Effects of E-cigarette Advertising Message Form and Cues on Cessation Intention: An Exploratory Study.
ABSTRACT: A common message in e-cigarette advertising is that e-cigarettes can be used anywhere. E-cigarette advertisements often express this message implicitly (e.g., "Whenever, wherever") alongside images of e-cigarettes that physically resemble combustible cigarettes. These implicit messages and "cigalike" images may cross-cue combustible cigarette smoking cognitions and behavior. This exploratory study was a 2 (message form: implicit or explicit e-cigarette use anywhere message) by 2 (presence or absence of e-cigarette cue) experiment with U.S. adult smokers (n = 2,201). Participants were randomized to view e-cigarette advertisements that varied by study condition. Three combustible cigarette outcomes were investigated: smoking cessation intention, smoking urges, and immediate smoking behavior. Mediation analysis was also performed to investigate mechanisms of the message form effect through descriptive and normative beliefs about smoking. Compared to its explicit counterpart, the implicit e-cigarette use anywhere message evoked greater smoking urges. Participants exposed to the implicit message also perceived cigarette smoking to be more prevalent and, in turn, reported greater cessation intention. There was no evidence of e-cigarette cue or message form × cue interaction effects. Implicit e-cigarette use anywhere messages may create a predisposition towards smoking compared to their explicitly written counterparts, but whether this effect undermines cessation deserves further attention.
Project description:Passive exposure to combustible cigarette use has been shown to act as a cue to increase smoking urge. Given the resemblance of e-cigarettes and other electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) to combustible cigarettes, we examined whether these devices could also act as a cue to increase smoking desire and urges in those passively exposed.Young adult daily smokers (age 18-35?years; N=60) completed subjective ratings before and after exposure to a study confederate drinking bottled water (control cue) and then smoking either a combustible or e-cigarette (active cue). Smoking desire and urge ratings were measured with visual analogue scale items for desire for a regular and an e-cigarette and the Brief Questionnaire of Smoking Urges.Passive exposure to both the e-cigarette and combustible cigarette cue significantly increased observers' ratings of desire and urge to smoke a regular cigarette (all ps<0.05). Exposure to the e-cigarette cue but not the regular cigarette cue also increased desire to smoke an e-cigarette (p<0.01).The results provide the first evidence in a controlled setting that electronic cigarette exposure may evoke smoking urges in young adult daily smokers. With replication, these findings may have relevance for ENDS regulation and policy.
Project description:Use and awareness of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS; also known as electronic cigarettes or e-cigarettes) has increased rapidly in recent years, particularly among young adults. As use of ENDS resembles traditional smoking in both hand-to-mouth movements and inhalation and exhalation behaviors, we determined whether exposure to e-cigarette use via video exposure would act as a cue to elicit urge and desire for a combustible cigarette. Young adult smokers (mean age of 26.3 ± 4.1 years) were randomized to view a brief video montage of advertisements depicting either e-cigarette vaping (n = 38) or bottled water drinking (n = 40). Pre- and postcue exposure assessments were conducted in a controlled laboratory setting without other smoking or vaping cues present or behaviors allowed. Primary outcomes included change from pre-exposure baseline in smoking urge (Brief Questionnaire of Smoking Urges) and desire for a combustible and e-cigarette (visual analogue scales). Results showed that relative to exposure to the bottled water video, exposure to the ENDS video significantly increased smoking urge (p < .001) as well as desire for a regular cigarette (p < .05) and an e-cigarette (p < .001). These findings provide preliminary evidence that passive exposure to video imagery of ENDS use may generalize as a condition cue and evoke urges for a combustible cigarette in young adult smokers. It remains to be determined whether such increases in urge and desire correspond to increases in actual smoking behavior.
