Cardiovascular magnetic resonance feature tracking strain analysis for discrimination between hypertensive heart disease and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Hypertensive heart disease (HHD) and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) are both associated with an increased left ventricular (LV) wall thickness. Whilst LV ejection fraction is frequently normal in both, LV strain assessment could differentiate between the diseases. We sought to establish if cardiovascular magnetic resonance myocardial feature tracking (CMR-FT), an emerging method allowing accurate assessment of myocardial deformation, differentiates between both diseases. Additionally, CMR assessment of fibrosis and LV hypertrophy allowed association analyses and comparison of diagnostic capacities. METHODS:Two-hundred twenty-four consecutive subjects (53 HHD, 107 HCM, and 64 controls) underwent 1.5T CMR including native myocardial T1 mapping and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). Global longitudinal strain (GLS) was assessed by CMR-FT (CVi42, Circle Cardiovascular Imaging Inc.). RESULTS:GLS was significantly higher in HCM patients (-14.7±3.8 vs. -16.5±3.3% [HHD], P = 0.004; or vs. -17.2±2.0% [controls], P<0.001). GLS was associated with LV mass index (HHD, R = 0.419, P = 0.002; HCM, R = 0.429, P<0.001), and LV ejection fraction (HHD, R = -0.493, P = 0.002; HCM, R = -0.329, P<0.001). In HCM patients, GLS was also associated with global native T1 (R = 0.282, P = 0.003), and LGE volume (? = 0.380, P<0.001). Discrimination between HHD and HCM by GLS (c = 0.639, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.550-0.729) was similar to LV mass index (c = 0.643, 95% CI 0.556-0.731), global myocardial native T1 (c = 0.718, 95% CI 0.638-0.799), and LGE volume (c = 0.680, 95% CI 0.585-0.775). CONCLUSION:CMR-FT GLS differentiates between HHD and HCM. In HCM patients GLS is associated with myocardial fibrosis. The discriminatory capacity of CMR-FT GLS is similar to LV hypertrophy and fibrosis imaging markers.
Project description:Aims:Myocardial fibrosis as detected by late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) on cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is a powerful prognostic marker in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and may be progressive. The precise mechanisms underlying fibrosis progression are unclear. We sought to assess the extent of LGE progression in HCM and explore potential causal mechanisms and clinical implications. Methods and results:Seventy-two HCM patients had two CMR (CMR1-CMR2) at an interval of 5.7 ± 2.8 years with annual clinical follow-up for 6.3 ± 3.6 years from CMR1. A combined endpoint of heart failure progression, cardiac hospitalization, and new onset ventricular tachycardia was assessed. Cine and LGE imaging were performed to assess left ventricular (LV) mass, function, and fibrosis on serial CMR. Stress perfusion imaging and cardiac energetics were undertaken in 38 patients on baseline CMR (CMR1). LGE mass increased from median 4.98 g [interquartile range (IQR) 0.97-13.48 g] to 6.30 g (IQR 1.38-17.51 g) from CMR1 to CMR2. Substantial LGE progression (ΔLGE ≥ 4.75 g) occurred in 26% of patients. LGE increment was significantly higher in those with impaired myocardial perfusion reserve (<MPRI 1.40) and energetics (phosphocreatine/adenosine triphosphate <1.44) on baseline CMR (P ≤ 0.01 for both). Substantial LGE progression was associated with LV thinning, increased cavity size and reduced systolic function, and conferred a five-fold increased risk of subsequent clinical events (hazard ratio 5.04, 95% confidence interval 1.85-13.79; P = 0.002). Conclusion:Myocardial fibrosis is progressive in some HCM patients. Impaired energetics and perfusion abnormalities are possible mechanistic drivers of the fibrotic process. Fibrosis progression is associated with adverse cardiac remodelling and predicts an increased risk of subsequent clinical events in HCM.
