School status and its associations among children with epilepsy in the Republic of Guinea.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:In low-income countries (LICs), there are multiple barriers for children with epilepsy (CWE) to attend school. We examined potentially modifiable associations with poor school performance in CWE in the West African Republic of Guinea. METHODS:Children with epilepsy of school age were recruited using public announcements and a clinical register of people with epilepsy at the Ignace Deen Hospital in Conakry in 2018. A team of Guinean and U.S. neurologists and neurologists-in-training interviewed each CWE and parent for his/her epilepsy history, household finances, educational attainment level, and perceived stigma using the Stigma Scale of Epilepsy (SSE). Each child was also tested using the Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability (WNV). Low school performance was defined as either not attending school or being held back a grade level at least once. Potential predictors of low school performance were analyzed. FINDINGS:Of 128 CWE (mean age: 11.6?years, 48.4% female), 11.7% (n?=?15) never attended school, 23.3% (n?=?30) dropped out, and 64.8% (n?=?83) were currently enrolled. Of CWE attending school, 46.9% (n?=?39) were held back a grade level. Overall, 54 children were defined as low performers (LPs) (42%). ;Greater than 100 lifetime seizures (odds ratio (OR)?=?8.81; 95% confidence interval (CI)?=?2.51, 37.4; p?=?0.001) and lower total WNV score (OR?=?0.954; 95% CI?=?0.926, 0.977; p?
Project description:To define the prevalence and associations of co-morbidity and school attendance in older children with epilepsy (CWE) from a rural district of Tanzania by conducting a community-based case-control study.Children aged 6-14 years old with active epilepsy (at least two unprovoked seizures in the last five years) were identified in a cross-sectional survey in Tanzania. Co-morbidities were assessed and cases were compared with age-matched controls.Co-morbidity was very common amongst cases (95/112, 85%), with 62/112 (55%) having multiple co-morbidities. Co-morbidities consisted of cognitive impairment (72/112, 64%), behaviour disorder 68/112 (61%), motor difficulties 29/112 (26%), burns and other previous injuries (29/112, 26%). These complications were significantly more common in cases than in controls (odds ratio 14.8, 95%CI 7.6-28.6, p<0.001). Co-morbidity in CWE was associated with structural cause, abnormal electroencephalogram and early onset seizures. Cognitive impairment was very common in CWE (64%) and was not associated with Phenobarbital use but was associated with motor difficulties, early onset and recurrent seizures. Poor school attendance was found in 56/112 (50%) of CWE, but not in the controls: it was associated with the presence of multiple co-morbidities, especially with motor difficulties in CWE.Children with epilepsy in a rural area of sub-Saharan Africa had a high level of co-morbidity. Cognitive impairment and poor school attendance were very common. These associated difficulties in CWE in the region need to be addressed to reduce the negative impact of epilepsy on these children.