Project description:Introduction:Second generation electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS; also known as e-cigarettes, vaporizers or vape pens) are designed for a customized nicotine delivery experience and have less resemblance to regular cigarettes than first generation "cigalikes." The present study examined whether they generalize as a conditioned cue and evoke smoking urges or behavior in persons exposed to their use. Methods:Data were analyzed in N = 108 young adult smokers (?5 cigarettes per week) randomized to either a traditional combustible cigarette smoking cue or a second generation ENDS vaping cue in a controlled laboratory setting. Cigarette and e-cigarette urge and desire were assessed pre- and post-cue exposure. Smoking behavior was also explored in a subsample undergoing a smoking latency phase after cue exposure (N = 26). Results:The ENDS vape pen cue evoked both urge and desire for a regular cigarette to a similar extent as that produced by the combustible cigarette cue. Both cues produced similar time to initiate smoking during the smoking latency phase. The ENDS vape pen cue elicited smoking urge and desire regardless of ENDS use history, that is, across ENDS na?ve, lifetime or current users. Inclusion of past ENDS or cigarette use as covariates did not significantly alter the results. Conclusions:These findings demonstrate that observation of vape pen ENDS use generalizes as a conditioned cue to produce smoking urge, desire, and behavior in young adult smokers. As the popularity of these devices may eventually overtake those of first generation ENDS cigalikes, exposure effects will be of increasing importance. Implications:This study shows that passive exposure to a second generation ENDS vape pen cue evoked smoking urge, desire, and behavior across a range of daily and non-daily young adult smokers. Smoking urge and desire increases after vape pen exposure were similar to those produced by exposure to a first generation ENDS cigalike and a combustible cigarette, a known potent cue. Given the increasing popularity of ENDS tank system products, passive exposures to these devices will no doubt increase, and may contribute to tobacco use in young adult smokers.
Project description:RATIONALE:Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS or e-cigarettes) share salient features of combustible smoking, such as inhalation and exhalation behaviors, and evidence indicates that first- and second-generation ENDS generalize as smoking cues. The present study examined whether newer, tank-based third-generation ENDS ("mods") also evoke smoking urges, and whether enhancing the visibility of exhaled aerosol clouds-by increasing the e-liquid vegetable glycerin (VG) content-strengthens the cue salience of ENDS. OBJECTIVES:The objective was to assess the role of exhaled aerosol clouds on ENDS cue potency using a standardized laboratory paradigm designed to mimic real-world exposures. METHODS:Using a mixed design, young adult smokers (n?=?50; mean age 26.5 years; ??5 cigarettes/day) observed a study confederate drinking bottled water (control cue) and vaping an ENDS mod containing e-liquid with either high (73%) or low (0%) VG. Participants completed the Brief Questionnaire on Smoking Urges (BQSU) and visual analog scales (VAS) assessing cigarette and e-cigarette desire pre- and post-cue exposure. RESULTS:Increasing the e-liquid content of VG enhanced the size and visibility of the exhaled aerosol clouds and evoked a greater increase in smoking desire and a more sustained increase in e-cigarette desire relative to the low VG cue. Both cues elicited increases in smoking urges. These results remained after controlling for sex, prior ENDS experience, recent smoking behavior, and menthol preference. CONCLUSIONS:Observation of tank-based ENDS use generalizes as a smoking cue and its cue salience is strengthened by increasing the e-liquid content of VG to enhance the visibility of the exhaled aerosol cloud.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Most e-cigarette users who also smoke combustible cigarettes (dual users) begin vaping to quit smoking, yet only a subset succeeds. We hypothesized that reinforcing characteristics of e-cigarettes (vaping reinforcement) would positively predict smoking cessation propensity (SCP) among dual users. DESIGN:Secondary analysis of cross-sectional baseline data from dual users in an ongoing smoking cessation trial. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (EFA and CFA) created latent variables for vaping reinforcement and SCP. A structural equation modeling (SEM) approach was used to test the hypothesis. SETTING:United States. PARTICIPANTS:A national sample of dual users of combustible and electronic cigarettes who smoke and vape at least once per week (n = 2896) were enrolled (63% male; mean age = 29.9 years) into a randomized controlled trial in which they would receive either smoking cessation materials or no smoking cessation materials. MEASUREMENTS:Vaping reinforcement was indexed by vaping frequency (days/week vaping, times/day vaping, puffs/e-cigarette use), e-cigarette characteristics [numbers of modifications and tobacco or non-tobacco flavors, nicotine content (mg) and positive e-cigarette expectancies]. SCP was measured by items of confidence, commitment to being smoke-free, cessation motivation (contemplation ladder), change in cigarettes per day since beginning e-cigarette use and negative smoking expectancies. FINDINGS:Four factors emerged from the EFA: vaping propensity (vaping frequency, positive expectancies), vaping enthusiasm (e-cigarette modifications, using non-tobacco flavors, puffs per use), nicotine/tobacco flavor (nicotine strength, tobacco flavors) and SCP (negative expectancies about smoking, motivation to quit smoking, reduction in smoking). A CFA upheld the exploratory factor structure [root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.046, CFI = 0.91]. An SEM with the three vaping latent variables directly predicting SCP had good model fit (RMSEA = 0.030, CFI = 0.97) with a positive relationship of vaping propensity (0.509, P < 0.001), and small negative relationships of vaping enthusiasm (-0.158, P = 0.014) and nicotine/tobacco flavor (-0.230, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Among e-cigarette users who also smoke combustible cigarettes, frequent vaping combined with positive e-cigarette expectancies appears to predict greater smoking cessation propensity. However, vaping enthusiasm (measured by e-cigarette modifications, using non-tobacco flavors and puffs per use), higher nicotine content and use of tobacco flavored solution may reduce cessation propensity.