Pathogenic budding yeasts isolated outside of clinical settings.
ABSTRACT: Budding yeasts are distributed across a wide range of habitats, including as human commensals. However, under some conditions, these commensals can cause superficial, invasive, and even lethal infections. Despite their importance to human health, little is known about the ecology of these opportunistic pathogens, aside from their associations with mammals and clinical environments. During a survey of approximately 1000 non-clinical samples across the United States of America, we isolated 54 strains of budding yeast species considered opportunistic pathogens, including Candida albicans and Candida (Nakaseomyces) glabrata. We found that, as a group, pathogenic yeasts were positively associated with fruits and soil environments, whereas the species Pichia kudriavzevii (syn. Candida krusei syn. Issatchenkia orientalis) had a significant association with plants. Of the four species that cause 95% of candidiasis, we found a positive association with soil. These results suggest that pathogenic yeast ecology is more complex and diverse than is currently appreciated and raises the possibility that these additional environments could be a point of contact for human infections.
Project description:Systemic infections of Candida species pose a significant threat to public health. Toxicity associated with current therapies and emergence of resistant strains present major therapeutic challenges. Here, we report exploitation of the probiotic properties of two novel, food-derived yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain KTP) and Issatchenkia occidentalis (strain ApC), as an alternative approach to combat widespread opportunistic fungal infections. Both yeasts inhibit virulence traits such as adhesion, filamentation, and biofilm formation of several non-albicans Candida species, including Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida glabrata, and Candida parapsilosis as well as the recently identified multidrug-resistant species Candida auris They inhibit adhesion to abiotic surfaces as well as cultured colon epithelial cells. Furthermore, probiotic treatment blocks the formation of biofilms of individual non-albicans Candida strains as well as mixed-culture biofilms of each non-albicans Candida strain in combination with Candida albicans The probiotic yeasts attenuated non-albicans Candida infections in a live animal. In vivo studies using Caenorhabditis elegans suggest that exposure to probiotic yeasts protects nematodes from infection with non-albicans Candida strains compared to worms that were not exposed to the probiotic yeasts. Furthermore, application of probiotic yeasts postinfection with non-albicans Candida alleviated pathogenic colonization of the nematode gut. The probiotic properties of these novel yeasts are better than or comparable to those of the commercially available probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii, which was used as a reference strain throughout this study. These results indicate that yeasts derived from food sources could serve as an effective alternative to antifungal therapy against emerging pathogenic Candida species.IMPORTANCE Non-albicans Candida-associated infections have emerged as a major risk factor in the hospitalized and immunecompromised patients. Besides, antifungal-associated complications occur more frequently with these non-albicans Candida species than with C. albicans Therefore, as an alternative approach to combat these widespread non-albicans Candida-associated infections, here we showed the probiotic effect of two yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain KTP) and Issatchenkia occidentalis (ApC), in preventing adhesion and biofilm formation of five non-albicans Candida strains, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis, and Candida auris The result would influence the current trend of the conversion of conventional antimicrobial therapy into beneficial probiotic microbe-associated antimicrobial treatment.
Project description:Within the budding yeasts, the opportunistic pathogen Candida glabrata and other members of the Nakaseomyces clade have developed virulence traits independently from C . albicans and C. auris To begin exploring the genetic basis of C. glabrata virulence and its innate resistance to antifungals, we launched the Hermes transposon from a plasmid and sequenced more than 500,000 different semi-random insertions throughout the genome. With machine learning, we identified 1278 protein-encoding genes (25% of total) that could not tolerate transposon insertions and are likely essential for C. glabrata fitness in vitro Interestingly, genes involved in mRNA splicing were less likely to be essential in C. glabrata than their orthologs in S. cerevisiae, whereas the opposite is true for genes involved in kinetochore function and chromosome segregation. When a pool of insertion mutants was challenged with the first-line antifungal fluconazole, insertions in several known resistance genes (e.g., PDR1, CDR1, PDR16, PDR17, UPC2A, DAP1, STV1) and 15 additional genes (including KGD1, KGD2, YHR045W) became hypersensitive to fluconazole. Insertions in 200 other genes conferred significant resistance to fluconazole, two-thirds of which function in mitochondria and likely down-regulate Pdr1 expression or function. Knockout mutants of KGD2 and IDH2, which consume and generate alpha-ketoglutarate in mitochondria, exhibited increased and decreased resistance to fluconazole through a process that depended on Pdr1. These findings establish the utility of transposon insertion profiling in forward genetic investigations of this important pathogen of humans.
