthermore, redundancy analysis indicated that SOC and total N strongly influenced the microbial composition, while SOC and ammonium-N strongly influenced the microbial activity. In conclusion, manure substitution of inorganic fertilizer, especially at a higher substitution rate, was more efficient for improving soil quality and biological functions.
Project description:Fertilization has a large impact on the soil microbial communities, which play pivotal roles in soil biogeochemical cycling and ecological processes. While the effects of changes in nutrient availability due to fertilization on the soil microbial communities have received considerable attention, specific microbial taxa strongly influenced by long-term organic and inorganic fertilization, their potential effects and associations with soil nutrients remain unclear. Here, we use deep 16S amplicon sequencing to investigate bacterial community characteristics in a fluvo-aquic soil treated for 24 years with inorganic fertilizers and organics (manure and straw)-inorganic fertilizers, and uncover potential links between soil nutrient parameters and specific bacterial taxa. Our results showed that combined organic-inorganic fertilization increased soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) contents and altered bacterial community composition, while inorganic fertilization had little impact on soil nutrients and bacterial community composition. SOC and TN emerged as the major determinants of community composition. The abundances of specific taxa, especially Arenimonas, Gemmatimonas, and an unclassified member of Xanthomonadaceae, were substantially increased by organic-inorganic amendments rather than inorganic amendments only. A co-occurrence based network analysis demonstrated that SOC and TN had strong positive associations with some taxa (Gemmatimonas and the members of Acidobacteria subgroup 6, Myxococcales, Betaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes), and Gemmatimonas, Flavobacterium, and an unclassified member of Verrucomicrobia were identified as the keystone taxa. These specific taxa identified above are implicated in the decomposition of complex organic matters and soil carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus transformations. The present work strengthens our current understanding of the soil microbial community structure and functions under long-term fertilization management and provides certain theoretical support for selection of rational fertilization strategies.
Project description:Effects of different fertilizers on organic carbon (C) storage and turnover of soil fractions remains unclear. We combined soil fractionation with isotope analyses to examine soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics after 25 years of fertilization. Five types of soil samples including the initial level (CK) and four fertilization treatments (inorganic nitrogen fertilizer, N; balanced inorganic fertilizer, NPK; inorganic fertilizer plus farmyard manure, MNPK; inorganic fertilizer plus corn straw residue, SNPK) were separated into four aggregate sizes (>2000 μm, 2000-250 μm, 250-53 μm, and <53 μm), and three density fractions: free light fraction (LF), intra-aggregate particulate organic matter (iPOM), and mineral-associated organic matter (mSOM). Physical fractionation showed the iPOM fraction of aggregates dominated C storage, averaging 76.87% of SOC storage. Overall, application of N and NPK fertilizers cannot significantly increase the SOC storage but enhanced C in mSOM of aggregates, whereas MNPK fertilizer resulted in the greatest amount of SOC storage (about 5221.5 g C m(2)) because of the enhanced SOC in LF, iPOM and mSOM of each aggregate. The SNPK fertilizer increased SOC storage in >250 μm aggregates but reduced SOC storage in <250 μm aggregates due to SOC changes in LF and iPOM.
Project description:Soil microbes perform important functions in nitrogen and carbon cycling in the biosphere. Microbial communities in the rhizosphere enhance plants' health and promote nutrient turnover and cycling in the soil. In this study, we evaluated the effects of soil fertilization with organic and inorganic fertilizers on the abundances and distribution of carbon and nitrogen cycling genes within the rhizosphere of maize plants. Our result showed that maize plants through rhizosphere effects selected and enriched the same functional genes glnA, gltB, gudB involved in nitrogen cycle as do high compost and low inorganic fertilizer treatments. This observation was significantly different from those of high doses of inorganic fertilizer and low compost manure treated soil. Only alpha amylase encoding genes were selectively enriched by low compost and high inorganic fertilized soil. The other treatments only selected xynB (in Cp8), lacZ (Cp4), bglA, pldB, trpA (N2), uidA (N1) and glgC, vanA (Cn0) carbon cycling genes in the rhizosphere of maize. Also Actinomycetales are selected by high compost, low inorganic fertilizer and control. The control was without any fertilization and the soil was planted with maize. Bacillales are also promoted by low compost and high inorganic fertilizer. This indicated that only microbes capable of tolerating the stress of high dose of inorganic fertilizer will thrive under such condition. Therefore, soil fertilization lowers nitrogen gas emission as seen with the high abundance of nitrogen assimilation genes or microbial anabolic genes, but increases carbon dioxide evolution in the agricultural soil by promoting the abundance of catabolic genes involve in carbon cycling.
