Disease Activity and Patient-Reported Health Measures in Relation to Cytokine Levels in Ankylosing Spondylitis.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a lifelong condition where spinal inflammation causes chronic back pain and restriction of spinal function. While proinflammatory cytokines participate in the disease process, their relation with disease activity, spinal function, and quality of life is less well understood. METHODS:Cross-sectional study of serum levels of four inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF, IL-23, and IL-17A) in AS patients not on biologics. Disease characteristics and simultaneous spinal function tests and patient-reported health measures (Bath Functional Index (BASFI), Dougados Functional Index (DFI), Modified Health Assessment Questionnaire (MHAQ), and routine laboratory parameters were recorded. The composite ASDAS-CRP score was used to classify disease activity as absent, low, or high. RESULTS:In 164 AS patients (age 46 years, 70.1% males, 90.9% HLAB27 positive, ASDAS-CRP 1.8), disease activity was classified as inactive in 14%, low in 54%, and high in 31%. ASDAS-CRP correlated well with MHAQ, DFI, BASFI, and spinal mobility across patients with low and high disease activity (all p < 0.05). Cytokine levels did not correlate with ASDAS-CRP, ESR, BASFI, or spinal mobility scores and were comparable between patients with no, low, or high disease activity regardless of gender or disease duration (all p > 0.2). CONCLUSIONS:A large proportion of AS not on biologics have active disease far into the disease course. This impacts negatively on quality of life, work ability, and spinal mobility. Serum cytokine levels are poor markers for these central disease features in AS management. FUNDING:Abbott Norway AS and Arthritis Foundation of Western Australia.
Project description:Objective: This prospective observational study investigated the efficacy of tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFis) on disease activity, physical functionality, and mobility in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in a real-world setting. Methods: The Chinese Ankylosing Spondylitis Prospective Imaging Cohort (CASPIC) is an ongoing cohort study. Patients with AS were included to one of two groups: the TNFi user group included those who received TNFi at any time point; the non-TNFi user group included those who did not receive TNFi. Disease activity, physical functionality, and mobility were assessed by AS Disease Activity Scores (ASDAS), Bath AS Functional Index (BASFI), and Bath AS Metrology Index (BASMI), respectively. Results: A total of 804 patients with AS (241 TNFi users and 563 non-TNFi users) were recruited. For TNFi users, 83% received an etanercept biosimilar and 17.0% received adalimumab. Seventy-three TNFi users (30.3%) discontinued TNFis during the follow-up period; the mean duration of TNFi treatment was 6.9 ± 3.2 months. Reductions in ASDAS were significantly greater in TNFi users than in nonusers at 3, 6, and 12 months (differences in ASDAS reduction were 0.61, 0.56, and 0.46 units, respectively, all P < 0.05). Similarly, the improvement in BASFI was significantly greater in users than in nonusers at 3, 6, and 12 months (differences in BASFI improvement: 0.31, 0.75, and 0.74 units, respectively, all P < 0.05). BASMI increased in nonusers at 6 and 12 months (0.27, P = 0.47; 0.66, P < 0.001, respectively), but did not change in users (-0.16 and -0.13, respectively, both P > 0.05). At 12 months, changes in BASMI were significantly greater in nonusers than in users (-0.60, P = 0.47). Conclusion: TNFis are effective against disease activity and improve the physical functionality of patients with AS, even in those who taper or discontinue TNFis. Thus, TNFis may retard the progression of spinal mobility dysfunction in AS patients. TNF may maintain spinal mobility as indicated by the BASMI.
