Driving Recursive Dehydration by PIII/PV Catalysis: Annulation of Amines and Carboxylic Acids by Sequential C-N and C-C Bond Formation.
ABSTRACT: A method for the annulation of amines and carboxylic acids to form pharmaceutically relevant azaheterocycles via organophosphorus PIII/PV redox catalysis is reported. The method employs a phosphetane catalyst together with a mild bromenium oxidant and terminal hydrosilane reductant to drive successive C-N and C-C bond-forming dehydration events via the serial action of a catalytic bromophosphonium intermediate. These results demonstrate the capacity of PIII/PV redox catalysis to enable iterative redox-neutral transformations in complement to the common reductive driving force of the PIII/PV couple.
Project description:Experimental, spectroscopic, and computational studies are reported that provide an evidence-based mechanistic description of an intermolecular reductive C-N coupling of nitroarenes and arylboronic acids catalyzed by a redox-active main-group catalyst (1,2,2,3,4,4-hexamethylphosphetane P-oxide, i.e., 1·[O]). The central observations include the following: (1) catalytic reduction of 1·[O] to PIII phosphetane 1 is kinetically fast under conditions of catalysis; (2) phosphetane 1 represents the catalytic resting state as observed by 31P NMR spectroscopy; (3) there are no long-lived nitroarene partial-reduction intermediates observable by 15N NMR spectroscopy; (4) the reaction is sensitive to solvent dielectric, performing best in moderately polar solvents (viz. cyclopentylmethyl ether); and (5) the reaction is largely insensitive with respect to common hydrosilane reductants. On the basis of the foregoing studies, new modified catalytic conditions are described that expand the reaction scope and provide for mild temperatures (T ? 60 °C), low catalyst loadings (?2 mol%), and innocuous terminal reductants (polymethylhydrosiloxane). DFT calculations define a two-stage deoxygenation sequence for the reductive C-N coupling. The initial deoxygenation involves a rate-determining step that consists of a (3+1) cheletropic addition between the nitroarene substrate and phosphetane 1; energy decomposition techniques highlight the biphilic character of the phosphetane in this step. Although kinetically invisible, the second deoxygenation stage is implicated as the critical C-N product-forming event, in which a postulated oxazaphosphirane intermediate is diverted from arylnitrene dissociation toward heterolytic ring opening with the arylboronic acid; the resulting dipolar intermediate evolves by antiperiplanar 1,2-migration of the organoboron residue to nitrogen, resulting in displacement of 1·[O] and formation of the target C-N coupling product upon in situ hydrolysis. The method thus described constitutes a mechanistically well-defined and operationally robust main-group complement to the current workhorse transition-metal-based methods for catalytic intermolecular C-N coupling.
Project description:A small-ring phosphacycloalkane (1,2,2,3,4,4-hexamethylphosphetane, 3) catalyzes intramolecular C-N bond forming heterocyclization of o-nitrobiaryl and -styrenyl derivatives in the presence of a hydrosilane terminal reductant. The method provides scalable access to diverse carbazole and indole compounds under operationally trivial homogeneous organocatalytic conditions, as demonstrated by 17 examples conducted on 1 g scale. In situ NMR reaction monitoring studies support a mechanism involving catalytic PIII/PV?O cycling, where tricoordinate phosphorus compound 3 represents the catalytic resting state. For the catalytic conversion of o-nitrobiphenyl to carbazole, the kinetic reaction order was determined for phosphetane catalyst 3 (first order), substrate (first order), and phenylsilane (zeroth order). For differentially 5-substituted 2-nitrobiphenyls, the transformation is accelerated by electron-withdrawing substituents (Hammett factor ? = +1.5), consistent with the accrual of negative charge on the nitro substrate in the rate-determining step. DFT modeling of the turnover-limiting deoxygenation event implicates a rate-determining (3 + 1) cheletropic addition between the phosphetane catalyst 3 and 2-nitrobiphenyl substrate to form an unobserved pentacoordinate spiro-bicyclic dioxazaphosphetane, which decomposes via (2 + 2) cycloreversion giving 1 equiv of phosphetane P-oxide 3·[O] and 2-nitrosobiphenyl. Experimental and computational investigations into the C-N bond forming event suggest the involvement of an oxazaphosphirane (2 + 1) adduct between 3 and 2-nitrosobiphenyl, which evolves through loss of phosphetane P-oxide 3·[O] to give the observed carbazole product via C-H insertion in a nitrene-like fashion.
