ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma presenting multiple lymphomatous polyposis: A case report and literature review.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a type of T-cell lymphoma that can be divided into two categories: anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive (ALK+) and ALK-negative. Gastrointestinal ALK+ ALCL is rare. Multiple lymphomatous polyposis (MLP) is thought to be a representative form of gastrointestinal lesion in mantle cell lymphoma, and T-cell lymphomas seldom show this feature. Here, we report the first known case of ALK+ ALCL with gastroduodenal involvement to present with MLP. CASE SUMMARY:The patient was a 43-year-old man who was complained of a mass in the left inguinal area and was performed open biopsy. ALK+ ALCL was diagnosed pathologically. Computed tomography scan demonstrated multiple lymph node lesions in the abdomen - pelvis/inguinal region, and scattered nodular lesions in both lung fields. He did not complain of gastrointestinal symptoms. While, esophagogastroduodenoscopy identified MLP lesions from the antrum of the stomach to the descending portion of the duodenum and mild thickened folds on the corpus of the stomach, and biopsy showed invasion of ALK+ ALCL. We treated this patient with six cycles of CHOEP (Cyclophosphamide, Doxorubicin, Vincristine, Etoposide, and Prednisone) chemotherapy. At the conclusion of treatment, there was complete remission. Numerous white scars were found on the stomach, endoscopically consistent with a remission image of lymphoma. The endoscopic features of this case were thought to be similar to those of MCL. CONCLUSION:The macroscopic/endoscopic features of gastrointestinal ALK+ ALCL may be more similar to those of B-cell lymphomas rather than T-cell lymphomas.
Project description:In T lymphocytes, the Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein (WASP) and WASP-interacting-protein (WIP) regulate T cell antigen receptor (TCR) signaling, but their role in lymphoma is largely unknown. Here we show that the expression of WASP and WIP is frequently low or absent in anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) compared to other T cell lymphomas. In anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive (ALK+) ALCL, WASP and WIP expression is regulated by ALK oncogenic activity via its downstream mediators STAT3 and C/EBP-?. ALK+ lymphomas were accelerated in WASP- and WIP-deficient mice. In the absence of WASP, active GTP-bound CDC42 was increased and the genetic deletion of one CDC42 allele was sufficient to impair lymphoma growth. WASP-deficient lymphoma showed increased mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway activation that could be exploited as a therapeutic vulnerability. Our findings demonstrate that WASP and WIP are tumor suppressors in T cell lymphoma and suggest that MAP-kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitors combined with ALK inhibitors could achieve a more potent therapeutic effect in ALK+ ALCL.
Project description:Initially discovered in anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL), the ALK anaplastic lymphoma kinase is a tyrosine kinase which is affected in lymphomas by oncogenic translocations, mainly NPM-ALK. To date, chemotherapy remains a viable option in ALCL patients with ALK translocations as it leads to remission rates of approximately 80%. However, the remaining patients do not respond to chemotherapy and some patients have drug-resistant relapses. It is therefore crucial to identify new and better treatment options. Nowadays, different classes of ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) are available and used exclusively for EML4-ALK (+) lung cancers. In fact, the significant toxicities of most ALK inhibitors explain the delay in their use in ALCL patients, who are predominantly children. Moreover, some ALCL patients do not respond to Crizotinib, the first generation TKI, or develop an acquired resistance months following an initial response. Combination therapy with ALK inhibitors in ALCL is the current challenge.
Project description:Although anaplastic large-cell lymphomas (ALCL) carrying anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) have a relatively good prognosis, aggressive forms exist. We have identified a novel translocation, causing the fusion of the TRAF1 and ALK genes, in one patient who presented with a leukemic ALK+ ALCL (ALCL-11). To uncover the mechanisms leading to high-grade ALCL, we developed a human patient-derived tumorgraft (hPDT) line. Molecular characterization of primary and PDT cells demonstrated the activation of ALK and nuclear factor kB (NFkB) pathways. Genomic studies of ALCL-11 showed the TP53 loss and the in vivo subclonal expansion of lymphoma cells, lacking PRDM1/Blimp1 and carrying c-MYC gene amplification. The treatment with proteasome inhibitors of TRAF1-ALK cells led to the downregulation of p50/p52 and lymphoma growth inhibition. Moreover, a NFkB gene set classifier stratified ALCL in distinct subsets with different clinical outcome. Although a selective ALK inhibitor (CEP28122) resulted in a significant clinical response of hPDT mice, nevertheless the disease could not be eradicated. These data indicate that the activation of NFkB signaling contributes to the neoplastic phenotype of TRAF1-ALK ALCL. ALCL hPDTs are invaluable tools to validate the role of druggable molecules, predict therapeutic responses and implement patient specific therapies.
