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Netrin-1 Alters Adipose Tissue Macrophage Fate and Function in Obesity.

ABSTRACT: Macrophages accumulate prominently in the visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of obese humans and high fat diet (HFD) fed mice, and this is linked to insulin resistance and type II diabetes. While the mechanisms regulating macrophage recruitment in obesity have been delineated, the signals directing macrophage persistence in VAT are poorly understood. We previously showed that the neuroimmune guidance cue netrin-1 is expressed in the VAT of obese mice and humans, where it promotes macrophage accumulation. To better understand the source of netrin-1 and its effects on adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) fate and function in obesity, we generated mice with myeloid-specific deletion of netrin-1 (Ntn1 fl/fl LysMCre +/-; Ntn1?mac). Interestingly, Ntn1?mac mice showed a modest decrease in HFD-induced adiposity and adipocyte size, in the absence of changes in food intake or leptin, that was accompanied by an increase in markers of adipocyte beiging (Prdm16, UCP-1). Using single cell RNA-seq, combined with conventional histological and flow cytometry techniques, we show that myeloid-specific deletion of netrin-1 caused a 50% attrition of ATMs in HFD-fed mice, particularly of the resident macrophage subset, and altered the phenotype of residual ATMs to enhance lipid handling. Pseudotime analysis of single cell transcriptomes showed that in the absence of netrin-1, macrophages in the obese VAT underwent a phenotypic switch with the majority of ATMs activating a program of genes specialized in lipid handling, including fatty acid uptake and intracellular transport, lipid droplet formation and lipolysis, and regulation of lipid localization. Furthermore, Ntn1?mac macrophages had reduced expression of genes involved in arachidonic acid metabolism, and targeted LCMS/MS metabololipidomics analysis revealed decreases in proinflammatory eicosanoids (5-HETE, 6-trans LTB4, TXB2, PGD2) in the obese VAT. Collectively, our data show that targeted deletion of netrin-1 in macrophages reprograms the ATM phenotype in obesity, leading to reduced adipose inflammation, and improved lipid handling and metabolic function.


PROVIDER: S-EPMC6699780 | BioStudies | 2019-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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