Pomegranate peel extract alters the microbiome in mice and dysbiosis caused by Citrobacter rodentium infection.
ABSTRACT: Treatment of mice with a pomegranate peel extract (PPX) decreased the pathogenicity of Citrobacter rodentium (Cr) infections. Here, we investigate the effects of PPX on the microbiome of uninfected or Cr-infected C3H/HeNCr mice by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Mice were treated with water or PPX for 14 days, feces were collected, and then, the mice were infected with Cr and feces collected again at day 6 postinfection. DNA was isolated from the fecal samples and subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing to determine the microbial composition. Differences in the composition of the microbiome were observed for untreated and PPX-treated mice with PPX mice having decreased diversity. PPX treatment decreased the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio by increasing Bacteroidetes and decreasing Firmicutes levels. The decrease in Firmicutes was driven by a large reduction in Lactobacillus. PPX treatment increased the abundance of Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobiae and decreased Actinobacteria. The relative abundance of Cr reached 22% in water-treated but only 5% in PPX-treated infected mice. These results suggest that consumption of pomegranate polyphenols altered the microbiome, making it more resistant to displacement by infection with Cr, indicating that pomegranate polyphenols may mitigate the pathogenic effects of food-borne bacterial pathogens.
Project description:Recent studies have suggested that blackcurrant (BC) anthocyanins have promising health benefits, possibly through regulating gut microbiome. Three- and eighteen-month old female mice were fed standard mouse diets for 4 months, each with or without BC (1% w/w) supplementation (n = 3 in each treatment group, 12 in total). We then assessed gut microbiome profiles using 16S sequencing of their feces. Old mice had a less diverse microbiome community compared to young mice and there was a remarkable age-related difference in microbiome composition in the beta diversity analysis. BC supplementation did not significantly affect alpha or beta diversity. The relative abundance of several phyla, including Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria and Tenericutes, was lower in old mice. BC downregulated Firmicutes abundance in young mice and upregulated Bacteroidetes in both age groups, leading to a decreased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio. There were age-specific differences in the effect of BC supplementation on the microbiome. Twenty-four operational taxonomic units showed a significant interaction between age and BC supplementation (p < 0.01), which suggests that the ecosystem and the host health status affect the functions and efficiency of BC intake. These results indicate that BC supplementation favorably modulates gut microbiome, but there are distinct age-specific differences. Studies with human hosts are needed to better understand BC's regulatory effects on the gut microbiome.
Project description:SCOPE:GTPs (green tea polyphenols) exert anti-CRC (colorectal cancer) activity. The intestinal microbiota and intestinal colonization by bacteria of oral origin has been implicated in colorectal carcinogenesis. GT modulates the composition of mouse gut microbiota harmonious with anticancer activity. Therefore, the effect of green tea liquid (GTL) consumption on the gut and oral microbiome is investigated in healthy volunteers (n = 12). METHODS AND RESULTS:16S sequencing and phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states (PICRUSt) analysis of both fecal and saliva samples (collected before intervention, after 2 weeks of GTL (400 mL per day) and after a washout period of one week) in healthy volunteers show changes in microbial diversity and core microbiota and difference in clear classification (partial least squares-discriminant analysis [PLS-DA]). An irreversible, increased FIR:BAC (Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio), elevated SCFA producing genera, and reduction of bacterial LPS synthesis in feces are discovered in response to GTL. GTL alters the salivary microbiota and reduces the functional pathways abundance relevance to carcinogenesis. Similar bacterial networks in fecal and salivary microbiota datasets comprising putative oral bacteria are found and GTL reduces the fecal levels of Fusobacterium. Interestingly, both Lachnospiraceae and B/E (Bifidobacterium to Enterobacteriacea ratio-markers of colonization resistance [CR]) are negatively associated with the presence of oral-like bacterial networks in the feces. CONCLUSION:These results suggest that GTL consumption causes both oral and gut microbiome alterations.
Project description:Expansion of penguin activity in maritime Antarctica, under ice thaw, increases the chances of penguin feces affecting soil microbiomes. The detail of such effects begins to be revealed. By comparing soil geochemistry and microbiome composition inside (one site) and outside (three sites) of the rookery, we found significant effects of penguin feces on both. First, penguin feces change soil geochemistry, causing increased moisture content (MC) of ornithogenic soils and nutrients C, N, P, and Si in the rookery compared to non-rookery sites, but not pH. Second, penguin feces directly affect microbiome composition in the rookery, not those outside. Specifically, we found 4,364 operational taxonomical units (OTUs) in 404 genera in six main phyla: Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Bacteroidetes. Although the diversity is similar among the four sites, the composition is different. For example, penguin rookery has a lower abundance of Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Nitrospirae but a higher abundance of Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Thermomicrobia. Strikingly, the family Clostridiaceae of Firmicutes of penguin-feces origin is most abundant in the rookery than non-rookery sites with two most abundant genera, Tissierella and Proteiniclasticum. Redundancy analysis showed all measured geochemical factors are significant in structuring microbiomes, with MC showing the highest correlation. We further extracted 21 subnetworks of microbes which contain 4,318 of the 4,364 OTUs using network analysis and are closely correlated with all geochemical factors except pH. Our finding f penguin feces, directly and indirectly, affects soil microbiome suggests an important role of penguins in soil geochemistry and microbiome structure of maritime Antarctica.