Project description:The aim of this study was to investigate left ventricular (LV) global myocardial strain and LV involvement characteristics in patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C) and to evaluate their predictive value of adverse cardiac events. Sixty consecutive ARVD/C patients with a definite diagnosis of ARVD/C who underwent CMR examination and thirty-four healthy controls were enrolled retrospectively. The CMR images were analyzed for LV myocardial strain and the presence of LV involvement. The endpoint was defined as a composite of sustained ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation, cardiac death, resuscitated cardiac arrest, heart transplantation, and appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator shock. LV global longitudinal (GLS), circumferential (GCS), and radial strain (GRS) were significantly impaired in ARVC/D patients compared to healthy controls (GLS: -13.89 ± 3.26% vs. -16.68 ± 2.74%, GCS: -15.65 ± 3.40% vs. -19.20 ± 2.23%, GRS: 34.57 ± 11.98% vs. 49.92 ± 12.59%; P < 0.001 for all). Even in ARVC/D patients with preserved LVEF, LV GLS, GCS and GRS were also significantly reduced than in controls. During a mean follow-up period of 4.10 ± 1.77 years, the endpoint was reached in 17 patients. LV GLS >-12.65% (HR, 3.58; 95%CI, 1.14 to 11.25; p = 0.029) and history of syncope (HR, 4.99; 95%CI, 1.88 to 13.24; p = 0.001) were the only independent predictors of cardiac outcomes. The LV myocardial deformation derived from FT CMR was significantly impaired in ARVD/C patients, and this alteration can occur before the impairment of LVEF. LV GLS >-12.65% and history of syncope were the only independent prognostic markers of adverse cardiac outcomes.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR) provides valuable information in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) based on myocardial tissue differentiation and the detection of small morphological details. CMR at 7.0T improves spatial resolution versus today's clinical protocols. This capability is as yet untapped in HCM patients. We aimed to examine the feasibility of CMR at 7.0T in HCM patients and to demonstrate its capability for the visualization of subtle morphological details.<h4>Methods</h4>We screened 131 patients with HCM. 13 patients (9 males, 56 ±31 years) and 13 healthy age- and gender-matched subjects (9 males, 55 ±31years) underwent CMR at 7.0T and 3.0T (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). For the assessment of cardiac function and morphology, 2D CINE imaging was performed (voxel size at 7.0T: (1.4x1.4x2.5) mm3 and (1.4x1.4x4.0) mm3; at 3.0T: (1.8x1.8x6.0) mm3). Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) was performed at 3.0T for detection of fibrosis.<h4>Results</h4>All scans were successful and evaluable. At 3.0T, quantification of the left ventricle (LV) showed similar results in short axis view vs. the biplane approach (LVEDV, LVESV, LVMASS, LVEF) (p = 0.286; p = 0.534; p = 0.155; p = 0.131). The LV-parameters obtained at 7.0T where in accordance with the 3.0T data (pLVEDV = 0.110; pLVESV = 0.091; pLVMASS = 0.131; pLVEF = 0.182). LGE was detectable in 12/13 (92%) of the HCM patients. High spatial resolution CINE imaging at 7.0T revealed hyperintense regions, identifying myocardial crypts in 7/13 (54%) of the HCM patients. All crypts were located in the LGE-positive regions. The crypts were not detectable at 3.0T using a clinical protocol.<h4>Conclusions</h4>CMR at 7.0T is feasible in patients with HCM. High spatial resolution gradient echo 2D CINE imaging at 7.0T allowed the detection of subtle morphological details in regions of extended hypertrophy and LGE.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) is believed to represent dense replacement fibrosis. It is seen in ?60% of adult patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). However, the prevalence of LGE in children and adolescents with HCM is not well established. In addition, longitudinal studies describing the development and evolution of LGE in pediatric HCM are lacking. This study assesses the prevalence, progression, and clinical correlations of LGE in children and adolescents with, or genetically predisposed to, HCM. METHODS:CMR scans from 195 patients ?21 years of age were analyzed in an observational, retrospective study, including 155 patients with overt HCM and 40 sarcomere mutation carriers without left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. The extent of LGE was quantified by measuring regions with signal intensity >6 SD above nulled remote myocardium. RESULTS:Patients were 14.3±4.5 years of age at baseline and 68% were male. LGE was present in 70 (46%) patients with overt HCM (median extent, 3.3%; interquartile range, 0.8-7.1%), but absent in mutation carriers without LV hypertrophy. Thirty-one patients had >1 CMR (median interval between studies, 2.4 years; interquartile range, 1.5-3.2 years). LGE was detected in 13 patients (42%) at baseline and in 16 patients (52%) at follow-up CMR. The median extent of LGE increased by 2.4 g/y (range, 0-13.2 g/y) from 2.9% (interquartile range, 0.8-3.2%) of LV mass to 4.3% (interquartile range, 2.9-6.8%) ( P=0.02). In addition to LGE, LV mass and left atrial volume, indexed to body surface area, and z score for LV mass, as well, increased significantly from first to most recent CMR. CONCLUSIONS:LGE was present in 46% of children and adolescents with overt HCM, in contrast to ?60% typically reported in adult HCM. In the subset of patients with serial imaging, statistically significant increases in LGE, LV mass, and left atrial size were detected over 2.5 years, indicating disease progression over time. Further prospective studies are required to confirm these findings and to better understand the clinical implications of LGE in pediatric HCM.