Project description:Candida glabrata follows C. albicans as the second or third most prevalent cause of candidemia worldwide. These two pathogenic yeasts are distantly related, C. glabrata being part of the Nakaseomyces, a group more closely related to Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although C. glabrata was thought to be the only pathogenic Nakaseomyces, two new pathogens have recently been described within this group: C. nivariensis and C. bracarensis. To gain insight into the genomic changes underlying the emergence of virulence, we sequenced the genomes of these two, and three other non-pathogenic Nakaseomyces, and compared them to other sequenced yeasts.Our results indicate that the two new pathogens are more closely related to the non-pathogenic N. delphensis than to C. glabrata. We uncover duplications and accelerated evolution that specifically affected genes in the lineage preceding the group containing N. delphensis and the three pathogens, which may provide clues to the higher propensity of this group to infect humans. Finally, the number of Epa-like adhesins is specifically enriched in the pathogens, particularly in C. glabrata.Remarkably, some features thought to be the result of adaptation of C. glabrata to a pathogenic lifestyle, are present throughout the Nakaseomyces, indicating these are rather ancient adaptations to other environments. Phylogeny suggests that human pathogenesis evolved several times, independently within the clade. The expansion of the EPA gene family in pathogens establishes an evolutionary link between adhesion and virulence phenotypes. Our analyses thus shed light onto the relationships between virulence and the recent genomic changes that occurred within the Nakaseomyces.Nakaseomyces delphensis: CAPT01000001 to CAPT01000179Candida bracarensis: CAPU01000001 to CAPU01000251Candida nivariensis: CAPV01000001 to CAPV01000123Candida castellii: CAPW01000001 to CAPW01000101Nakaseomyces bacillisporus: CAPX01000001 to CAPX01000186.
Project description:Infections caused by opportunistic yeast pathogens have increased over the last years. These infections can be originated by a large number of diverse yeast species of varying incidence, and with distinct clinically relevant phenotypic traits, such as different susceptibility profiles to antifungal drugs, which challenge diagnosis and treatment. Diutina rugosa (syn. Candida rugosa) and Trichomonascus ciferrii (syn. Candida ciferrii) are two opportunistic rare yeast pathogens, which low incidence (< 1%) limits available clinical experience. Furthermore, these yeasts have elevated Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) levels to at least one class of antifungal agents. This makes it more difficult to manage their infections, and thus they are associated with high rates of mortality and clinical failure. With the aim of improving our knowledge on these opportunistic pathogens, we assembled and annotated their genomes. A phylogenomics approach revealed that genes specifically duplicated in each of the two species are often involved in transmembrane transport activities. These genomes and the reconstructed complete catalog of gene phylogenies and homology relationships constitute useful resources for future studies on these pathogens.
