Assessing quality of life in people with HIV in Spain: psychometric testing of the Spanish version of WHOQOL-HIV-BREF.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:The assessment of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in people living with HIV (PLHIV) has become crucial to evidence-based practice. The goals of this study are to analyze the psychometric properties and evidence of the validity of the Spanish version of WHOQOL-HIV-BREF in a sample of PLHIV in Spain and to examine the more impaired HRQoL facets and dimensions and identify the PLHIV who show the most vulnerable profile. METHODS:A total of 1462 PLHIV participated in an observational cross-sectional ex-post-facto study. Data were collected at 33 Spanish sites through an online survey. In addition to measuring HRQoL, the study used other tools to measure treatment adherence (CEAT-VIH 2.0 version), psychological well-being (GHQ-12) and HIV-related stigma (HSSS). Cronbach's alpha, first- and second-order confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), the Pearson coefficient and one-way ANOVA were used to evaluate reliability, construct validity and concurrent and known-group validity, respectively. Differences according to the socio-demographic and epidemiological profiles of participants were analyzed. RESULTS:First- and second-order CFAs confirmed a six-domain first-order structure of the Spanish version of WHOQOL-HIV-BREF and one second-order factor related to overall HRQoL with an acceptable fit to the data, although some minor changes would improve it. The six-domain structure showed an acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha ranged from .61 to .81). Significant moderate to large correlations between domains and overall HRQoL, adherence, psychological well-being and negative self-image were found. Significant differences were found according to participants' self-reported CD4+ cell count in several HRQoL facets and domains. Being female, heterosexual, having low socio-economic and educational statuses, having acquired HIV through an unsafe injection and living more years with HIV were related to poorer HRQoL. PLHIV older than 50 presented lower scores in 19 HRQoL facets. CONCLUSIONS:This study demonstrates that the Spanish version of the WHOQOL-HIV-BREF is a valid instrument. It also presents the most recent data about HRQoL in PLHIV in Spain with the largest sample to date.
Project description:The World Health Organization has developed a brief generic questionnaire to assess quality of life, the WHOQOL-BREF. It has been studied in diverse groups, but not specifically in older people. The purpose of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the French version of the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire in healthy older people and to compare the mean profiles of participants with the mean profile obtained in the international validation study of the WHOQOL-BREF. Of the total sample of 262 Swiss French speaking older participants, 122 completed a retest after 2 weeks. The WHOQOL-BREF items demonstrated high test-retest reliability and validity. The WHOQOL-BREF items were differentially related to physical and mental health measures (SF-12 components, morbidity, and depression), thereby demonstrating convergent and discriminant validity. Compared to the international validation sample of the WHOQOL-BREF, participants of the present study reported higher QOL on 22 of the 26 items. A comparison of item profiles between male and female participants revealed gender differences for two items only (social support and negative feelings). We conclude that the psychometric properties of the WHOQOL-BREF items in older adults are good. To consider the 24 specific facets that are assessed by the WHOQOL-BREF appropriately, we recommend using item profiles on the individual and the sample level.
Project description:There is no disease-specific instrument to describe health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Indian patients with asthma. However, an abbreviated World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire (WHOQOL-Bref), a generic Hindi HRQoL measure, has been developed and validated in India.To evaluate the WHOQOL-Bref in adult patients with asthma and to test possible modifications to the instrument to improve its psychometric adequacy.Sixty-seven patients with asthma completed the WHOQOL-Bref. Rasch analysis was used to explore the psychometric performance of the four domains (physical, psychological, social relationships and environment) of the scale. Overall fit of data to model expectations, appropriate category ordering, presence of differential item functioning, individual item fit and targeting of item difficulty to patient ability were explored for each domain. Item deletion and rescoring were applied to misfitting items to improve overall performance.The overall fit of the WHOQOL-Bref data was adequate. Item 3 (pain prevents doing work) displayed a large positive fit residual value (indicating violation of unidimensionality), resulting in poor construct validity for the physical domain. No item exhibited differential item functioning. Ten items had disordered thresholds. The WHOQOL-Bref was modified by dropping item 3 and rescoring category structures of 16 items. The modified scale had good construct validity for all domains, ordered thresholds for all items and good targeting of items to persons.The WHOQOL-Bref performed inadequately in describing HRQoL in the asthma patients studied. However, when modified by Rasch analysis, the scale proved better than the original scale.