Attitudes of Korean smokers towards smoke-free public places: findings from the longitudinal ITC Korea Survey, 2005-2010.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:Prior to December 2012, restaurants in South Korea were required to implement only partial smoking bans. This study documents the changes in Korean smokers' attitudes towards smoking bans between 2005 and 2010 and explores the effects of anti-smoking advertising as a correlate of support for total smoking bans in public places. DESIGN:Longitudinal cohort study of Korean adult smokers. SETTING:The data were derived from three waves (2005, 2008 and 2010) of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Korea Survey. PARTICIPANTS:The ITC Korea Survey respondents were a probability-based, nationally representative sample of Korean smokers aged 19 and older. The current analysis includes 995 smokers who participated in Wave 1 (2005), 1737 smokers who participated in Wave 2 (2008) and 1560 smokers who participated in Wave 3 (2010). PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES:Changes in respondents' awareness of secondhand smoke (SHS) harm, attitudes towards smoking bans and personal rules for smoking in private homes and/or vehicles were analysed. Correlates of support for smoking bans in public places were examined using generalised estimating equation regression models. RESULTS:More than 80% of Korean smokers are aware of the harms of SHS. The proportion of smokers who support smoke-free restaurants or smoke-free bars increased twofold between 2005 and 2010. Smokers who were aware of the dangers of SHS were more likely to support a total smoking ban in workplaces. Noticing anti-smoking advertising or information was not significantly associated with support for a total smoking ban in public places. CONCLUSIONS:Korean smokers became more supportive of smoking bans in public places between 2005 and 2008. These results show that smokers' attitudes towards smoking bans can change with the implementation of smoke-free policies, even in a country that has a high prevalence of smokers.
Project description:Smoke-free legislations aim to protect non-smokers from second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure and improve population health outcomes. The aim of this study was to explore residents' perceptions to understand how people living in distinctive SES neighborhoods are differently affected by comprehensive smoke-free laws in a large city like Madrid, Spain. We conducted a qualitative project with 37 semi-structured interviews and 29 focus group discussions in three different SES neighborhoods within the city of Madrid. Constructivist grounded theory was used to analyze the transcripts. One core category arose in our analyses: Neighborhood inequalities in second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure in outdoor places. The enactment of the comprehensive smoke-free law resulted in unintended consequences that affected neighborhoods differently: relocation of smokers to outdoor setting, SHS exposure, noise disturbance and cigarette butt littering. Changes in the urban environment in the three neighborhoods resulted in the denormalization of smoking in outdoor public places, which was more clearly perceived in the high SES neighborhood. Changes in the built environment in outdoor areas of hospitality venues were reported to actually facilitate smoking. Comprehensive smoke-free laws resulted in denormalization of smoking, which might be effective in reducing SHS exposure. Extending smoking bans to outdoor areas like bus stops and hospitality venues is warranted and should include a public health inequalities perspective.
Project description:Smoke-free legislation was implemented in Guangzhou on 1 September 2010. However, the smoke-free policy did not cover all indoor areas and smoking rooms can be set in some public places. This study aimed to assess changes in self-reported second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure in different types of venues and in homes, in order to evaluate the effectiveness of smoke-free legislation.A repeated cross-sectional survey of representative participants was conducted in Guangzhou before and after the smoke-free legislation. Logistic regression models were used to examine the effectiveness of smoke-free legislation.Self-reported exposure to SHS,antitobacco advertisements and tobacco advertisements.A total of 4900 participants before the ban and 5135 participants after the ban were selected using a multistage stratified design.In full smoking ban places, overall self-reported SHS exposure has declined significantly from 58.8% to 50.3% (p<0.05) with greater drops in cultural venues, government offices and commercial venues. The smoke-free policy did not alter SHS exposure in smokers' homes (39.6% in 2009 vs 40.0% in 2011; p=0.454). Although a slight decrease in SHS exposure was observed in smoking rooms in hotels, workplaces, restaurants, cafes/bars/nightclubs and amusement parks, SHS continued to be high in those areas. The implementation of smoke-free legislation was accompanied by an increase in antitobacco advertisements.SHS exposure declines more significantly in full smoking ban places than in partial smoking ban places. The smoke-free policy in public places does not lead to more SHS exposure in homes. Therefore, it is recommended that Guangzhou should implement a 100% smoke-free policy in all public places and workplaces in the future.