Project description:The metal hyperaccumulator Azolla filiculoides is accompanied by a microbiome potentially supporting plant during exposition to heavy metals. We hypothesized that the microbiome exposition to selected heavy metals will reveal metal tolerant strains. We used Next Generation Sequencing technique to identify possible metal tolerant strains isolated from the metal-treated plant (Pb, Cd, Cr(VI), Ni, Au, Ag). The main dominants were Cyanobacteria and Proteobacteria constituting together more than 97% of all reads. Metal treatment led to changes in the composition of the microbiome and showed significantly higher richness in the Pb-, Cd- and Cr-treated plant in comparison with other (95-105 versus 36-44). In these treatments the share of subdominant Actinobacteria (0.4-0.8%), Firmicutes (0.5-0.9%) and Bacteroidetes (0.2-0.9%) were higher than in non-treated plant (respectively: 0.02, 0.2 and 0.001%) and Ni-, Au- and Ag-treatments (respectively: <0.4%, <0.2% and up to 0.2%). The exception was Au-treatment displaying the abundance 1.86% of Bacteroidetes. In addition, possible metal tolerant genera, namely: Acinetobacter, Asticcacaulis, Anabaena, Bacillus, Brevundimonas, Burkholderia, Dyella, Methyloversatilis, Rhizobium and Staphylococcus, which form the core microbiome, were recognized by combining their abundance in all samples with literature data. Additionally, the presence of known metal tolerant genera was confirmed: Mucilaginibacter, Pseudomonas, Mycobacterium, Corynebacterium, Stenotrophomonas, Clostridium, Micrococcus, Achromobacter, Geobacter, Flavobacterium, Arthrobacter and Delftia. We have evidenced that A. filiculoides possess a microbiome whose representatives belong to metal-resistant species which makes the fern the source of biotechnologically useful microorganisms for remediation processes.
Project description:Although artificial sweeteners are widely used in food industry, their effects on human health remain a controversy. It is known that the gut microbiota plays a key role in human metabolism and recent studies indicated that some artificial sweeteners such as saccharin could perturb gut microbiome and further affect host health, such as inducing glucose intolerance. Neotame is a relatively new low-caloric and high-intensity artificial sweetener, approved by FDA in 2002. However, the specific effects of neotame on gut bacteria are still unknown. In this study, we combined high-throughput sequencing and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) metabolomics to investigate the effects of neotame on the gut microbiome and fecal metabolite profiles of CD-1 mice. We found that a four-week neotame consumption reduced the alpha-diversity and altered the beta-diversity of the gut microbiome. Firmicutes was largely decreased while Bacteroidetes was significantly increased. The Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt) analysis also indicated that the control mice and neotame-treated mice have different metabolic patterns and some key genes such as butyrate synthetic genes were decreased. Moreover, neotame consumption also changed the fecal metabolite profiles. Dramatically, the concentrations of multiple fatty acids, lipids as well as cholesterol in the feces of neotame-treated mice were consistently higher than controls. Other metabolites, such as malic acid and glyceric acid, however, were largely decreased. In conclusion, our study first explored the specific effects of neotame on mouse gut microbiota and the results may improve our understanding of the interaction between gut microbiome and neotame and how this interaction could influence the normal metabolism of host bodies.
Project description:Late-onset hypogonadism (i.e. androgen deficiency) raises the risk for abdominal obesity in men. The mechanism for this obesity is unclear. Here, we demonstrated that hypogonadism after castration caused abdominal obesity in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed, but not in standard diet (SD)-fed, C57BL/6J mice. Furthermore, the phenotype was not induced in mice treated with antibiotics that disrupt the intestinal microflora. In HFD-fed mice, castration increased feed efficiency and decreased fecal weight per food intake. Castration also induced in an increase of visceral fat mass only in the absence of antibiotics in HFD-fed mice, whereas subcutaneous fat mass was increased by castration irrespective of antibiotics. Castration reduced the expression in the mesenteric fat of both adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase in HFD-fed mice, which was not observed in the presence of antibiotics. Castration decreased thigh muscle (i.e. quadriceps and hamstrings) mass, elevated fasting blood glucose levels, and increased liver triglyceride levels in a HFD-dependent manner, whereas these changes were not observed in castrated mice treated with antibiotics. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and Lactobacillus species increased in the feces of HFD-fed castrated mice. These results show that androgen (e.g. testosterone) deficiency can alter the intestinal microbiome and induce abdominal obesity in a diet-dependent manner.