Project description:Objectives: Studies have proven that improving patients' acceptance of chronic pain could be an effective therapy for alleviating pain and other symptoms. Our objectives were to investigate the correlation between chronic pain acceptance and clinical variables in ankylosing spondylitis (AS), and the prediction role of chronic pain acceptance for biologics treatment. Methods: First, 167 AS patients were recruited to complete a series of questionnaires, including the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (CPAQ), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK). Bivariate correlation analysis was utilized to investigate the correlation between pain acceptance and clinical variables. Based on the level of chronic pain acceptance and serum C-reactive protein (CRP), patients were separated into four subgroups. Then, another 68 patients initiating anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) treatment were recruited to complete the questionnaires at baseline (T0) and 3 months after treatment (T3). The changes in clinical variables and treatment response were compared between multiple subgroups. Results: Chronic pain acceptance had strong correlations with anxiety, depression and fear of movement, and moderate correlations with BASFI and pain intensity. Both activity engagement (AE) and pain willingness (PW) had significant correlations with pain intensity, BASFI and psychological status. In addition, AE had a significant correlation with disease duration, while PW had a significant correlation with ASDAS-CRP. Subgroup analysis showed that patients with low chronic pain acceptance and high levels of serum CRP had the highest BASDAI. Among patients initiating anti-TNF treatment, those with high pain acceptance and high levels of serum CRP achieved the most obvious reduction in BASDAI after 3 months treatment. Conclusion: Pain acceptance is a new tool to assess pain in AS which may also reflect physical and psychological status. Clinicians should identify high-risk patients with low chronic pain acceptance and high levels of serum CRP, and give psychological and pharmacological intervention promptly. Moreover, the combination of baseline chronic pain acceptance and serum CRP level could be used to predict the treatment response in AS patients initiating biologics treatment.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) begins early in life and often leads to reduced physical function, but less is known about the impacts it has on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The aims of this study were to assess HRQoL using the Short Form-36 (SF-36) in a cohort of patients with AS compared with controls and to examine associations between SF-36 scores and spinal radiographic changes, physical function, disease activity and demographic data overall and stratified by sex. METHODS:A cohort of patients with AS from Western Sweden were assessed using the Modified Stoke Ankylosing Spondylitis Spine Score (mSASSS) with spinal radiographs, clinical examination and questionnaires, including the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score-C-reactive protein (ASDAS-CRP), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Patient Global (BASG) and SF-36. Each patient's SF-36 results were compared with those of five age-matched and sex-matched persons (n = 1055) from the SF-36 Swedish normative population database. Associations between SF-36 physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) scores and disease-related and demographic factors were investigated using univariate and multivariable ogistic regression analyses with PCS and MCS below/above their respective median values as dependent variables. RESULTS:A total of 210 patients, age (median, IQR) 49.0 (21.2) years, symptom duration 24.0 (21.0) years, men 57.6% and HLAB27 87.1% were included. Patients with AS scored significantly lower (p < 0.001) compared to controls in all SF-36 domains and component summaries; PCS 42.4 (14.5) in AS versus 52.4 (11.8) in controls and MCS 47.9 (20.0) in AS versus 54.1 (10.1) in controls. Both men and women scored significantly lower in PCS compared with MCS. Multivariable logistic regression analyses revealed that living without a partner (OR 2.38, 95% CI 1.00-5.67), long symptom duration (year in decade OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.16-2.37), higher BASFI (OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.46-2.70) and ASDAS ≥ 2.1 (OR 3.32, 95% CI 1.45-7.62) were associated with worse PCS, while living without a partner (OR 3.04, 95% CI 1.34-6.91), fatigue (visual analogue scale for global fatigue greater than the median (OR 6.36, 95% CI 3.06-13.19) and ASDAS ≥ 2.1 (OR 2.97, 95% CI 1.41-6.25) with worse MCS. Some differences between sexes were observed in the results. CONCLUSIONS:The patients with AS had significantly lower HRQoL compared with controls. PCS was more affected compared to MCS in both sexes. Both disease-related and demographic factors were associated with HRQoL, partly overlapping for PCS and MCS. Factors associated with HRQoL showed some differences between sexes. By modifying factors, such as ASDAS-CRP and fatigue, HRQoL may potentially be improved. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00858819 . Registered on 9 March 2009. Last updated on 28 May 2015.