Project description:A method for electrophilic sulfenylation by organophosphorus-catalyzed deoxygenative O-atom transfer from sulfonyl chlorides is reported. This C-S bond-forming reaction is catalyzed by a readily available small-ring phosphine (phosphetane) in conjunction with a hydrosilane terminal reductant to afford a general entry to sulfenyl electrophiles, including valuable trifluoromethyl, perfluoroalkyl, and heteroaryl derivatives that are otherwise difficult to access. Mechanistic investigations indicate that the twofold deoxygenation of the sulfonyl substrate proceeds by the intervention of an off-cycle resting state thiophosphonium ion. The catalytic method represents an operationally simple protocol using a stable phosphine oxide as a precatalyst and exhibits broad functional-group tolerance.
Project description:An organocatalytic method for the modular synthesis of diverse N-aryl and N-alkyl azaheterocycles (indoles, oxindoles, benzimidazoles, and quinoxalinediones) is reported. The method employs a small-ring organophosphorus-based catalyst (1,2,2,3,4,4-hexamethylphosphetane P-oxide) and a hydrosilane reductant to drive the conversion of ortho-functionalized nitroarenes into azaheterocycles through sequential intermolecular reductive C-N cross coupling with boronic acids, followed by intramolecular cyclization. This method enables the rapid construction of azaheterocycles from readily available building blocks, including a regiospecific approach to N-substituted benzimidazoles and quinoxalinediones.
Project description:The carbon-carbon double bond of unsaturated carbonyl compounds was readily reduced by using a phosphetane oxide catalyst in the presence of a simple organosilane as the terminal reductant and water as the hydrogen source. Quantitative hydrogenation was observed when 1.0?mol?% of a methyl-substituted phosphetane oxide was employed as the catalyst. The procedure is highly selective towards activated double bonds, tolerating a variety of functional groups that are usually prone to reduction. In total, 25 alkenes and two alkynes were hydrogenated to the corresponding alkanes in excellent yields of up to 99?%. Notably, less active poly(methylhydrosiloxane) could also be utilized as the terminal reductant. Mechanistic investigations revealed the phosphane as the catalyst resting state and a protonation/deprotonation sequence as the crucial step in the catalytic cycle.
Project description:We report that a regioselective reductive transposition of primary allylic bromides is catalyzed by a biphilic organophosphorus (phosphetane) catalyst. Spectroscopic evidence supports the formation of a pentacoordinate (?(5)-P) hydridophosphorane as a key reactive intermediate. Kinetics experiments and computational modeling are consistent with a unimolecular decomposition of the ?(5)-P hydridophosphorane via a concerted cyclic transition structure that delivers the observed allylic transposition and completes a novel P(III)/P(V) redox catalytic cycle. These results broaden the growing repertoire of reactions catalyzed within the P(III)/P(V) redox couple and suggest additional opportunities for organophosphorus catalysis in a biphilic mode.
Project description:Vibrio cholerae colonize the small intestine where they secrete cholera toxin, an ADP-ribosylating enzyme that is responsible for the voluminous diarrhea characteristic of cholera disease. The genes encoding cholera toxin are located on the genome of the filamentous bacteriophage, CTX?, that integrates as a prophage into the V. cholerae chromosome. CTX? infection of V. cholerae requires the toxin-coregulated pilus and the periplasmic protein TolA. This infection process parallels that of Escherichia coli infection by the Ff family of filamentous coliphage. Here we demonstrate a direct interaction between the N-terminal domain of the CTX? minor coat protein pIII (pIII-N1) and the C-terminal domain of TolA (TolA-C) and present x-ray crystal structures of pIII-N1 alone and in complex with TolA-C. The structures of CTX? pIII-N1 and V. cholerae TolA-C are similar to coliphage pIII-N1 and E. coli TolA-C, respectively, yet these proteins bind via a distinct interface that in E. coli TolA corresponds to a colicin binding site. Our data suggest that the TolA binding site on pIII-N1 of CTX? is accessible in the native pIII protein. This contrasts with the Ff family phage, where the TolA binding site on pIII is blocked and requires a pilus-induced unfolding event to become exposed. We propose that CTX? pIII accesses the periplasmic TolA through retraction of toxin-coregulated pilus, which brings the phage through the outer membrane pilus secretin channel. These data help to explain the process by which CTX? converts a harmless marine microbe into a deadly human pathogen.