Project description:Goat’s milk (GM), as compared to Cow’s milk (CM), is easier for human to digest and absorb. GM feeding can improve colic, minor digestive disorders, asthma or eczema in infants. It has been demonstrated that GM have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Whether GM consumed in pregnant mothers has any immune-modulating effects on their newborns is still unclear. In this study, we used pregnant mothers and their offspring mice to verify this hypothesis. we collected feces of offspring before allergen sensitization (day 0) and two days after i.t. allergen challenge (day 16). Detection of cDNA of feces using Applied Biosystems™ Axiom™ Microbiome Array found the phyla of Bacteroidia, Clostridia, Flavobacteriia, Deferribacteres, Verrucomicrobiae and Gammaproteobacteria as well as some unclassified viruses. Comparison in ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes (F/B ratio), water-fed (W0) group had higher F/B ratio (0.79) than GM-fed (G0) (0.50) and CM-fed (C0) group (0.54) at Day 0. After HDM allergen sensitization and challenge, there was a remarkable increase of F/B ratio in water-fed mice (0.63 in WN vs. 0.84 in WA), while there was no change of F/B ratio in GM-fed (GN vs. GA) and CM-fed mice (CN vs. CA) Overall design: 44 total sample were analyzed
Project description:Polyphenols from the Lonicera caerulea L. berry have shown protective effects on experimental non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in our previous studies. As endotoxins from gut bacteria are considered to be the major trigger of inflammation in NAFLD, this study aims to clarify the regulatory effects of L. caerulea L. berry polyphenols (LCBP) on gut microbiota in a high fat diet (HFD)-induced mouse model. C57BL/6N mice were fed with a normal diet, HFD, or HFD containing 0.5?1% of LCBP for 45 days. The results revealed that supplementation with LCBP decreased significantly the levels of IL-2, IL-6, MCP-1, and TNF-? in serum, as well as endotoxin levels in both serum and liver in HFD-fed mice. Fecal microbiota characterization by high throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that a HFD increased the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, and LCBP reduced this ratio by increasing the relative abundance of Bacteroides, Parabacteroides, and another two undefined bacterial genera belonging to the order of Bacteroidales and family of Rikenellaceae, and also by decreasing the relative abundance of six bacterial genera belonging to the phylum Firmicutes, including Staphylococcus, Lactobacillus, Ruminococcus, and Oscillospira. These data demonstrated that LCBP potentially attenuated inflammation in NAFLD through modulation of gut microbiota, especially the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes.
Project description:SCOPE:The effects of green tea polyphenols, Polyphenon E (PPE), and black tea polyphenols, theaflavins (TFs), on gut microbiota and development of diabetes in db/db mice are investigated and compared. METHODS AND RESULTS:Supplementation of PPE (0.1%) in the diet of female db/db mice for 7 weeks decreases fasting blood glucose levels and mesenteric fat while increasing the serum level of insulin, possibly through protection against ?-cell damage. However, TFs are less or not effective. Microbiome analysis through 16S rRNA gene sequencing shows that PPE and TFs treatments significantly alter the bacterial community structure in the cecum and colon, but not in the ileum. The key bacterial phylotypes responding to the treatments are then clustered into 11 co-abundance groups (CAGs). CAGs 6 and 7, significantly increased by PPE but not by TFs, are negatively associated with blood glucose levels. The operational taxonomic units in these CAGs are from two different phyla, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. CAG 10, decreased by PPE and TFs, is positively associated with blood glucose levels. CONCLUSION:Gut microbiota respond to tea polyphenol treatments as CAGs instead of taxa. Some of the CAGs associated with the blood glucose lowering effect are enriched by PPE, but not TFs.
Project description:The active form of vitamin D [1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, 1,25(OH)2D3] and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) regulate susceptibility to experimental colitis. The effect of the bacterial microflora on the susceptibility of C57BL/6 mice to dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis was determined. Mice that cannot produce 1,25(OH)2D3 [Cyp27b1 (Cyp) knockout (KO)], VDR KO as well as their wild-type littermates were used. Cyp KO and VDR KO mice had more bacteria from the Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria phyla and fewer bacteria from the Firmicutes and Deferribacteres phyla in the feces compared with wild-type. In particular, there were more beneficial bacteria, including the Lactobacillaceae and Lachnospiraceae families, in feces from Cyp KO and VDR KO mice than in feces from wild-type. Helicobacteraceae family member numbers were elevated in Cyp KO compared with wild-type mice. Depletion of the gut bacterial flora using antibiotics protected mice from colitis. 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment (1.25 ?g/100 g diet) of Cyp KO mice decreased colitis severity and reduced the numbers of Helicobacteraceae in the feces compared with the numbers in the feces of untreated Cyp KO mice. The mechanisms by which the dysbiosis occurs in VDR KO and Cyp KO mice included lower expression of E-cadherin on gut epithelial and immune cells and fewer tolerogenic dendritic cells that resulted in more gut inflammation in VDR and Cyp KO mice compared with wild-type mice. Increased host inflammation has been shown to provide pathogens with substrates to out-compete more beneficial bacterial species. Our data demonstrate that vitamin D regulates the gut microbiome and that 1,25(OH)2D3 or VDR deficiency results in dysbiosis, leading to greater susceptibility to injury in the gut.