Project description:Background and objective: Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) - based feature tracking (FT) can detect left ventricular (LV) strain abnormalities in pulmonary hypertension (PH) patients, but little is known about the prognostic value of LV function and mechanics in PH patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate LV systolic function by conventional CMR and LV global strains by CMR-based FT analysis in precapillary PH patients, thereby defining the prognostic value of LV function and mechanics. Methods: We prospectively enrolled 43 patients with precapillary PH (mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) 55.91 ± 15.87 mmHg, pulmonary arterial wedge pressure (PAWP) ?15 mmHg) referred to CMR for PH evaluation. Using FT software, the LV global longitudinal strain (GLS) and global circumferential strain (GCS), also right ventricular (RV) GLS were analyzed. Results: Patients were classified into two groups according to survival (survival/non-survival). LV GLS was significantly reduced in the non-survival group (-12.4% [-19.0?(-7.8)] vs. -18.4% [-22.5?(-15.5)], p = 0.009). By ROC curve analysis, LV GLS > -14.2% (CI: 3.229 to 37.301, p < 0.001) was found to be robust predictor of mortality in PH patients. Univariable analysis using the Cox model showed that severely reduced LV GLS > -14.2%, with good sensitivity (77.8%) and high specificity (93.5%) indicated an increase of the risk of death by 11-fold. LV GLS significantly correlated in PH patients with RV ESVI (r = 0.322, p = 0.035), RV EF (r = 0.444, p < 0.003). Conclusions: LV systolic function and LV global longitudinal strain measurements using CMR-FT correlates with RV dysfunction and is associated with poor clinical outcomes in precapillary PH patients.
Project description:Myocardial deformation assessed by speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) is increasingly used for diagnosis, monitoring and prognosis in patients with clinical and pre-clinical cardiovascular diseases. Feature tracking cardiac magnetic resonance (FT-CMR) also allows myocardial deformation analysis. To clarify whether the two modalities can be used interchangeably, we compared myocardial deformation analysis by FT-CMR with STE in patients with a variety of cardiovascular diseases and healthy subjects. We included 40 patients and 10 healthy subjects undergoing cardiac magnetic resonance and echocardiographic examination for left ventricular volumetric assessment. We studied patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (n = 10), acute perimyocarditis (n = 10), aortic valve stenosis (n = 10), and previous heart transplantation (n = 10) by global longitudinal (GLS), radial (GRS) and circumferential strain (GCS). Myocardial deformation analysis by FT-CMR was feasible in all but one participant. While GLS, GRS and GCS measured by FT-CMR correlated overall with STE (r = 0.74 and p < 0.001, r = 0.58 and p < 0.001, and r = 0.76 and p < 0.001), the correlations were not consistent within subgroups. GLS was systematically lower, whereas GRS and GCS were higher by FT-CMR compared to STE (p = 0.04 and p < 0.0001). Inter- and intra-observer reproducibility were comparable for FT-CMR and STE overall and across subgroups. In conclusion, myocardial deformation can be evaluated using FT-CMR applied to routine cine-CMR images in patients with a variety of cardiovascular diseases. However, correlation between FT-CMR and STE was modest and agreement was not optimal due to systematic bias regarding GLS and GCS. Consequently, FT-CMR and STE should not be used interchangeably for myocardial strain evaluation.
Project description:The myocardial longitudinal relaxation time (T1) on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) can quantify myocardial fibrosis in the presence or absence of visually detectable late gadolinium (Gd) enhancement (LGE). Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA) treatment produces beneficial remodeling in nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDCM). We assessed the hypothesis that interstitial myocardial fibrosis measured with the use of CMR predicts left ventricular (LV) beneficial remodeling in NIDCM after heart failure (HF) treatment including MRAs.Twelve patients with NIDCM, on stable beta-blocker and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor-blocking therapy, were studied before and after 6-29 months of treatment with MRAs, by means of CMR assessment of LV structure, function, and T1 from standard Look-Locker sequences (T1LL). All patients had depressed cardiac function, dilated left ventricles, and no visual LGE. After adding MRA to HF treatment, the LV ejection fraction increased and the LV end-systolic volume index (LV end-systolic volume/m2) decreased in all patients (P?<?.0001). This this was inversely proportional to the baseline myocardial T1LL (r?=?-0.65; P?=?.02).Myocardial T1LL, in the absence of visually detectable LGE, was quantitatively related to the degree of beneficial LV remodeling achieved in response to adding MRA to a HF regimen.
