Regulating autophagy facilitated therapeutic efficacy of the sonic Hedgehog pathway inhibition on lung adenocarcinoma through GLI2 suppression and ROS production.
ABSTRACT: Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD), which comprises over 50% of all cases of non-small-cell lung cancer, has a poor prognosis and requires novel therapeutic approaches. The sonic Hedgehog (Shh) pathway, which plays a crucial role in differentiation, proliferation, and survival of cancer cells, is likely to be activated in LUADs, suggesting the Shh pathway as a potential therapeutic target for LUAD treatment. In this study, we reported that vismodegib, an inhibitor of the Shh pathway, only elicited minor antitumor efficacy in A549 and NCI-H1975 LUAD cells as well as in the xenograft tumors, with overexpressed GLI2 and increased autophagic activity. The aberrant autophagy in LUAD cells was further confirmed by the three main stages of autophagic flux, including the formation of autophagosomes, the fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes, and degradation of autophagosomes in lysosomes. Furthermore, inhibition of autophagy by siRNA against ATG5 or ATG7 rescued the sensitivity of A549 and NCI-H1975 LUAD cells to vismodegib in vitro. Meanwhile, administration of the pharmaceutical inhibitor of autophagy, chloroquine, contributed to the enhanced anti-LUAD efficacy of vismodegib in vivo, probably through overproduction of ROS, acceleration of apoptosis, and suppression of GLI2 in LUAD tissues. In summary, our research revealed that downregulating autophagy facilitated the anti-LUAD efficacy of the Shh pathway suppression, thus highlighting a potential approach for LUAD therapy via simultaneously targeting the Shh signaling and autophagy pathway.
Project description:The Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway is well known in patterning of the neural tube during embryonic development, but its emerging role in differentiated neurons is less understood. Here we report that Shh enhances autophagy in cultured hippocampal neurons. Microarray analysis reveals the upregulation of multiple autophagy-related genes in neurons in response to Shh application. Through analysis of the autophagy-marker LC3 by immunoblot analysis and immunocytochemistry, we confirm activation of the autophagy pathway in Shh-exposed neurons. Using electron microscopy, we find autophagosomes and associated structures with a wide range of morphologies in synaptic terminals of Shh-exposed neurons. Moreover, we show that Shh-triggered autophagy depends on class III Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase complexes (PtdIns3K). These results identify a link between Shh and autophagy pathways and, importantly, provide a lead for further understanding the physiology of Shh signaling activity in neurons.
Project description:Medulloblastoma is an aggressive primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the cerebellum that is rare in adults. Medulloblastomas fall into 4 prognostically significant molecular subgroups that are best defined by experimental gene expression profiles: the WNT pathway, sonic hedgehog (SHH) pathway, and subgroups 3 and 4 (non-SHH/WNT). Medulloblastoma of adults belong primarily to the SHH category. Vismodegib, an SHH-pathway inhibitor FDA-approved in 2012 for treatment of basal cell carcinoma, has been used successfully in the setting of chemorefractory medulloblastoma, but not as a first-line therapy. In this report, we describe a sustained response of an unresectable multifocal form of adult medulloblastoma to vismodegib. Molecular analysis in this case revealed mutations in TP53 and a cytogenetic abnormality, i17q, that is prevalent and most often associated with subgroup 4 rather than the SHH-activated form of medulloblastoma. Our findings indicate that vismodegib may also block alternate, non-canonical forms of downstream SHH pathway activation. These findings provide strong impetus for further investigation of vismodegib in clinical trials in the first-line setting for pediatric and adult forms of medulloblastoma.
Project description:Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) has emerged as a standard treatment for non-small-cell lung cancer. However, its therapeutic advantages are limited with the development of SBRT resistance. The SBRT-resistant cell lines (A549/IR and H1975/IR) were established after exposure with hypofractionated irradiation. The differential lncRNAs were screened by microarray assay, then the expression was detected in LUAD tumor tissues and cell lines by qPCR. The influence on radiation response was assessed via in vitro and in vivo assays, and autophagy levels were evaluated by western blot and transmission electron microscopy. Bioinformatics prediction and rescue experiments were used to identify the pathways underlying SBRT resistance. High expression of KCNQ1OT1 was identified in LUAD SBRT-resistant cells and tissues, positively associated with a large tumor, advanced clinical stage, and a lower response rate to concurrent therapy. KCNQ1OT1 depletion significantly resensitized A549/IR and H1975/IR cells to radiation by inhibiting autophagy, which could be attenuated by miR-372-3p knockdown. Furthermore, autophagy-related 5 (ATG5) and autophagy-related 12 (ATG12) were confirmed as direct targets of miR-372-3p. Restoration of either ATG5 or ATG12 abrogated miR-372-3p-mediated autophagy inhibition and radiosensitivity. Our data describe that KCNQ1OT1 is responsible for SBRT resistance in LUAD through induction of ATG5- and ATG12-dependent autophagy via sponging miR-372-3p, which would be a potential strategy to enhance the antitumor effects of radiotherapy in LUAD.