Project description:Nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM-ALK) is a tyrosine kinase oncogene responsible for the pathogenesis of the majority of human ALK-positive lymphomas. We recently reported that it activated the Rac1 GTPase in anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL), leading to Rac-dependent formation of active invadopodia required for invasiveness. Herein, we went further into the study of this pathway and used the inhibitor of Rac, NSC23766, to validate its potential as a molecular target in ALCL in vitro and in vivo in a xenograft model and in a conditional model of NPM-ALK transgenic mice. Our data demonstrate that Rac regulates important effectors of NPM-ALK-induced transformation such as Erk1/2, p38 and Akt. Moreover, inhibition of Rac signaling abrogates NPM-ALK-elicited disease progression and metastasis in mice, highlighting the potential of small GTPases and their regulators as additional therapic targets in lymphomas.
Project description:Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a mature T cell neoplasm that often expresses the CD4+ T cell surface marker. It usually harbors the t(2;5) (p23;q35) translocation, leading to the ectopic expression of NPM-ALK, a chimeric tyrosine kinase. We demonstrated that in vitro transduction of normal human CD4+ T lymphocytes with NPM-ALK results in their immortalization and malignant transformation. The tumor cells displayed morphological and immunophenotypical characteristics of primary patient-derived anaplastic large cell lymphomas. Cell growth, proliferation, and survival were strictly dependent on NPM-ALK activity and include activation of the key factors STAT3 and DNMT1 and expression of CD30 (the hallmark of anaplastic large-cell lymphoma). Implantation of NPM-ALK-transformed CD4+ T lymphocytes into immunodeficient mice resulted in the formation of tumors indistinguishable from patients' anaplastic large cell lymphomas. Integration of "Omic" data revealed that NPM-ALK-transformed CD4+ T lymphocytes and primary NPM-ALK+ ALCL biopsies share similarities with early T cell precursors. Of note, these NPM-ALK+ lymphoma cells overexpress stem cell regulators (OCT4, SOX2, and NANOG) and HIF2A, which is known to affect hematopoietic precursor differentiation and NPM-ALK+ cell growth. Altogether, for the first time our findings suggest that NPM-ALK could restore progenitor-like features in mature CD30+ peripheral CD4+ T cells, in keeping with a thymic progenitor-like pattern.
Project description:Anaplastic large-cell lymphomas (ALCLs) encompass at least 2 systemic diseases distinguished by the presence or absence of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) expression. We performed genome-wide microRNA (miRNA) profiling on 33 ALK-positive (ALK[+]) ALCLs, 25 ALK-negative (ALK[-]) ALCLs, 9 angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphomas, 11 peripheral T-cell lymphomas not otherwise specified (PTCLNOS), and normal T cells, and demonstrated that ALCLs express many of the miRNAs that are highly expressed in normal T cells with the prominent exception of miR-146a. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering demonstrated distinct clustering of ALCL, PTCL-NOS, and the AITL subtype of PTCL. Cases of ALK(+) ALCL and ALK(-) ALCL were interspersed in unsupervised analysis, suggesting a close relationship at the molecular level. We identified an miRNA signature of 7 miRNAs (5 upregulated: miR-512-3p, miR-886-5p, miR-886-3p, miR-708, miR-135b; 2 downregulated: miR-146a, miR-155) significantly associated with ALK(+) ALCL cases. In addition, we derived an 11-miRNA signature (4 upregulated: miR-210, miR-197, miR-191, miR-512-3p; 7 downregulated: miR-451, miR-146a, miR-22, miR-455-3p, miR-455-5p, miR-143, miR-494) that differentiates ALK(-) ALCL from other PTCLs. Our in vitro studies identified a set of 32 miRNAs associated with ALK expression. Of these, the miR-17?92 cluster and its paralogues were also highly expressed in ALK(+) ALCL and may represent important downstream effectors of the ALK oncogenic pathway.