Project description:Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for crop production, and animal manures are rich in P. When using animal manures as alternatives to synthetic fertilizers, it is important to know the kinetics of P release from different animal manures and the forms, amounts, and dynamics of P in manure-treated soils. We chose four types of manure, viz., pig manure (PM), chicken manure (CM), dairy manure (DM), and commercial organic compost (OM), and evaluated the P release rate and availability in water solution and flooded/upland paddy soils. The WEP/total P (TP) and the water-extractable P (WEP) concentrations are highest for OM with the order: OM > PM > CM > DM. An increase in soil Olsen-P concentration was observed for the addition of manure with a varying application rate of P from low to moderate to high. The release capacity of Olsen-P in flooded conditions was higher than that in upland conditions. Under the flooded soil, PM and OM have faster release rates than CM and OM in the upland soil. Moreover, PM significantly increased available P by 29% in the flooded paddy soil while moderately inorganic P increased by 17% in the upland paddy soil. Olsen-P has a significant linear relationship with available P (Resin-P + NaHCO<sub>3</sub>-Pi; <i>R</i> <sup>2</sup> = 0.104; <i>P</i> < 0.01) and moderately inorganic P (NaOH-Pi + HCl-P; <i>R</i> <sup>2</sup> = 0.286; <i>P</i> < 0.01). The structural equation model showed that the organic input was beneficial to the conversion of moderately inorganic P to available P. Our results indicate that PM amendment promotes the release of available P in paddy soil.
Project description:The effects of manipulating nitrogen (N) deposition, with the use of a single form of N, on soil enzyme activities have been extensively studied. However, the impacts varying the N type (organic vs. inorganic) on soil hydrolytic enzyme activities have been less studied. We performed a 60?day incubation experiment using saline-alkaline soil. The objectives were to explore how the microbial biomass and enzyme activities respond to a mixed N addition at different inorganic to organic N ratios. The experimental design was full factorial, with two rates of N addition (10?g?N m-2 and 20?g?N m-2) and four ratios of N addition (inorganic N:organic N?=?10:0, 7:3, 3:7, 1:9). The results showed that N addition stimulated enzyme activities involved in C, N and P cycling. Enzyme activities under mixed N addition increased compared to those under single inorganic N addition in most cases. The inorganic to organic N ratios interacted with the N addition rate to affect the enzyme activities. Our results suggest that various N fertilizers, which have different inorganic to organic N ratios, should be applied when evaluating the effects of atmospheric N deposition on the soil microbial enzyme activities and ecosystem structure and function.
Project description:The data presented in this article are related to the research paper entitled "Changes in N supply pathways under different long-term fertilization regimes in Northeast China" . Seasonal dynamics of soil NH4 +-N, NO3 --N, soil microbial biomass nitrogen (N) and fixed NH4 + were provided on the basis of a 26-year long-term experiment, including six treatments: no fertilizer (CK), recycled manure (M), N and P fertilizers (NP), P and K fertilizers (PK), N, P and K fertilizers (NPK), and NPK fertilizers with recycled manure (NPKM). The presentation of potential N retention and supply through soil microbial biomass N and fixed NH4 + pools at different growth stages is helpful for comparing the effects of different N pools on soil N transformation and assessing synchronies between crop N demand and soil N supply through different N pools.
Project description:Glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP) contributes to the formation and maintenance of soil aggregates, it is however remains unclear whether long-term intensive manure amendments alter soil aggregates stability and whether GRSP regulates these changes. Based on a three-decade long fertilization experiment in northeast China, this study examined the impact of long-term manure input on soil organic carbon (SOC), total and easily extractable GRSP (GRSPt and GRSPe) and their respective allocations in four soil aggregates (>2000 μm; 2000-250 μm; 250-53 μm; and <53 μm). The treatments include no fertilization (CK), low and high manure amendment (M1, M2), chemical nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers (NPK), and combined manure and chemical fertilizers (NPKM1, NPKM2). Though SOC, GRSPe and GRSPt in soil and SOC in each aggregate generally increased with increasing manure input, GRSPt and GRSPe in each aggregate showed varying changes with manure input. Both GRSP in macroaggregates (2000-250 μm) were significantly higher under low manure input, a pattern consistent with changes in soil aggregate stability. Constituting 38~49% of soil mass, macroaggregates likely contributed to the nonlinear changes of aggregate stability under manure amendments. The regulatory process of GRSP allocations in soil aggregates has important implications for manure management under intensive agriculture.