Project description:Autophagy is a potent cell autonomous defense mechanism that engages the lysosomal pathway to fight intracellular pathogens. Several autophagy receptors can recognize invading pathogens in order to target them towards autophagy for their degradation after the fusion of pathogen-containing autophagosomes with lysosomes. However, numerous intracellular pathogens can avoid or exploit autophagy, among which is measles virus (MeV). This virus induces a complete autophagy flux, which is required to improve viral replication. We therefore asked how measles virus interferes with autophagy receptors during the course of infection. We report that in addition to NDP52/CALCOCO? and OPTINEURIN/OPTN, another autophagy receptor, namely T6BP/TAXIBP1, also regulates the maturation of autophagosomes by promoting their fusion with lysosomes, independently of any infection. Surprisingly, only two of these receptors, NDP52 and T6BP, impacted measles virus replication, although independently, and possibly through physical interaction with MeV proteins. Thus, our results suggest that a restricted set of autophagosomes is selectively exploited by measles virus to replicate in the course of infection.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Autophagy is an essential process in eukaryotic cells in which autophagosomes form to deliver cellular organelles and long-lived proteins to lysosomes for degradation. Many studies have recently identified the regulatory mechanisms involved in the interaction between viral infection and autophagy. METHODS:LC3 turnover and the proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway were investigated using western blot analysis. The formation and degradation of autophagosomes were detected using immunofluorescence staining. RESULTS:Autophagy was activated by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) NSP3, NSP5 and NSP9, which are two transmembrane proteins and an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, respectively. The formation of autophagosomes was induced by NSP3 and NSP5 and developed from the ER; the fusion of these autophagosomes with lysosomes was limited. Although NSP3 and NSP5 are ER transmembrane proteins, these proteins did not activate the ER stress signaling pathways. In addition, the cytoplasmic domain of NSP3 plays a pivotal role in activating autophagy. CONCLUSIONS:The data presented in this study reveal an important relationship between PRRSV NSPs and autophagy and provide new insights that improve our understanding of the involvement of PRRSV NSPs in the autophagy process.
Project description:Autophagy is a major degradative process responsible for the disposal of cytoplasmic proteins and dysfunctional organelles via the lysosomal pathway. During the autophagic process, cells form double-membraned vesicles called autophagosomes that sequester disposable materials in the cytoplasm and finally fuse with lysosomes. In the present study, we investigated the inhibition of autophagy by a synthesized compound, MHY1485, in a culture system by using Ac2F rat hepatocytes. Autophagic flux was measured to evaluate the autophagic activity. Autophagosomes were visualized in Ac2F cells transfected with AdGFP-LC3 by live-cell confocal microscopy. In addition, activity of mTOR, a major regulatory protein of autophagy, was assessed by western blot and docking simulation using AutoDock 4.2. In the result, treatment with MHY1485 suppressed the basal autophagic flux, and this inhibitory effect was clearly confirmed in cells under starvation, a strong physiological inducer of autophagy. The levels of p62 and beclin-1 did not show significant change after treatment with MHY1485. Decreased co-localization of autophagosomes and lysosomes in confocal microscopic images revealed the inhibitory effect of MHY1485 on lysosomal fusion during starvation-induced autophagy. These effects of MHY1485 led to the accumulation of LC3II and enlargement of the autophagosomes in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, MHY1485 induced mTOR activation and correspondingly showed a higher docking score than PP242, a well-known ATP-competitive mTOR inhibitor, in docking simulation. In conclusion, MHY1485 has an inhibitory effect on the autophagic process by inhibition of fusion between autophagosomes and lysosomes leading to the accumulation of LC3II protein and enlarged autophagosomes. MHY1485 also induces mTOR activity, providing a possibility for another regulatory mechanism of autophagy by the MHY compound. The significance of this study is the finding of a novel inhibitor of autophagy with an mTOR activating effect.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant brain tumour in children but also rarely occur in adults. Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) driven MB is associated with aberrant activation of the SHH signalling pathway. SMO inhibitors, sonidegib and vismodegib, have been used as selective antagonist of the hedgehog pathway that acts by binding to SMO, and inhibits activation of the downstream hedgehog target genes. Several clinical trials investigating SMO inhibitors for the treatment of relapsed MB patients have been published. METHODS:We conducted a systemic review and meta-analysis among these Phase I and II clinical trials. The pooled effect of SMO inhibitors in relapsed MB were analysed using Reviewer Manager 5.3 software. The clinical efficacy of SMO inhibitors on SHH subtype of MB were measured by the objective response rate. The risk difference was obtained by comparing the ORR between SHH and non-SHH subtypes of MB. RESULTS:The five studies all had clear criteria for patient recruitment, adequate follow-up time for endpoint assessment and clear definition of tumour responses. MB patients had good compliance in the trials. The pooled objective response rate (ORR) of SMO inhibitor was 37% and 0 against SHH-driven and other MBs. The pooled ORR of sonidegib was 55% among MBSHH and 0 among MBnon-SHH subgroup. Vismodegib also had no efficacy on non-SHH subtype of MB. The sonidegib against SHH-driven MB produced the ORR 1.87-fold higher than that of vismodegib (95%CI 1.23, 6.69). Among paediatric patients, the efficacy of sonidegib was 3.67-fold higher than vismodegib (p <?0.05). A total of 320 cases received SMO inhibitor therapy and 36 cases reported grade 3/4 dose-limiting toxicity (DLT). The rate of grade 3/4 DLT was similar between patients receiving vismodegib and sonidegib (11.6% vs. 11.2%). CONCLUSION:Sonidegib and vismodegib were well tolerated and demonstrated anti-tumour activity in SHH-driven paediatric and adult MB by effectively inhibiting Hh signalling. These results support the ongoing clinical trials using SMO inhibitors in combination with conventional chemotherapies for the treatment of relapsed MBSHH.
Project description:Autophagy allows cells to adapt to changes in their environment by coordinating the degradation and recycling of cellular components and organelles to maintain homeostasis. Lysosomes are organelles critical for terminating autophagy via their fusion with mature autophagosomes to generate autolysosomes that degrade autophagic materials; therefore, maintenance of the lysosomal population is essential for autophagy-dependent cellular clearance. Here, we have demonstrated that the two most common autosomal recessive hereditary spastic paraplegia gene products, the SPG15 protein spastizin and the SPG11 protein spatacsin, are pivotal for autophagic lysosome reformation (ALR), a pathway that generates new lysosomes. Lysosomal targeting of spastizin required an intact FYVE domain, which binds phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Loss of spastizin or spatacsin resulted in depletion of free lysosomes, which are competent to fuse with autophagosomes, and an accumulation of autolysosomes, reflecting a failure in ALR. Moreover, spastizin and spatacsin were essential components for the initiation of lysosomal tubulation. Together, these results link dysfunction of the autophagy/lysosomal biogenesis machinery to neurodegeneration.
Project description:Targeting oncogenic pathways holds promise for brain tumor treatment, but inhibition of Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) signaling has failed in SHH-driven medulloblastoma. Cellular diversity within tumors and reduced lineage commitment can undermine targeted therapy by increasing the probability of treatment-resistant populations. Using single-cell RNA-seq and lineage tracing, we analyzed cellular diversity in medulloblastomas in transgenic, medulloblastoma-prone mice, and responses to the SHH-pathway inhibitor vismodegib. In untreated tumors, we find expected stromal cells and tumor-derived cells showing either a spectrum of neural progenitor-differentiation states or glial and stem cell markers. Vismodegib reduces the proliferative population and increases differentiation. However, specific cell types in vismodegib-treated tumors remain proliferative, showing either persistent SHH-pathway activation or stem cell characteristics. Our data show that even in tumors with a single pathway-activating mutation, diverse mechanisms drive tumor growth. This diversity confers early resistance to targeted inhibitor therapy, demonstrating the need to target multiple pathways simultaneously.
Project description:Autophagy, a catabolic pathway that delivers cellular components to lysosomes for degradation, can be activated by stressful conditions such as nutrient starvation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. We report that thapsigargin, an ER stressor widely used to induce autophagy, in fact blocks autophagy. Thapsigargin does not affect autophagosome formation but leads to accumulation of mature autophagosomes by blocking autophagosome fusion with the endocytic system. Strikingly, thapsigargin has no effect on endocytosis-mediated degradation of epidermal growth factor receptor. Molecularly, while both Rab7 and Vps16 are essential regulatory components for endocytic fusion with lysosomes, we found that Rab7 but not Vps16 is required for complete autophagy flux, and that thapsigargin blocks recruitment of Rab7 to autophagosomes. Therefore, autophagosomal-lysosomal fusion must be governed by a distinct molecular mechanism compared to general endocytic fusion.