Project description:Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma (cHL) is primarily a B cell lymphoid neoplasm and a member of the CD30-positive lymphomas. cHL and the other CD30-positive lymphomas are characterized by the elevated expression and/or constitutive activation of the activator protein-1 (AP-1) family transcription factors, c-Jun and JunB; however, the specific roles they play in the pathobiology of cHL are unclear. In this report we show that reducing either c-Jun or JunB expression with short-hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) reduced the growth of cHL cell lines in vitro and in vivo, primarily through impairing cell cycle transition through G<sub>1</sub>. We further investigated the effect of c-Jun and JunB knock-down on proliferation in another CD30-positive lymphoma, anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive, anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALK+ ALCL). We found that JunB knock-down in most ALK+ ALCL cell lines examined also resulted in reduced proliferation that was associated with a G<sub>0</sub>/G<sub>1</sub> cell cycle defect. In contrast, c-Jun knock-down in multiple ALK+ ALCL cell lines had no effect on proliferation. In summary, this study directly establishes that both c-Jun and JunB play roles in promoting HRS cell proliferation. Furthermore, we demonstrate there are similarities and differences in c-Jun and JunB function between cHL and ALK+ ALCL.
Project description:Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that originates from T cells and frequently expresses oncogenic fusion proteins derived from chromosomal translocations or inversions of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene. The proliferation and survival of ALCL cells are determined by the ALK activity. Here we show that the kinase activity of the nucleophosmin (NPM)-ALK fusion regulated the shape of ALCL cells and F-actin filament assembly in a pattern similar to T-cell receptor-stimulated cells. NPM-ALK formed a complex with the guanine exchange factor VAV1, enhancing its activation through phosphorylation. VAV1 increased Cdc42 activity, and in turn, Cdc42 regulated the shape and migration of ALCL cells. In vitro knockdown of VAV1 or Cdc42 by short hairpin RNA, as well as pharmacologic inhibition of Cdc42 activity by secramine, resulted in a cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of ALCL cells. Importantly, the concomitant inhibition of Cdc42 and NPM-ALK kinase acted synergistically to induce apoptosis of ALCL cells. Finally, Cdc42 was necessary for the growth as well as for the maintenance of already established lymphomas in vivo. Thus, our data open perspectives for new therapeutic strategies by revealing a mechanism of regulation of ALCL cell growth through Cdc42.
Project description:Systemic anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCL) are a category of T-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas which can be divided into anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) positive and ALK negative subgroups, based on ALK gene rearrangements. Among several pathways aberrantly activated in ALCL, the constitutive activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is shared by all ALK positive ALCL and has been detected in a subgroup of ALK negative ALCL. To discover essential mediators of STAT3 oncogenic activity that may represent feasible targets for ALCL therapies, we combined gene expression profiling analysis and RNA interference functional approaches. A shRNA screening of STAT3-modulated genes identified interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) as a key driver of ALCL cell survival. Accordingly, ectopic IRF4 expression partially rescued STAT3 knock-down effects. Treatment with immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) induced IRF4 down regulation and resulted in cell death, a phenotype rescued by IRF4 overexpression. However, the majority of ALCL cell lines were poorly responsive to IMiDs treatment. Combination with JQ1, a bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) family antagonist known to inhibit MYC and IRF4, increased sensitivity to IMiDs. Overall, these results show that IRF4 is involved in STAT3-oncogenic signaling and its inhibition provides alternative avenues for the design of novel/combination therapies of ALCL.
Project description:Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a rare, aggressive, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that is characterized by CD30 expression and disease onset in young patients. About half of ALCL patients bear the t(2;5)(p23;q35) translocation, which results in the formation of the nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma tyrosine kinase (NPM-ALK) fusion protein (ALCL ALK(+)). However, little is known about the molecular features and tumour drivers in ALK-negative ALCL (ALCL ALK(-)), which is characterized by a worse prognosis. We found that ALCL ALK(-), in contrast to ALCL ALK(+), lymphomas display high miR-155 expression. Consistent with this, we observed an inverse correlation between miR-155 promoter methylation and miR-155 expression in ALCL. However, no direct effect of the ALK kinase on miR-155 levels was observed. Ago2 immunoprecipitation revealed miR-155 as the most abundant miRNA, and enrichment of target mRNAs C/EBP? and SOCS1. To investigate its function, we over-expressed miR-155 in ALCL ALK(+) cell lines and demonstrated reduced levels of C/EBP? and SOCS1. In murine engraftment models of ALCL ALK(-), we showed that anti-miR-155 mimics are able to reduce tumour growth. This goes hand-in-hand with increased levels of cleaved caspase-3 and high SOCS1 in these tumours, which leads to suppression of STAT3 signalling. Moreover, miR-155 induces IL-22 expression and suppresses the C/EBP? target IL-8. These data suggest that miR-155 can act as a tumour driver in ALCL ALK(-) and blocking miR-155 could be therapeutically relevant. Original miRNA array data are to be found in the supplementary material (Table S1).