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Antiretroviral therapy has prolonged the lives of those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but the effects of chronic infection on their health-related quality of life (HRQoL) remain a concern. Numerous instruments have been developed to measure HRQoL, yet evidence of their cross-cultural equivalence and continued applicability is limited. We adapted the WHOQOL-HIV BREF to French and assessed its psychometric properties in a sample of community-dwelling adults living with HIV who were mostly virally suppressed. METHODS:We conducted a cross-sectional study within the ANRS CO3 Aquitaine cohort from July 2018 to May 2019. Five hundred eighty-six participants were consecutively enrolled at their HIV-consultations and completed either a web-based (n?=?406) or paper self-administered assessment (n?=?180). The means and standard deviations for items and domains were computed and the presence of floor and ceiling effects assessed. We evaluated internal consistency by calculating Cronbach's alpha coefficients per domain. We assessed construct validity by performing a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). Concurrent, convergent and discriminant validity were assessed with Pearson's correlations and known-group validity was assessed according to CD4 cell count, viral load, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention clinical categories for HIV, and hospitalization of more than 48?h within 2 years of the most recent consultation using one-way analysis of variance and independent t-tests. RESULTS:Five hundred eighty-six PLWH were included in this analysis. Their median age was 55; 73% were male; 85% were of French descent; 99% were on ART and 93% were virally suppressed. We found floor effects for one and ceiling effects for 11 items. Four of the six domains showed good internal consistency (? range: 0.63-0.79). CFA showed that the WHOQOL-HIV BREF's six-domain structure produced an acceptable fit (SRMR?=?0.059; CFI?=?0.834; RMSEA?=?0.07; 90% CI: 0.06-0.08). It showed good concurrent, convergent and discriminant validity. There was some evidence of known-group validity. The personal beliefs domain had the highest score (15.04?±?3.35) and the psychological health domain had the lowest (13.70?±?2.78). CONCLUSIONS:The French WHOQOL-HIV BREF has acceptable measurement properties. Its broad conceptualisation of HRQoL, going beyond physical and mental health, may be of particular value in our older, treatment-experienced and virally suppressed population. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03296202 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6zgOBArps ).
Project description:OBJECTIVES:This study aims to assess the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the WHOQOL-HIV BREF. DESIGN:Cross-sectional study. SETTING:Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and infectious disease hospitals in three Chinese provinces. PARTICIPANTS:Sample of 1100 people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). INTERVENTIONS:We recruited 1100 PLWHA to evaluate their quality of life (QOL) using the WHOQOL-HIV BREF. Of these participants, 57 were randomly selected to repeat the QOL evaluation 2 weeks later. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:The reliability of the WHOQOL-HIV BREF was assessed in terms of its internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The construct, concurrent, convergent, discriminant and known-group validity were also analysed. In addition, the factorial invariance across genders was assessed. RESULTS:Cronbach's ? coefficient for the overall scale was 0.93. Except for the spirituality domain, which had an ? below 0.70 (0.66), the other five domains showed adequate internal consistency. The test-retest reliability revealed a statistically significant intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.72-0.82 (p<0.001). Confirmatory factor analysis found that the six-domain structure produced an acceptable fit to the data. The instrument showed factorial invariance across gender groups. All domains were significantly correlated with the general items and the SF-36 (p<0.01). The correlation coefficients were >0.40 (r=0.40-0.67), except for the association between the spirituality domain and two general items (QOL: r=0.33; health status: r=0.36). Subjects with lower CD4 counts had lower scores for all domains (p<0.05). Symptomatic participants had significantly lower scores than asymptomatic participants on the physical, psychological and independence domains (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS:The WHOQOL-HIV BREF revealed good psychometric characteristics among Chinese PLWHA. These findings offer promising support for the use of the WHOQOL-HIV BREF as a measure of QOL among Chinese PLWHA and in cross-cultural comparative studies on QOL.