Project description:The effects of epilepsy on children and their families, factors influencing the treatment and education gap and socio-cultural beliefs about epilepsy in children in rural sub-Saharan Africa are not clearly defined. We conducted a qualitative study, with 38 in-depth interviews and 2 focus group discussions with carers of children with epilepsy (CWE) in Tanzania. Discrimination, isolation and lack of hope were identified as major issues. Poor school attendance was attributed to learning difficulties, behavior problems, ongoing seizures and restricted school access. The treatment gap was related to misdiagnosis, preferential use of traditional treatment and cost of biomedical treatment. The hopes expressed for the future centered on access to treatment and education. Improved access to diagnosis, cost-effective treatment, sensitization of the community on epilepsy, collaborative care provision with traditional and faith healers and improved access to specialist schooling could improve the quality of life and future of CWE in this region.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Epilepsy extends far beyond seizures; up to 80% of children with epilepsy (CWE) may have comorbid cognitive or mental health problems, and up to 50% of parents of CWE are at risk for major depression. Past research has also shown that family environment has a greater influence on children's and parents' health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and mental health than epilepsy-related factors. There is a pressing need for low-cost, innovative interventions to improve HRQOL and mental health for CWE and their parents. The aim of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) is to evaluate whether an interactive online mindfulness-based intervention program, Making Mindfulness Matter (M3), can be feasibly implemented and whether it positively affects CWE's and parents' HRQOL and mental health (specifically, stress, behavioral, depressive, and anxiety symptoms). METHODS:This parallel RCT was planned to recruit 100 child-parent dyads to be randomized 1:1 to the 8-week intervention or waitlist control and followed over 20?weeks. The intervention, M3, will be delivered online and separately to parents and children (ages 4-10?years) in groups of 4-8 by non-clinician staff of a local community epilepsy agency. The intervention incorporates mindful awareness, social-emotional learning skills, and positive psychology. It is modeled after the validated school-based MindUP program and adapted for provision online and to include a parent component. DISCUSSION:This RCT will determine whether this online mindfulness-based intervention is feasible and effective for CWE and their parents. The proposed intervention may be an ideal vector to significantly improve HRQOL and mental health for CWE and their parents given its low cost and implementation by community epilepsy agencies. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04020484 . Registered on July 16, 2019.
Project description:To determine the prevalence of active convulsive epilepsy, seizure frequency and the outcome of pregnancy amongst a cohort of pregnant women attending antenatal clinic (ANC) at two tertiary hospitals.An observational cohort study conducted at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital and State Specialist Hospital, Northeast Nigeria. Pregnant women attending antenatal care were screened for previous history of active convulsive epilepsy, and recruited consecutively according to a specified protocol. A standardized questionnaire was administered to record pregnancy history, nature of epilepsy and treatments received. They were followed-up during the course of the pregnancy based on the ANC schedule up to delivery. The outcome of pregnancies was recorded.A total of 7063 pregnant women were screened, of whom 103 (1.46%) subjects had at least a past history of seizure. Seventy-eight (1.10%) had a past history of seizure(s) from eclampsia and 23 (0.33%) pregnant subjects recruited were identified to have active convulsive epilepsy. The unadjusted prevalence of active convulsive epilepsy in pregnant women was found to be 3.33 per 1000 (95% CI: 2.1-4.8). Subjects who had a history of head injury and encephalitis were more likely to have seizures during pregnancy. (P=0.013 and P=0.041). Those who had recurrent seizures within the last six months before recruitment were more likely to have a negative pregnancy outcome (P=0.043).Our study found a prevalence of active epilepsy of 3.33 per 1000 among pregnant women, with about one percent having a past history of seizure from eclampsia.
Project description:Objective:The importance of school teachers' knowledge of and attitudes toward epilepsy and the communication between educational and medical systems is widely appreciated, but exploration of these factors in Japan has been extremely limited. In order to identify issues in support systems for students with epilepsy and bridge the gaps in communication between schools and medical institutions in Japan, we performed a nationwide questionnaire survey of nurse teachers (nurses in charge of health education/care at schools). Methods:We mailed a questionnaire to 900 nurse teachers all over Japan. It included six items on general epilepsy knowledge and 15 items on information about each student with epilepsy in their schools. We used a modified grounded theory approach (M-GTA) to analyze open-ended questions. Results:We received responses from 640 (71.1%) nurse teachers. In their schools, there were 237 253 students, of whom 1565 had epilepsy. Most nurse teachers (84.7%) understood that epilepsy is a neurological disease. When performing first aid for a seizure, they would observe the seizure calmly (85.9%) and/or secure the airway (75.3%). There were 1398 responses about individual students with epilepsy (89.3%). Nurse teachers knew the seizure type in 70.0% of these students, seizure frequency in 76.8%, triggers in 38.9%, and appropriate first aid for 79.0%. Some nurse teachers (30.2%) obtained information on students with epilepsy from medical institutions. They knew more about their students' seizures than those without medical information. Existing forms for communicating information on students with epilepsy between schools and physicians were not actively utilized. Responses to open questions converged on safety at school. Significance:Japanese nurse teachers understand epilepsy relatively well, but do not fully grasp the condition of each student with epilepsy. Better information flow from medical institutions is needed. Active communication is necessary to support the safety of students with epilepsy at school.