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Germany's 16 states regulate smoking differently within health protection principles laid down in the federal law. All state smoke-free laws in Germany have undergone at least one change since taking effect. METHODS: We systematically review federal and state laws regulating smoking, as well as petitions, popular initiatives and referenda that aimed at changing statutory smoking bans. Data generated through the systematic review were correlated with state smoking rates. RESULTS: The protection from the dangers of secondhand smoke is the primary motive for smoking bans in Germany. The first smoke-free laws affecting smoking in pubs, restaurants and several other public places were introduced in 2007. In 2008, the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany ruled in a leading decision on the smoke-free laws of two states that some common smoking ban exemptions of the introduced smoke-free laws violate the basic right to freely exercise a profession and mandated revisions. All states but Bavaria and Saarland, whose smoking bans were more and less comprehensive than those judged by the constitutional court, respectively, needed to change the smoking ban exemptions to reconcile their smoke-free laws with the constitution. Direct democracy initiatives to change smoking bans were only successful in Bavaria in 2010, but a total of 15 initiatives by citizens' or interest groups attempted to influence non-smokers protection legislation through direct democratic procedures. Early ratification of a smoking ban in a federal state correlates with a higher reduction in the smoking rate from 2005 to 2009 (Spearman's ? = 0.51, p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: The federal government structure and direct democratic participation in smoke-free legislation in Germany has produced a diversity of local smoking bans and exemptions.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Implementation of smoke free policies has potentially substantial effects on health by reducing secondhand smoke exposure. However little is known about whether the introduction of anti-smoking legislation translates into decreased secondhand smoke exposure. We examined whether smoking bans impact rates of secondhand smoke exposure in public places and rates of complete workplace smoking restriction. METHODS: Canadian Community Health Survey was used to obtain secondhand smoking exposure rates in 15 Ontario municipalities. Data analysis included descriptive summaries and 95% confidence intervals were calculated and compared across groups RESULTS: Across all studied municipalities, secondhand smoke exposure in public places decreased by 4.7% and workplace exposure decreased by 2.3% between the 2003 and 2005 survey years. The only jurisdiction to implement a full ban from no previous ban was also the only setting that experienced significant decreases in both individual exposure to secondhand smoke in a public place (-17.3%, 95% CI -22.8, -11.8) and workplace exposure (-18.1%, 95% CI -24.9, -11.3). Exposures in vehicles and homes declined in almost all settings over time. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of a full smoking ban was associated with the largest decreases in secondhand smoke exposure while partial bans and changes in existing bans had inconsistent effects. In addition to decreasing exposure in public places as would be expected from legislation, bans may have additional benefits by decreasing rates of current smokers and decreasing exposures to secondhand smoke in private settings.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Monitoring disparities in secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is important for tailoring smoke-free policies to the needs of different groups. We examined disparity and trends in SHS exposure among both nonsmokers and smokers at Japanese workplaces between 2002 and 2012. METHODS:A total of 32,940 employees in nationally representative, population-based, repeated cross-sectional surveys in 2002, 2007 and 2012 in Japan was analyzed. Adjusted rate ratios for workplace SHS exposure from other people ("everyday" and "everyday or sometimes") were calculated according to covariates, using log-binomial regression models with survey weights. In this survey, employees who do not smoke at workplace are defined as workplace-nonsmokers; and those smoke at workplace are used as workplace-smokers. SHS exposure for smokers does not involve their own SHS. RESULTS:While everyday SHS exposure prevalence in workplace-nonsmokers decreased markedly (33.2% to 11.4%), that in workplace-smokers decreased only slightly (63.3% to 55.6%). Workplace-smokers were significantly more likely to report everyday SHS exposure than workplace-nonsmokers, and the degree of association increased over time: compared with the nonsmokers (reference), covariates-adjusted rate ratio (95% confidence interval) for the smokers increased from 1.70 (1.62-1.77) in 2002 to 4.16 (3.79-4.56) in 2012. Similar results were observed for everyday or sometimes SHS exposure. Compared with complete workplace smoking bans, partial and no bans were consistently and significantly associated with high SHS exposure among both nonsmokers and smokers. We also observed disparities in SHS exposure by employee characteristics, such as age group and worksite scale. CONCLUSIONS:Although overall SHS exposure decreased among Japanese employees between 2002 and 2012, the SHS exposure disparity between nonsmokers and smokers widened. Because smokers reported more frequent SHS exposure than nonsmokers, subsequent mortality due to SHS exposure may be higher in smokers than in nonsmokers. This information may be useful for advocating workplace smoke-free policies.