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Regulating autophagy facilitated therapeutic efficacy of the sonic Hedgehog pathway inhibition on lung adenocarcinoma through GLI2 suppression and ROS production.


ABSTRACT: Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD), which comprises over 50% of all cases of non-small-cell lung cancer, has a poor prognosis and requires novel therapeutic approaches. The sonic Hedgehog (Shh) pathway, which plays a crucial role in differentiation, proliferation, and survival of cancer cells, is likely to be activated in LUADs, suggesting the Shh pathway as a potential therapeutic target for LUAD treatment. In this study, we reported that vismodegib, an inhibitor of the Shh pathway, only elicited minor antitumor efficacy in A549 and NCI-H1975 LUAD cells as well as in the xenograft tumors, with overexpressed GLI2 and increased autophagic activity. The aberrant autophagy in LUAD cells was further confirmed by the three main stages of autophagic flux, including the formation of autophagosomes, the fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes, and degradation of autophagosomes in lysosomes. Furthermore, inhibition of autophagy by siRNA against ATG5 or ATG7 rescued the sensitivity of A549 and NCI-H1975 LUAD cells to vismodegib in vitro. Meanwhile, administration of the pharmaceutical inhibitor of autophagy, chloroquine, contributed to the enhanced anti-LUAD efficacy of vismodegib in vivo, probably through overproduction of ROS, acceleration of apoptosis, and suppression of GLI2 in LUAD tissues. In summary, our research revealed that downregulating autophagy facilitated the anti-LUAD efficacy of the Shh pathway suppression, thus highlighting a potential approach for LUAD therapy via simultaneously targeting the Shh signaling and autophagy pathway.

SUBMITTER: Fan J 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC6700102 | BioStudies | 2019-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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