Project description:Microvascular ischemia is one of the hallmarks of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and has been associated with poor outcome. However, myocardial fibrosis, seen on cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) as late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), can be responsible for rest perfusion defects in up to 30% of patients with HCM, potentially leading to an overestimation of the ischemic burden. We investigated the effect of left ventricle (LV) scar on the total LV ischemic burden using novel high-resolution perfusion analysis techniques in conjunction with LGE quantification.30 patients with HCM and unobstructed epicardial coronary arteries underwent CMR with Fermi constrained quantitative perfusion analysis on segmental and high-resolution data. The latter were corrected for the presence of fibrosis on a pixel-by-pixel basis.High-resolution quantification proved more sensitive for the detection of microvascular ischemia in comparison to segmental analysis. Areas of LGE were associated with significant reduction of myocardial perfusion reserve (MPR) leading to an overestimation of the total ischemic burden on non-corrected perfusion maps. Using a threshold MPR of 1.5, the presence of LGE caused an overestimation of the ischemic burden of 28%. The ischemic burden was more severe in patients with fibrosis, also after correction of the perfusion maps, in keeping with more severe disease in this subgroup.LGE is an important confounder in the assessment of the ischemic burden in patients with HCM. High-resolution quantitative analysis with LGE correction enables the independent evaluation of microvascular ischemia and fibrosis and should be used when evaluating patients with HCM.
Project description:OBJECTIVES AND BACKGROUND:Serum biomarkers have been proposed to reflect fibrosis of several human tissues, but their specific role in the detection of myocardial fibrosis has not been well-established. We studied the association between N-terminal propeptide of type I and III procollagen (PINP, PIIINP, respectively), galectin-3 (gal-3), soluble ST2 (ST2), and myocardial fibrosis measured by late gadolinium enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (LGE CMR) and their relation to left ventricular diastolic filling properties measured by tissue Doppler echocardiography (E/e') in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS AND RESULTS:We determined the PINP, PIIINP, gal-3, and ST2 serum levels and performed LGE CMR and echocardiography on 63 patients with stable CAD without a history of prior myocardial infarction. Myocardial late gadolinium enhancement T1 relaxation time was defined as a specific marker of myocardial fibrosis. ST2, PINP, and PIIINP did not have a significant correlation with the post-LGE T1 relaxation time tertiles (NS for all), but the lowest post-LGE T1 relaxation time tertile had significantly higher gal-3 values than the other two tertiles (p = 0.002 and 0.002) and higher E/é-values (p = 0.009) compared to the highest T1 relaxation time tertile. ST2 (p = 0.025 and 0.029), gal-3 (p = 0.003 and < 0.001) and PIIINP (p = 0.001 and 0.007) levels were also significantly higher in the highest E/é tertile, compared to the other two tertiles. CONCLUSIONS:Elevated serum levels of gal-3 reflect the degree of myocardial fibrosis assessed by LGE CMR. Gal-3, ST2, and PIIINP are also elevated in patients with impaired LV diastolic function, suggesting that these biomarkers are useful surrogates of structural and functional abnormality of the myocardium.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cardiovascular magnetic resonance feature tracking (CMR-FT) is increasingly used for myocardial deformation assessment including ventricular strain, showing prognostic value beyond established risk markers if used in experienced centres. Little is known about the impact of appropriate training on CMR-FT performance. Consequently, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of training on observer variance using different commercially available CMR-FT software. METHODS:Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility was assessed prior to and after dedicated one-hour observer training. Employed FT software included 3 different commercially available platforms (TomTec, Medis, Circle). Left (LV) and right (RV) ventricular global longitudinal as well as LV circumferential and radial strains (GLS, GCS and GRS) were studied in 12 heart failure patients and 12 healthy volunteers. RESULTS:Training improved intra- and inter-observer reproducibility. GCS and LV GLS showed the highest reproducibility before (ICC >0.86 and >0.81) and after training (ICC >0.91 and >0.92). RV GLS and GRS were more susceptible to tracking inaccuracies and reproducibility was lower. Inter-observer reproducibility was lower than intra-observer reproducibility prior to training with more pronounced improvements after training. Before training, LV strain reproducibility was lower in healthy volunteers as compared to patients with no differences after training. Whilst LV strain reproducibility was sufficient within individual software solutions inter-software comparisons revealed considerable software related variance. CONCLUSION:Observer experience is an important source of variance in CMR-FT derived strain assessment. Dedicated observer training significantly improves reproducibility with most profound benefits in states of high myocardial contractility and potential to facilitate widespread clinical implementation due to optimized robustness and diagnostic performance.