Project description:The aim of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of the WHOQOL-BREF, a generic quality of life scale, among older people in Canada and Norway. Very similar data from the Canadian and Norwegian Field Trial data (Canada n = 192; Norway, n = 469) were analyzed and compared. Higher negatively skewed mean scores were found for all WHOQOL-BREF domains in Canada. For both study samples, missing values were highest for the sex item from the social domain. Ceiling effects were found (Canada n = 21; Norway n = 11) primarily among items in the physical and environmental domains. In both study samples, a multitrait multimethod procedure indicated items correlated most strongly with their parent domains; however, equally appreciable correlations were observed between physical, psychological, and environmental items (r = 0.33-0.64; p < 0.01). The social domain had the lowest internal consistency (α = 0.67 Canada, α = 0.55 Norway). Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) yielded marginal goodness-of-fit between the hypothesized WHOQOL-BREF measurement model and the sample data as well as differing patterns of domain misspecification. Patterns of correlations (p < 0.01) of WHOQOL-BREF domains with WHOQOL-OLD facets, a global QOL item, the SF-12, and the geriatric depression scale provided evidence of convergent and divergent validity. Domain scores also significantly discriminated between health and unhealthy populations and presence of morbidity. Empirical support was found, in part, for the construct validity of the WHOQOL-BREF in older adults. Despite some different patterns found in the CFA, possibly due to cultural or sampling differences, it appears that the instrument is reliable, valid, and facilitates cross-cultural comparisons.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Both stigma and psychological distress affect quality of life (QOL). This study is an attempt to determine the effects of these two factors on QOL and to explore possible mediation effects between psychological distress and self-stigma in opioid-dependent individuals. METHODS:This cross-sectional study comprised 268 consecutive, treatment-seeking opioid-dependent individuals who were interviewed using the brief version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life instrument (WHOQOL-BREF), the Self-Stigma Scale-Short (SSS-S), the Chinese Health Questionnaire-12 (CHQ-12), and the Opiate Treatment Index (OTI). A series of regression models were constructed to determine if the SSS-S and CHQ-12 predict the WHOQOL-BREF scores. Moreover, a comparison of the potential mediation effects of psychological distress (as assessed by the CHQ-12) was made between the SSS-S and the WHOQOL-BREF using the Baron and Kenny procedure (including three separate regressions), along with the Sobel test. RESULTS:The CHQ-12 score was predictive of the scores for the four domains and almost all facets of the WHOQOL-BREF except the item, "Dependence on medical aids." Nonetheless, the SSS-S score predicted three of the four facets of the social QOL after adjustment of the CHQ-12 score. Psychological distress completely mediated the relation between self-stigma and the physical, psychological, and environmental domains, and partially mediated the relationship between self-stigma and social QOL (two-tailed Sobel test: p = 0.02 for each domain). CONCLUSIONS:Psychological distress has a significant impact on the QOL of treated opioid users. It appears to be a core element in reducing the negative effects of self-stigma on aspects of QOL.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>The effect of anticoagulation control on overall Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) in patients taking warfarin in Pakistan has not been explored yet. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate HRQoL among warfarin patients in Pakistan.<h4>Methods</h4>This cross-sectional study was conducted among patients on warfarin in Pakistan. By purposive sampling, data were collected using demographic data collection form and the World Health Organization Quality of Life: Brief Version (WHOQOL-BREF). The WHOQOL-BREF is comprised of four domains; physical, psychological, social relationships, and environment. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 22.<h4>Results</h4>Out of 295 warfarin patients, more females than males (<0.001) were observed (n = 184, 62.4%, and n = 111, 37.6% respectively). One hundred and eighteen (40.0%) patients were less than 30-years of age, whereas one hundred and seventy-seven (60.0%) patients were above 30-years of age. Mean scores for the physical (62.44±15.36), psychological (67.84±15.54), social (64.27±26.28) and environment domains (63.45±17.66) were observed.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Patients had overall lower to moderate but satisfactory HRQoL scores in all four domains. Age, gender, employment status, education level, the indication of use and duration of warfarin therapy was associated with one or more domains of HRQoL among warfarin patients. The findings of this study would serve as a primary database for future studies. This study highlights how non-clinical factors could impact HRQoL in studied patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The advent of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) is associated with improved clinical and laboratory outcomes resulting in prolonged life and well-being of people living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (PLHIV). However, the needs for life-long therapy, medications' side effects and stigma have raised concerns about their quality of life (QOL). This study assessed the determinants of Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among HIV-positive patients at Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital (ABUTH) Zaria. METHODS:We conducted a cross-sectional study of 353 HIV-positive adults on HAART attending the HIV clinic of ABUTH, Zaria. The participants were recruited into the study using a systematic sampling technique. Data on socio-demographics, medical parameters, QOL and family functionality were collected using structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire. The World Health Organization (WHO) Quality of Life HIV short form instrument (WHOQOL-HIV BREF) item and Family APGAR tool were respectively used in assessing the QOL and family functionality of the participants. We performed univariate, bivariate and multivariate analysis. RESULTS:Mean age was 39.1(±10.9) years, 239 (67.7%) were females, 208 (58.9%) were Hausa-Fulani, 240 (68.2%) married and up to 210 (59.4%) had at least a secondary education. The overall mean scores on the scale of 4-20 for HRQOL were similar in three domains: environment domain 14.5(±2.8); social relationship 14.4(±3.1) and level of independence 14.4(±2.5). Lower scores were recorded in spirituality/religion/personal beliefs 12.3(±4.3). Identified determinants of HRQOL were spousal HIV- positive status (AOR?=?3.37; CI; 1.46-7.74) and high family function (AOR?=?2.57; CI: 1.51-4.39). CONCLUSION:Having highly functional family and having HIV-positive partner were the major determinants of HRQOL. Routine family counselling and strengthening the HIV social-support network should be incorporated into the routine patients' care in HIV treatment centers.