Project description:Decades of experience with intracranial recordings in patients with epilepsy have demonstrated that seizures can occur in deep cortical regions such as the mesial temporal lobes without showing any obvious signs of seizure activity on scalp electroencephalogram. Predicated on the idea that these seizures are purely focal, currently, the only way to detect these 'scalp-negative seizures' is with intracranial recordings. However, intracranial recordings are only rarely performed in patients with epilepsy, and are almost never performed outside of the context of epilepsy. As such, little is known about scalp-negative seizures and their role in the natural history of epilepsy, their effect on cognitive function, and their association with other neurological diseases. Here, we developed a novel approach to non-invasively identify scalp-negative seizures arising from the mesial temporal lobe based on scalp electroencephalogram network connectivity measures. We identified 25 scalp-negative mesial temporal lobe seizures in 10 patients and obtained control records from an additional 13 patients, all of whom underwent recordings with foramen ovale electrodes and scalp electroencephalogram. Scalp data from these records were used to train a scalp-negative seizure detector, which consisted of a pair of logistic regression classifiers that used scalp electroencephalogram coherence properties as input features. On cross-validation performance, this detector correctly identified scalp-negative seizures in 40% of patients, and correctly identified the side of seizure onset for each seizure detected. In comparison, routine clinical interpretation of these scalp electroencephalograms failed to identify any of the scalp-negative seizures. Among the patients in whom the detector raised seizure alarms, 80% had scalp-negative mesial temporal lobe seizures. The detector had a false alarm rate of only 0.31 per day and a positive predictive value of 75%. Of the 13 control patients, false seizure alarms were raised in only one patient. The fact that our detector specifically recognizes focal mesial temporal lobe seizures based on scalp electroencephalogram coherence features, lends weight to the hypothesis that even focal seizures are a network phenomenon that involve widespread neural connectivity. Our scalp-negative seizure detector has clear clinical utility in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, and its potential easily translates to other neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, in which occult mesial temporal lobe seizures are suspected to play a significant role. Importantly, our work establishes a novel approach of using computational approaches to non-invasively detect deep seizure activity, without the need for invasive intracranial recordings.
Project description:There is a complex bidirectional relationship between sleep and epilepsy. Sleep/wake timing of seizures has been investigated for several individual seizure types and syndromes, but few large-scale studies of the timing of seizures exist in people with varied epilepsy types. In addition, the genetic contributions to seizure timing have not been well studied.Sleep/wake timing of seizures was determined for 1,395 subjects in 546 families enrolled in the Epilepsy Phenome/Genome Project (EPGP). We examined seizure timing among subjects with different epilepsy types, seizure types, epilepsy syndromes, and localization. We also examined the familial aggregation of sleep/wake occurrence of seizures.Seizures in nonacquired focal epilepsy (NAFE) were more likely to occur during sleep than seizures in generalized epilepsy (GE), for both convulsive (odds ratio [OR] 5.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.59-7.52) and nonconvulsive seizures (OR 4.2, 95% CI 2.48-7.21). Seizures occurring within 1 h of awakening were more likely to occur in patients with GE than with NAFE for both convulsive (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.54-3.39) and nonconvulsive (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.04-2.66) seizures. Frontal onset seizures were more likely than temporal onset seizures to occur during sleep. Sleep/wake timing of seizures in first-degree relatives predicted timing of seizures in the proband.We found that sleep/wake timing of seizures is associated with both epilepsy syndrome and seizure type. In addition, we provide the first evidence for a genetic contribution to sleep/wake timing of seizures in a large group of individuals with common epilepsy syndromes.