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Although some smokers switch to exclusive use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), others become dual users of combustible cigarettes and e-cigarettes. Little is known about how the onset of vaping affects the use of and dependence on combustible cigarettes or total nicotine use and dependence, which may influence health-related and cessation outcomes. Using self-report data of current combustible and e-cigarette use and retrospective recall of pre-vaping smoking in a sample of dual users, the aims of this study were (1) to compare pre- and post-vaping number of cigarettes per day and combustible cigarette dependence; (2) to compare pre- and post-vaping total nicotine use frequency (number of vaping sessions and cigarettes smoked per day), and total nicotine dependence; and (3) to examine predictors of nicotine dependence. METHODS:We used baseline data from a smoking cessation trial with 2896 dual users. Nicotine use frequency and the Heaviness of Smoking Index were used as measures of nicotine use and dependence, respectively. RESULTS:Participants decreased cigarettes/day from pre- (M = 19.24, SD = 9.01) to post-vaping (M = 11.15, SD = 8.02, p < .0001) and combustible cigarette dependence declined from pre- (M = 3.55, SD = 1.51) to post-vaping (M = 2.11, SD = 1.60, p < .0001). Total daily nicotine use frequency increased after initiating vaping (M = 19.25, SD = 9.01 vs. M = 29.46, SD = 8.61; p < .0001), as did total nicotine dependence (M = 3.55, SD = 1.51 vs. M = 4.68, SD = 1.38; p < .0001). Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that variables associated with greater overall nicotine dependence included: younger age, lower education, more years smoking, higher pre-vaping nicotine dependence, using e-cigarettes more days per month, more puffs per vaping session, higher e-liquid nicotine concentration, and longer vaping history. CONCLUSIONS:Dual use leads to a reduction in the number of combustible cigarettes, but total nicotine use and dependence increases. IMPLICATIONS:In dual users, a reduction in smoking following onset of vaping may offer some harm reduction via reduction in cigarette intake. However, the increase in total nicotine use and dependence could affect the ability to quit either or both products.
Project description:Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have been increasingly available and marketed in the U.S. since 2007. As patterns of product adoption are frequently driven and reinforced by marketing, it is important to understand the marketing claims encountered by consumers.To describe the main advertising claims made on branded e-cigarette retail websites.Websites were retrieved from two major search engines in 2011 using iterative searches with the following terms: electronic cigarette, e-cigarette, e-cig, and personal vaporizer. Fifty-nine websites met inclusion criteria, and 13 marketing claims were coded for main marketing messages in 2012.Ninety-five percent of the websites made explicit or implicit health-related claims, 64% had a smoking cessation-related claim, 22% featured doctors, and 76% claimed that the product does not produce secondhand smoke. Comparisons to cigarettes included claims that e-cigarettes were cleaner (95%) and cheaper (93%). Eighty-eight percent stated that the product could be smoked anywhere and 71% mentioned using the product to circumvent clean air policies. Candy, fruit, and coffee flavors were offered on most sites. Youthful appeals included images or claims of modernity (73%); increased social status (44%); enhanced social activity (32%); romance (31%); and use by celebrities (22%).Health claims and smoking-cessation messages that are unsupported by current scientific evidence are frequently used to sell e-cigarettes. Implied and overt health claims, the presence of doctors on websites, celebrity endorsements, and the use of characterizing flavors should be prohibited.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Nicotine, the pharmacologically active substance in both tobacco and many electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) liquids, is responsible for the addiction that sustains cigarette smoking. With 8 million deaths worldwide annually, smoking remains one of the major causes of disability and premature death. However, nicotine also plays an important role in smoking cessation strategies. OBJECTIVES:The aim of this study was to develop a comprehensive, whole-body, physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model of nicotine and its major metabolite cotinine, covering various routes of nicotine administration, and to simulate nicotine brain tissue concentrations after the use of combustible cigarettes, e-cigarettes, nicotine gums, and nicotine patches. METHODS:A parent-metabolite, PBPK/PD model of nicotine for a non-smoking and a smoking population was developed using 91 plasma and brain tissue concentration-time profiles and 11 heart rate profiles. Among others, cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2A6 and 2B6 enzymes were implemented, including kinetics for CYP2A6 poor metabolizers. RESULTS:The model is able to precisely describe and predict both nicotine plasma and brain tissue concentrations, cotinine plasma concentrations, and heart rate profiles. 100% of the predicted area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) and maximum concentration (Cmax) values meet the twofold acceptance criterion with overall geometric mean fold errors of 1.12 and 1.15, respectively. The administration of combustible cigarettes, e-cigarettes, nicotine patches, and nicotine gums was successfully implemented in the model and used to identify differences in steady-state nicotine brain tissue concentration patterns. CONCLUSIONS:Our PBPK/PD model may be helpful in further investigations of nicotine dependence and smoking cessation strategies. As the model represents the first nicotine PBPK/PD model predicting nicotine concentration and heart rate profiles after the use of e-cigarettes, it could also contribute to a better understanding of the recent increase in youth e-cigarette use.