Project description:Snake venom hemorrhagic metalloproteinases (SVMPs) of the PI, PII and PIII classes were compared in terms of tissue localization and their ability to hydrolyze basement membrane components in vivo, as well as by a proteomics analysis of exudates collected in tissue injected with these enzymes. Immunohistochemical analyses of co-localization of these SVMPs with type IV collagen revealed that PII and PIII enzymes co-localized with type IV collagen in capillaries, arterioles and post-capillary venules to a higher extent than PI SVMP, which showed a more widespread distribution in the tissue. The patterns of hydrolysis by these three SVMPs of laminin, type VI collagen and nidogen in vivo greatly differ, whereas the three enzymes showed a similar pattern of degradation of type IV collagen, supporting the concept that hydrolysis of this component is critical for the destabilization of microvessel structure leading to hemorrhage. Proteomic analysis of wound exudate revealed similarities and differences between the action of the three SVMPs. Higher extent of proteolysis was observed for the PI enzyme regarding several extracellular matrix components and fibrinogen, whereas exudates from mice injected with PII and PIII SVMPs had higher amounts of some intracellular proteins. Our results provide novel clues for understanding the mechanisms by which SVMPs induce damage to the microvasculature and generate hemorrhage.
Project description:A main group-catalyzed method for the synthesis of aryl- and heteroarylamines by intermolecular C-N coupling is reported. The method employs a small-ring organophosphorus-based catalyst (1,2,2,3,4,4-hexamethylphosphetane) and a terminal hydrosilane reductant (phenylsilane) to drive reductive intermolecular coupling of nitro(hetero)arenes with boronic acids. Applications to the construction of both Csp2-N (from arylboronic acids) and Csp3-N bonds (from alkylboronic acids) are demonstrated; the reaction is stereospecific with respect to Csp3-N bond formation. The method constitutes a new route from readily available building blocks to valuable nitrogen-containing products with complementarity in both scope and chemoselectivity to existing catalytic C-N coupling methods.
Project description:In this paper, we describe multivalent display of peptide and protein sequences typically censored from traditional N-terminal display on protein pIII of filamentous bacteriophage M13. Using site-directed mutagenesis of commercially available M13KE phage cloning vector, we introduced sites that permit efficient cloning using restriction enzymes between domains N1 and N2 of the pIII protein. As infectivity of phage is directly linked to the integrity of the connection between N1 and N2 domains, intra-domain phage display (ID-PhD) allows for simple quality control of the display and the natural variations in the displayed sequences. Additionally, direct linkage to phage propagation allows efficient monitoring of sequence cleavage, providing a convenient system for selection and evolution of protease-susceptible or protease-resistant sequences. As an example of the benefits of such an ID-PhD system, we displayed a negatively charged FLAG sequence, which is known to be post-translationally excised from pIII when displayed on the N-terminus, as well as positively charged sequences which suppress production of phage when displayed on the N-terminus. ID-PhD of FLAG exhibited sub-nanomolar apparent Kd suggesting multivalent nature of the display. A TEV-protease recognition sequence (TEVrs) co-expressed in tandem with FLAG, allowed us to demonstrate that 99.9997% of the phage displayed the FLAG-TEVrs tandem and can be recognized and cleaved by TEV-protease. The residual 0.0003% consisted of phage clones that have excised the insert from their genome. ID-PhD is also amenable to display of protein mini-domains, such as the 33-residue minimized Z-domain of protein A. We show that it is thus possible to use ID-PhD for multivalent display and selection of mini-domain proteins (Affibodies, scFv, etc.).