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To examine trends in smoking prevalence in key venues (workplaces, restaurants, bars) and in public support for comprehensive smoke-free laws, with comparisons between cities and rural areas in China. DESIGN:Data are from Waves 3-5 (2009-2015) of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey, a cohort survey of smokers and non-smokers. Logistic regression analyses employing generalised estimating equations assessed changes in smoking prevalence and support for smoke-free laws over time; specific tests assessed whether partial smoking bans implemented in three cities between Waves 3 and 4 had greater impact. SETTING:Face-to-face surveys were conducted in seven cities (Beijing, Changsha, Guangzhou, Kunming, Shanghai, Shenyang and Yinchuan) and five rural areas (Changzhi, Huzhou, Tongren, Yichun and Xining). PARTICIPANTS:In each survey location at each wave, a representative sample of approximately 800 smokers and 200 non-smokers (aged 18+) were selected using a multistage cluster sampling design. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Prevalence of smoking (whether respondents noticed smoking inside restaurants, bars and workplaces); smoking rules inside these venues; and support for complete smoking bans in these venues. RESULTS:Although smoking prevalence decreased and support increased over time, neither trend was greater in cities that implemented partial smoke-free laws. Smoking was higher in rural than urban workplaces (62% vs 44%, p<0.01), but was equally high in all restaurants and bars. There were generally no differences in secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure between smokers and non-smokers except in rural workplaces (74% vs 58%, p<0.05). Support for comprehensive bans was equally high across locations. CONCLUSIONS:Partial laws have had no effect on reducing SHS in China. There is an urgent need for comprehensive smoke-free laws to protect the public from exposure to deadly tobacco smoke in both urban and rural areas. The high support among Chinese smokers for such a law demonstrates that public support is not a barrier for action.
Project description:Background: Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure is associated with an increased risk of many diseases. Many countries have ratified a national smoking ban in public places, but studies on factors related to smoking issues in public places post-ban are lacking. Aim: To identify facilitators and barriers that influenced smokers' compliance with smoking bans in public places. Methods: Using PubMed, MEDLINE, and the Web of Science database, we conducted a systematic search of English articles published before June 2015 on factors of smokers' compliance with the smoking bans in public places. Results: A total of 390 references were identified, among which seventeen articles (twelve quantitative studies, two qualitative studies, three mixed-method studies) were included in this review. These studies focused on four types of public places including recreational venues (n = 7), hospital (n = 5), school (n = 4), and workplace (n = 1). Factors at the individual-, interpersonal-, and organizational-level were identified: at the individual level, nicotine dependence, insufficiency of tobacco-related knowledge, and the negative attitudes towards smoking bans were the most commonly identified barriers; at the interpersonal level, the smoking behaviors of people around, close relatives, and friends' approval were the main barriers; and at the organizational level, the main barriers were inefficient implementation of the bans and the inconvenience of the designative smoking areas. Conclusions: This synthesis of the literature provided evidence of the identified barriers and facilitators of smokers' compliance with the smoking bans. It will be beneficial for the policy-maker to consider interventions on multiple levels of factors to overcome the barriers and enhance smokers' compliance with the smoking bans in public places.