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>The aim of this work was to determine the prevalence and progression of epilepsy in adult patients with mitochondrial disease.<h4>Methods</h4>We prospectively recruited a cohort of 182 consecutive adult patients attending a specialized mitochondrial disease clinic in Newcastle upon Tyne between January 1, 2005 and January 1, 2008. We then followed this cohort over a 7-year period, recording primary outcome measures of occurrence of first seizure, status epilepticus, stroke-like episode, and death.<h4>Results</h4>Overall prevalence of epilepsy in the cohort was 23.1%. Mean age of epilepsy onset was 29.4 years. Prevalence varied widely between genotypes, with several genotypes having no cases of epilepsy, a prevalence of 34.9% in the most common genotype (m.3243A>G mutation), and 92.3% in the m.8344A>G mutation. Among the cohort as a whole, focal seizures, with or without progression to bilateral convulsive seizures, was the most common seizure type. Conversely, all of the patients with the m.8344A>G mutation and epilepsy experienced myoclonic seizures. Patients with the m.3243A>G mutation remain at high risk of developing stroke-like episodes (1.16% per year). However, although the standardized mortality ratio for the entire cohort was high (2.86), this ratio did not differ significantly between patients with epilepsy (2.96) and those without (2.83).<h4>Interpretation</h4>Epilepsy is a common manifestation of mitochondrial disease. It develops early in the disease and, in the case of the m.3243A>G mutation, often presents in the context of a stroke-like episode or status epilepticus. However, epilepsy does not itself appear to contribute to the increased mortality in mitochondrial disease.
Project description:Focal neocortical epilepsy is a common form of epilepsy and there is a need to develop animal models that allow the evaluation of novel therapeutic strategies to treat this type of epilepsy. Tetanus toxin (TeNT) injection into the rat visual cortex induces focal neocortical epilepsy without preceding status epilepticus. The latency to first seizure ranged from 3 to 7?days. Seizure duration was bimodal, with both short (approximately 30?s) and long-lasting (>100?s) seizures occurring in the same animals. Seizures were accompanied by non-motor features such as behavioural arrest, or motor seizures with or without evolution to generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Seizures were more common during the sleep phase of a light-dark cycle. Seizure occurrence was not random, and tended to cluster with significantly higher probability of recurrence within 24?h of a previous seizure. Across animals, the number of seizures in the first week could be used to predict the number of seizures in the following 3?weeks. The TeNT model of occipital cortical epilepsy is a model of acquired focal neocortical epilepsy that is well-suited for preclinical evaluation of novel anti-epileptic strategies. We provide here a detailed analysis of the epilepsy phenotypes, seizure activity, electrographic features and the semiology. In addition, we provide a predictive framework that can be used to reduce variation and consequently animal use in preclinical studies of potential treatments.
Project description:This study aimed to assess the prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and its characteristics and risk factors in children with epilepsy at a tertiary medical center in New Delhi. Children with active epilepsy, aged 6 to 12 years, were assessed for ADHD using DSM-IV-TR criteria. Epilepsy and psychiatric characteristics, sociodemographic indicators, and use of antiepileptic drugs were analyzed for differences between the ADHD and non-ADHD groups. Among the 73 children with epilepsy, 23% (n?=?17) had comorbid ADHD, of whom 59% (n?=?10) had predominantly inattentive type, 35% (n?=?6) combined type, and 6% (n?=?1) predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type. Lower IQ scores, epileptiform EEG activity, not attending school, and male sex were significantly associated with comorbid ADHD in children with epilepsy. Groups were similar in terms of age, socioeconomic indicators, family history of psychiatric disorders, seizure frequency in the last six months, seizure etiology, and seizure type. Epilepsy is a common pediatric neurological condition with frequent psychiatric comorbidities, including ADHD. Specialists should collaborate to optimize treatment for children with epilepsy and ADHD, especially for families in developing countries where the burden of disease can be great.