Project description:Psychometric evidence is necessary to establish scientific integrity and clinical usefulness of translations and cultural adaptations of the Stroke-Specific Quality of Life (SS-QoL) scale. However, the limited evidence on psychometrics of Yoruba version of SS-QoL 2.0 (SS-QoL(Y)) is a significant shortcoming. This study assessed the test-retest reliability, internal consistency, convergent, divergent, discriminant and known-group validity of the SS-QoL(Y).Yoruba version of the WHOQoL-BREF was used to test the convergent and divergent validity of the SS-QoL(Y) among 100 consenting stroke survivors. The WHOQoL-BREF and SS-QoL(Y) was administered randomly in order to eliminate bias. The test-retest reliability of the SS-QoL(Y) was carried out among 68 of the respondents within an interval of 7 days. All respondents were purposively recruited from selected secondary and tertiary health facilities in South-west Nigeria. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics of mean and standard deviation, and inferential statistics of Spearman correlation, Cronbach's alpha, Intra-class Correlation Coefficient (ICC), Independent t-test and One-way ANOVA. Alpha level was set at p < 0.05.The physical health, psychological health, social relationship and environment domains on WHOQoL-BREF with correlation coefficient that ranged from 0.214 to 0.360 showed significant correlation with similar domains on SS-QoL(Y). Dissimilar domains between the two scales had r values from 0.035 to 0.366. Discriminant validity of SS-QoL(Y) showed that items' r value ranged from 0.711 to 0.920 with their hypothesized domains. The scale demonstrated moderate to strong test-retest reliability with Intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) for the domains and overall scores (r = 0.47 to 0.81) and moderate to high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha =0.61 to 0.82) for domains scores. These correlations were also significant for the domains and overall scores (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences across different age groups or gender for the domains or overall scores of SS-QoL(Y).Discriminant and known-group validity, test-retest reliability and internal consistency of the Yoruba version of the Stroke Specific Quality of Life 2.0 are adequate while the convergent and divergent validity are low but acceptable. The SS-QoL(Y) is recommended for assessing health-related quality of life among Yoruba stroke survivors.
Project description:Quality of life (QOL) is an important outcome measure in the treatment of heroin addiction. The Taiwan version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life assessment (WHOQOL-BREF [TW]) has been developed and studied in various groups, but not specifically in a population of injection drug users. The aim of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the WHOQOL-BREF (TW) in a sample of injection drug users undergoing methadone maintenance treatment.A total of 553 participants were interviewed and completed the instrument. Item-response distributions, internal consistency, corrected item-domain correlation, criterion-related validity, and construct validity through confirmatory factor analysis were evaluated.The frequency distribution of the 4 domains of the WHOQOL-BREF (TW) showed no floor or ceiling effects. The instrument demonstrated adequate internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha coefficients were higher than 0.7 across the 4 domains) and all items had acceptable correlation with the corresponding domain scores (r?=?0.32-0.73). Correlations (p?<?0.01) of the 4 domains with the 2 benchmark items assessing overall QOL and general health were supportive of criterion-related validity. Confirmatory factor analysis yielded marginal goodness-of-fit between the 4-domain model and the sample data.The hypothesized WHOQOL-BREF measurement model was appropriate for the injection drug users after some adjustments. Despite different patterns found in the confirmatory factor analysis, the findings overall suggest that the WHOQOL-BREF (TW) is a reliable and valid measure of QOL among injection drug users and can be utilized in future treatment outcome studies. The factor structure provided by the study also helps to understand the QOL characteristics of the injection drug users in Taiwan. However, more research is needed to examine its test-retest reliability and sensitivity to changes due to treatment.