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:This report describes the support for smoke-free policies in different settings among smokers in six European countries and the relationship between their opinions about the places where smoking should be banned and their beliefs about the harms of secondhand smoke to non-smokers. METHODS:A cross-sectional survey (the ITC 6 European Country Survey, part of the EUREST-PLUS Project) was conducted using nationally representative samples of adult smokers in Germany, Greece, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Spain (n=6011). We describe the prevalence of agreement and support for smoke-free policies in different settings according to sociodemographics, smoking characteristics and beliefs about the danger of secondhand smoke to non-smokers. RESULTS:There was high agreement with smoking regulations in cars with preschool children and in schoolyards of primary/secondary schools (>90% overall) and low agreement with banning smoking in outdoor terraces of bars/pubs (8.6%; 95%CI: 7.5%-9.8%) and restaurants (10.1%; 95%CI: 8.9%-11.4%). The highest support for complete smoking bans inside public places came from smokers in Poland, among women, people aged ≥25 years, who had low nicotine dependence, and who tried to quit smoking in the last 12 months. About 78% of participants agreed that tobacco smoke is dangerous to non-smokers, ranging from 63.1% in Hungary to 88.3% in Romania; the highest agreement was noted among women, the 25-54 age groups, those with higher education, low cigarette dependence, and those who tried to quit in the last 12 months. The support for complete smoking bans in public places was consistently higher among smokers who agreed that secondhand smoke is dangerous to non-smokers. CONCLUSIONS:Smokers in six European countries declared strong support for smoke-free policies in indoor settings and in settings with minors but low support in outdoor settings, particularly leisure facilities. More education is needed to increase the awareness about the potential exposure to secondhand smoke in specific outdoor areas.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Policy-makers and practitioners need to understand characteristics associated with support for smoking restrictions to identify both potential allies and groups requiring particular support/targeted communication in the face of restrictions. Using data from prison staff and prisoners, we explored the structure and correlates of opinions relating to prison smoking bans.<h4>Methods</h4>Questionnaires were completed by staff (online, N=1271; 27% return) and prisoners (paper-based, N=2512; 34%) in all 15 Scottish prisons in 2016-17. At that time, prisoners could smoke in their own cells and during outdoor recreation; staff smoking was prohibited anywhere on prison grounds. Staff and prisoner questionnaires included identical/very similar questions about opinions on smoking in prisons and prison smoking bans, own smoking behaviour, health and sociodemographic details. We also measured in every prison fine particulate matter (PM<sub>2.5</sub>) as a proxy for secondhand smoke (SHS) levels.<h4>Results</h4>Principal components analysis identified two factors: 'Positive about bans' (higher scores among staff) and 'Bans will be difficult' (higher scores among prisoners). In multivariable analyses, 'Positive about bans' was associated with: not smoking (both staff and prisoners), better general health, more respiratory symptoms and working in an operational role among staff; and no asthma, more sensory symptoms, higher educational level and status/release date among prisoners. 'Bans will be difficult' was associated with: fewer sensory symptoms and lower prison SHS levels among staff and being a smoker among prisoners. In smoker-only analyses, heavier smokers were less positive about bans and more likely to believe bans will be difficult.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Results suggest it is possible to be positive about prison smoking bans whilst also recognising and/or concerned about potential operational difficulties, and that these opinions are associated with several characteristics additional to smoker status. Support for future prison bans may be stronger if staff have access to objective SHS exposure measures.
Project description:Secondhand smoke (SHS) is a common indoor pollutant in multiunit housing (MUH). It is also the precursor of thirdhand smoke (THS), the toxic mixture of tobacco smoke residue that accumulates in indoor environments where tobacco has been used. This study examined the levels, distribution, and factors associated with THS pollution in low-income MUH. Interviews were conducted 2016-2018 in a cross-sectional study of N = 220 MUH homes in San Diego, California. Two surface wipe samples were collected per home and analyzed for nicotine, a THS marker, using liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. Nicotine was detected in all homes of nonsmokers with indoor smoking bans (Geo Mean = 1.67 µg/m2; 95% CI = [1.23;2.30]) and smokers regardless of an indoor ban (Geo Mean = 4.80 µg/m2; 95% CI = [1.89;12.19]). Approximately 10% of nonsmokers' homes with smoking bans showed nicotine levels higher than the average level in homes of smokers without smoking bans from previous studies (?30 µg/m2). Housing for seniors, smoking bans on balconies, indoor tobacco use, difficult to reach surfaces, and self-reported African-American race/ethnicity were independently associated with higher THS levels. Individual cases demonstrated that high levels of surface nicotine may persist in nonsmoker homes for years after tobacco use even in the presence of indoor smoking bans. To achieve MUH free of tobacco smoke pollutants, attention must be given to identifying and remediating highly polluted units and to implementing smoking policies that prevent new accumulation of THS. As THS is a form of toxic tobacco product waste, responsibility for preventing and mitigating harmful impacts should include manufacturers, suppliers, and retailers.