Project description:The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of symptom duration on treatment response and on the correlation between improvements in patient reported outcomes (PRO) and objective inflammation in patients with axial spondylarthritis (SpA) treated with etanercept (ETA) or adalimumab (ADA).Data from 112 patients with axial SpA originally enrolled in two randomized controlled clinical trials were pooled and analyzed after one year of treatment with ETA (n?=?66) or ADA (n?=?46). Patients with <4 years and ?4 years of disease were compared for improvement in Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS), C-reactive protein (CRP) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) score for sacroiliac joints (SIJ).Patients with <4 years of disease showed a significantly better improvement than longer diseased patients in BASDAI (3.2 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.7 to 3.7) vs. 1.7 (1.1 to 2.2)), BASFI, BASMI and ASDAS (1.6 (1.4 to 1.8) vs. 0.9 (0.7 to 1.1)). The change in BASDAI showed a significant correlation with the change in SIJ score (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rho)?=?0.37, P?=?0.01) and the change in CRP (rho?=?0.45, P?=?0.001) in patients with <4 years of disease. For long diseased patients this correlation was poor and did not achieve statistical significance (rho?=?0.13, P?=?0.46; rho?=?0.22, P?=?0.13 respectively).The low correlation between change of PROs and change of objective signs of inflammation seen in axial SpA patients with longer symptom duration treated with tumor necrosis factor-blocker seems to indicate that inflammation is not the only cause of the patients' symptoms, while inflammation seems to be the major cause in short diseased patients.Clinical Trials.gov NCT00844142 (Trial 1); NCT00235105 (Trial 2).
Project description:Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease. Kunxian capsule, a Chinese patent medicine which has been used in the treatment of immunologic diseases for many years in China, has anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory effects. This study investigates the efficacy and safety of Kunxian capsules in the treatment of AS.This was a randomized, double-blind, parallel control clinical trial involving 80 patients with AS who fulfilled the modified New York criteria (1984) and had active disease defined by a Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) ?40 mm under background stable nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for more than 4 weeks. Patients were randomly divided into two groups, the Kunxian group and the placebo group, and Kunxian (0.6 g, three times per day) and the placebo were provided for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was the Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS) 20 response rate at week 12. The secondary endpoints were ASAS 40, BASDAI 50, the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI), and Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score on the basis of C-reactive protein level (ASDAS-CRP) at weeks 2, 6, and 12.The primary endpoint of ASAS 20 at week 12 was achieved in 13 of 35 patients (37.1 %) among the Kunxian group, compared with 4 of 33 (12.1 %) in the placebo group (p?<?0.05). Significant improvement (BASDAI 50) was also observed between the Kunxian group and the placebo group at week 6 (14 (40 %) and 5 (15.5 %), respectively, p?<?0.05). At weeks 2, 6, and 12, the ASDAS-CRP level of the Kunxian group was significantly lower than that of the placebo group, especially at week 6 (p?<?0.01). Kunxian obviously reduced CRP levels compared to placebo at weeks 2, 6, and 12 (p?<?0.05). Compared with the placebo, Kunxian was associated with greater improvements in signs and symptoms of patients with AS from the baseline to week 12, and significant intergroup differences of additional composite indices of disease activity (i.e., erythrocyte sedimentation rate, patient global assessment of disease activity, total back pain, level of morning stiffness, tender joints, and BASFI scores) were also observed.Kunxian capsule significantly decreased the disease activity of patients with AS.NCT00953979 . Registered on 5 August 2009.