Project description:We investigated genomic diversity of a yeast species that is both an opportunistic pathogen and an important industrial yeast. Under the name Candida krusei, it is responsible for about 2% of yeast infections caused by Candida species in humans. Bloodstream infections with C. krusei are problematic because most isolates are fluconazole-resistant. Under the names Pichia kudriavzevii, Issatchenkia orientalis and Candida glycerinogenes, the same yeast, including genetically modified strains, is used for industrial-scale production of glycerol and succinate. It is also used to make some fermented foods. Here, we sequenced the type strains of C. krusei (CBS573T) and P. kudriavzevii (CBS5147T), as well as 30 other clinical and environmental isolates. Our results show conclusively that they are the same species, with collinear genomes 99.6% identical in DNA sequence. Phylogenetic analysis of SNPs does not segregate clinical and environmental isolates into separate clades, suggesting that C. krusei infections are frequently acquired from the environment. Reduced resistance of strains to fluconazole correlates with the presence of one gene instead of two at the ABC11-ABC1 tandem locus. Most isolates are diploid, but one-quarter are triploid. Loss of heterozygosity is common, including at the mating-type locus. Our PacBio/Illumina assembly of the 10.8 Mb CBS573T genome is resolved into 5 complete chromosomes, and was annotated using RNAseq support. Each of the 5 centromeres is a 35 kb gene desert containing a large inverted repeat. This species is a member of the genus Pichia and family Pichiaceae (the methylotrophic yeasts clade), and so is only distantly related to other pathogenic Candida species.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Probiotic strains are incorporated into food substrates to contribute to fermentation process. The technological suitability of such strains to improve the flavor and nutritional value of fermented food is strain-specific. Potentially probiotic yeasts isolated from Nigerian traditional fermented foods were assessed for production of volatile compounds by gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry. Phytases were characterized for activity and stability at different pH (3-8) and temperatures (25-50?°C). RESULTS:A total of 45 volatiles compounds were identified from intracellular cell-free extracts of Pichia kluyveri LKC17, Issatchenkia orientalis OSL11, P. kudriavzevii OG32, P. kudriavzevii ROM11, and Candida tropicalis BOM21. They include alcohols (14), carbonyls (13), esters (10), and organic acids (8). Phenylethyl alcohol was the highest higher-alcohol in Issatchenkia orientalis OSL11 (27.51 %). The largest proportion of esters was detected in P. kudriavzevii OG32 (17.38 %). Pichia kudriavzevii OG32 and C. tropicalis BOM21 showed vigorous gowth in minimal medium supplemented with sodium phytate (2?g?L-1). Extracellular phytases from P. kudriavzevii OG32 and Candida tropicalis BOM2 showed optimal activiy at pH?4.6 (104.28?U) and pH?3.6 (81.43?U) respectively. CONCLUSIONS:Results obtained revealed species- and strain-specific potentials of the yeast strains to improve flavor and mineral bioavailability of fermented food products. Therefore, the application of these yeasts as starter cultures during food fermentation process is a very promising method to enhance the flavor profile and enhance mineral bioavailability in indigenous cereal-based fermented food products.
Project description:The cheese microbial ecosystem is complex, and the presence of non-starter adventitious microorganisms in milk may have an influence on the organoleptic characteristics of cheese. The aim of this study was to analyze the composition and diversity of the fungal flora of raw milk destined for cheesemaking from 19 dairy farms in Quebec and to monitor their evolution throughout ripening. Six hundred ten yeast and mold isolates were collected from raw milk and raw milk cheeses over a 9-month period. Based on the sequences of the rDNA ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region, 67% of the raw milk isolates were yeasts, which were assigned to 37 species across 11 genera, while 33% were molds, which were assigned to 33 species across 25 genera. A semi-quantitative analysis of the yeasts and molds in the raw milk from four farms was performed over a 5-month period. The composition and diversity of the fungal microflora were totally different for each farm, each of which had a unique species profile. To determine whether adventitious yeast strains from the milk could develop in raw milk cheese, a multilocus-sequence-typing (MLST) analysis was performed on 13 Issatchenkia orientalis (syn. Pichia kudriavzevii, anamorph: Candida krusei) isolates. The same MLST genotypes were identified for strains independently isolated from raw milk and raw milk cheese from a farm processing its own milk. This study contributes to the understanding of the natural fungal microflora of raw milk and suggests that non-starter yeasts and molds can transfer from raw milk to raw milk cheese and may influence cheese ripening. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s13594-011-0051-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:By using advanced detection/identification methods, the list of emerging uncommon opportunistic yeast infections is rapidly expanding worldwide. Our aim in the present study was sequence-based species delineation of previously unidentified yeasts obtained from a clinically yeast collection. MATERIALS AND METHODS:A total of twenty three out of the 855 (5.7%) yeast isolates which formerly remained unidentified by PCR-RFLP method, were subjected to sequence analysis of the entire internal transcribed spacers (ITS) regions of rDNA. The precise species recognition was performed by the comparison of the sequences with the reliable GenBank database. RESULTS:Sequencing analysis of the ITS region of the strains revealed several uncommon yeasts that were not reported previously in Iran. The species include Hanseniaspora uvarum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Sporidiobolus salmonicolor, Pichia fabianii, Pichia fermentans, Candida famata, Candida inconspicua, Candida maqnoliae, Candida guilliermondii, Candida kefyr, Candida rugosa, Candida lusitaniae, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida viswanathii. CONCLUSION:We identified several rare clinical isolates selected from a big collection at the species level by ITS-sequencing. As the list of yeast species as opportunistic human fungal infections is increasing dramatically, and many isolates remain unidentified using conventional methods, more sensitive and specific advanced approaches help us to clarify the aspects of microbial epidemiology of the yeast infections.
Project description:RNAi, a gene-silencing pathway triggered by double-stranded RNA, is conserved in diverse eukaryotic species but has been lost in the model budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We report that RNAi is present in other budding-yeast species, including Saccharomyces castellii and Candida albicans. These species use noncanonical Dicer proteins to generate siRNAs, which mostly correspond to transposable elements and Y´ subtelomeric repeats. In S. castellii, RNAi mutants are viable but have excess Y´ mRNA levels. In S. cerevisiae, introducing Dicer and Argonaute of S. castellii restores RNAi, and the reconstituted pathway silences endogenous retrotransposons. These results identify a novel class of Dicer proteins, bring the tool of RNAi to the study of budding yeasts, and bring the tools of budding yeast to the study of RNAi. Overall design: Employ high-throughput sequencing of endogenous small RNAs from the budding yeasts Saccharomyces castellii, Kluyveromyces polysporus, Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Saccharomyces bayanus.
Project description:The triazole drug fluconazole remains one of the most commonly prescribed antifungal drugs, both for prophylaxis in high-risk patients and also as a second-line treatment option for invasive <i>Candida</i> infections. Established susceptibility profiles and clinical interpretive breakpoints are available for fluconazole with <i>Candida albicans</i>, <i>Candida glabrata</i>, <i>Candida tropicalis</i>, and <i>Candida parapsilosis</i>, which account for the majority of infections due to pathogenic yeast species. However, less common species for which only limited susceptibility data are available are increasingly reported in high-risk patients and from breakthrough infections. The UK National Mycology Reference Laboratory performs routine antifungal susceptibility testing of clinical isolates of pathogenic yeast submitted from across the United Kingdom. Between 2002 and 2016, ?32,000 isolates were referred, encompassing 94 different yeast species. Here, we present fluconazole antifungal susceptibility data generated using a CLSI methodology over this 15-year period for 82 species (2,004 isolates) of less common yeast and yeast-like fungi, and amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, and anidulafungin, with members of the <i>Nakaseomyces</i> clade (<i>C. glabrata</i>, <i>Candida nivariensis</i>, and <i>Candida bracarensis</i>). At least 22 different teleomorph genera, comprising 45 species, exhibited high MICs when tested with fluconazole (>20% of isolates with MICs higher than the clinical breakpoint [?8 mg/liter] proposed for <i>C. albicans</i>). Since several of these species have been reported anecdotally from breakthrough infections and therapeutic failures in patients receiving fluconazole, the current study underscores the importance of rapid and accurate yeast identification and may aid clinicians dealing with infections with rarer yeasts to decide whether fluconazole would be appropriate.