Project description:Background E-cigarettes are popular for smoking cessation and as an alternative to combustible cigarettes. We assess the association between e-cigarette use and having had a myocardial infarction ( MI ) and whether reverse causality can explain the observed cross-sectional association between e-cigarette use and MI . Methods and Results Cross-sectional analysis of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Wave 1 for association between e-cigarette use and having had and MI . Longitudinal analysis of Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Waves 1 and 2 for reverse causality analysis. Logistic regression was performed to determine the associations between e-cigarette initiation and MI , adjusting for cigarette smoking, demographic and clinical variables. Every-day (adjusted odds ratio, 2.25, 95% CI : 1.23-4.11) and some-day (1.99, 95% CI : 1.11-3.58) e-cigarette use were independently associated with increased odds of having had an MI with a significant dose-response ( P<0.0005). Odds ratio for daily dual use of both products was 6.64 compared with a never cigarette smoker who never used e-cigarettes. Having had a myocardial infarction at Wave 1 did not predict e-cigarette use at Wave 2 ( P>0.62), suggesting that reverse causality cannot explain the cross-sectional association between e-cigarette use and MI observed at Wave 1. Conclusions Some-day and every-day e-cigarette use are associated with increased risk of having had a myocardial infarction, adjusted for combustible cigarette smoking. Effect of e-cigarettes are similar as conventional cigarette and dual use of e-cigarettes and conventional cigarettes at the same time is risker than using either product alone.
Project description:Smokers increasingly use e-cigarettes for many reasons, including attempts to quit combustible cigarettes and to use nicotine where smoking is prohibited. We aimed to assess the association between e-cigarette use and cigarette smoking cessation among adult cigarette smokers, irrespective of their motivation for using e-cigarettes.PubMed and Web of Science were searched between April 27, 2015, and June 17, 2015. Data extracted included study location, design, population, definition and prevalence of e-cigarette use, comparison group (if applicable), cigarette consumption, level of nicotine dependence, other confounders, definition of quitting smoking, and odds of quitting smoking. The primary endpoint was cigarette smoking cessation. Odds of smoking cessation among smokers using e-cigarettes compared with smokers not using e-cigarettes were assessed using a random effects meta-analysis. A modification of the ACROBAT-NRSI tool and the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool were used to assess bias. This meta-analysis is registered with PROSPERO (number CRD42015020382).38 studies (of 577 studies identified) were included in the systematic review; all 20 studies with control groups (15 cohort studies, three cross-sectional studies, and two clinical trials) were included in random effects meta-analysis and sensitivity analyses. Odds of quitting cigarettes were 28% lower in those who used e-cigarettes compared with those who did not use e-cigarettes (odds ratio [OR] 0·72, 95% CI 0·57-0·91). Association of e-cigarette use with quitting did not significantly differ among studies of all smokers using e-cigarettes (irrespective of interest in quitting cigarettes) compared with studies of only smokers interested in cigarette cessation (OR 0·63, 95% CI 0·45-0·86 vs 0·86, 0·60-1·23; p=0·94). Other study characteristics (design, population, comparison group, control variables, time of exposure assessment, biochemical verification of abstinence, and definition of e-cigarette use) were also not associated with the overall effect size (p?0·77 in all cases).As currently being used, e-cigarettes are associated with significantly less quitting among smokers.National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, FDA Center for Tobacco Products.