Project description:Chronic pain and progressive loss of physical function with AS may adversely affect health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The objective of this study was to assess the 5-year data regarding spinal mobility, physical function and HRQoL in patients with AS who participated in the Adalimumab Trial Evaluating Long-term Efficacy and Safety for AS (ATLAS) study.Patients received blinded adalimumab 40 mg or placebo every other week for 24 weeks, then open-label adalimumab for up to 5 years. Spinal mobility was evaluated using linear BASMI (BASMIlin). BASDAI, total back pain, CRP, BASFI, Short Form-36 and AS quality of life (ASQoL) were also assessed. Correlations between BASMIlin and clinical, functional and ASQoL outcomes after 12 weeks and after 5years of adalimumab exposure were evaluated using Spearman's rank correlation. Associations were further analysed using multivariate regression.Three hundred and eleven patients received ?1 dose of adalimumab; 125 of the 208 patients originally randomized to adalimumab received treatment for 5 years. Improvements in BASMIlin were sustained through 5 years, with a mean change of -0.6 from baseline in the population who completed 5 years of treatment with adalimumab. Improvements in disease activity, physical function and ASQoL were also sustained through 5 years. BASMIlin was significantly correlated with all evaluated clinical outcomes (P < 0.001). The highest correlation was with BASFI at 12 weeks (r = 0.52) and at 5 years (r = 0.65). Multivariate regression analysis confirmed this association (P < 0.001).Treatment with adalimumab for up to 5 years demonstrated sustained benefits in spinal mobility, disease activity, physical function and HRQoL in patients with active AS. Spinal mobility was significantly associated with short- and long-term physical function in these patients.Clinicaltrials.gov; https://clinicaltrials.gov/NCT00085644.
Project description:Functional status and spinal mobility in patients with axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) are known to be determined both by disease activity and by structural damage in the spine. The impact of structural damage in the sacroiliac joints (SIJ) on physical function and spinal mobility in axSpA has not been studied so far. The objective of the study was to analyze the impact of radiographic sacroiliitis on functional status and spinal mobility in patients with axSpA.In total, 210 patients with axSpA were included in the analysis. Radiographs of SIJ obtained at baseline and after 2 years of follow up were scored by two trained readers according to the modified New York criteria grading system (grade 0-4). The mean of two readers' scores for each joint and a sum score for both SIJ were calculated for each patient giving a sacroiliitis sum score between 0 and 8. The Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI) and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI) at baseline and after 2 years were used as outcome measures.Longitudinal mixed model analysis adjusted for structural damage in the spine (modified Stoke Ankylosing Spondylitis Spine Score - mSASSS), disease activity (Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index - BASDAI and C-reactive protein level) and gender, revealed an independent association of the sacroiliitis sum score with the BASFI: b = 0.10 (95% CI 0.01-0.19) and the BASMI: b = 0.12 (95% CI 0.03-0.21), respectively, indicating that change by one radiographic sacroiliitis grade in one joint is associated with BASFI/BASMI worsening by 0.10/0.12 points, respectively, independently of disease activity and structural damage in the spine.Structural damage in the SIJ might have an impact on functional status and spinal mobility in axSpA independently of spinal structural damage and disease activity.ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01277419 . Registered on 14 January 2011.
Project description:BACKGROUND:To investigate the association between 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located on ERAP1 and IL23R with the presence of inflammation on the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) or spinal magnetic resonance imagery (MRI) in an early onset spondyloarthritis (SpA) cohort. METHODS:All the patients included in the DESIR cohort with an axial SpA and available DNA at baseline were enrolled in this study (n?=?645 patients) and underwent a clinical examination, CRP assay, SIJ and spinal MRI scans. Six SNPs located on ERAP1 (rs30187, rs27044, rs27434, rs17482078, rs10050860, rs2287987) and six SNPs located on IL23R (rs1004819, rs10489629, rs1343151, rs2201841, rs10889677, rs11209032) were genotyped. Univariable analyses were performed to test the association between the genotypes and SIJ and spinal MRI inflammation, as well as disease activity based on Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score-C-Reactive Protein (ASDAS-CRP) and CRP. RESULTS:One SNP located on ERAP1 (rs27434) and haplotype CCT of ERAP1 were associated with SIJ inflammation detected by MRI, but these associations were below the Bonferroni corrected threshold of significance. However, one SNP (rs1004819) located on IL23R was associated with SIJ MRI inflammation (rs1004819: TT 42.3%, CT 40.5%, CC 26.5%, p?=?0.0005). This locus was also significantly associated with Spondyloarthritis Research Consortium of Canada scores while no association with another inflammatory parameter such as BASDAI, ASDAS-CRP, CRP or Berlin MRI score was identified in this population. CONCLUSION:One locus of the IL23R gene was associated with SIJ MRI inflammation and might be a marker of more active disease in recent onset SpA. TRIAL REGISTRATION:clinicaltrials.gov, NCTO 164 8907.
Project description:The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between long-term spinal mobility improvements and early disease activity changes or achievement of clinical response criteria in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) treated with tumor necrosis factor (TNF-?) blockers.This retrospective study included 112 patients with AS treated with TNF-? blockers for up to 33 months. The paired t-test was used to compare outcome measures between visits. The correlation between disease activity changes and metrological improvements was analyzed using cumulative probability plots, Spearman correlation coefficient, and canonical correlation. The difference in metrological outcomes between responders and non-responders to clinical response criteria was also examined.Metrological and disease activity outcomes improved most markedly in month 3. All disease activity outcomes and ESR from baseline to month 3 (3-month) were significantly correlated with the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI10) improvements from baseline to month 33 (33-month). The 3-month changes in ankylosing spondylitis disease activity score (ASDAS-CRP) and patient's global assessment showed a significant correlation with the 33-month changes in chest expansion. Only responders according to ASDAS major improvement at month 3 demonstrated significant 33-month improvements in both BASMI10 and chest expansion, compared to non-responders. Responders according to Assessment of Spondylo Arthritis international Society 40 at month 3 showed significant 33-month improvements in BASMI10, but not chest expansion, compared to non-responders.The degree of early changes in disease activity outcomes influenced the extent of long-term metrological improvements in AS treated with TNF-? blockers. Additionally, the achievement of ASDAS- major improvement at month 3 predicted significant metrological improvements throughout long-term TNF-?-blocker therapy.
Project description:Previously, many studies have evaluated quality of life (QoL) in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS), however, none of them specifically investigated the correlation between pain-related disability measured by Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and QoL in AS patients. In addition, the correlation between global kyphosis (GK) in lateral plain radiographs and QoL in AS patients remains unclear up to now. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate QoL and correlation with clinical and radiographic variables in AS patients, especially to figure out the relationship about the pain-specific disability measured by ODI, GK and QoL.From January 2008 to November 2015, two hundred and forty-five consecutive patients with an average age of 36.2 ± 10.9 years (range, 17-66 years) satisfying the Modified New York Criteria for AS from a single institution were enrolled. Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI) and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Global score (BAS-G) were applied to assess the disease activity, functional status, spinal mobility and overall feeling of AS patients, respectively. ODI was recorded to evaluate low back pain-related disability. QoL was evaluated by the Short Form-36 (SF-36). According to global kyphosis (GK) measured on standing lateral full-spine radiographs, the patients were divided into two groups: mild kyphotic group (GK < 70°,n = 176) and severe kyphotic group (GK ≥ 70°,n = 69).The scores of BASDAI, BASFI, BASMI and ODI had significant negative correlations with all SF-36 subscale scores (P < 0.01). BASFI and BASMI scores of severe kyphotic group were much higher than those of mild kyphotic group, respectively (P = 0.005 and P = 0.001, respectively) and the score of physical function (PF) subscale in severe kyphotic group was significantly higher than that in mild kyphotic group (P = 0.046) as well. Notably, the scores of ODI, BASFI and BASMI were the major predictors of PF subscale score of SF-36.Poor QoL is significantly correlated with high disease activity, poor functional status and decreased spinal mobility in AS. GK is significantly associated with functional status, spinal mobility and QoL in AS patients. ODI, BASFI and BASMI are the major predictors of PF subscale of SF-36.