GIGANTEA recruits the UBP12 and UBP13 deubiquitylases to regulate accumulation of the ZTL photoreceptor complex.
ABSTRACT: ZEITLUPE (ZTL), a photoreceptor with E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, communicates end-of-day light conditions to the plant circadian clock. It still remains unclear how ZTL protein accumulates in the light but does not destabilize target proteins before dusk. Two deubiquitylating enzymes, UBIQUITIN-SPECIFIC PROTEASE 12 and 13 (UBP12 and UBP13), which regulate clock period and protein ubiquitylation in a manner opposite to ZTL, associate with the ZTL protein complex. Here we demonstrate that the ZTL interacting partner, GIGANTEA (GI), recruits UBP12 and UBP13 to the ZTL photoreceptor complex. We show that loss of UBP12 and UBP13 reduces ZTL and GI protein levels through a post-transcriptional mechanism. Furthermore, a ZTL target protein is unable to accumulate to normal levels in ubp mutants. This demonstrates that the ZTL photoreceptor complex contains both ubiquitin-conjugating and -deconjugating enzymes, and that these two opposing enzyme types are necessary for circadian clock pacing. This shows that deubiquitylating enzymes are a core element of circadian clocks, conserved from plants to animals.
Project description:ZEILUPE (ZTL), a blue light photoreceptor with E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, communicates end-of-day light conditions to the circadian clock. To function properly, ZTL protein must accumulate but not destablilize target clock transcription factors before dusk, while in the dark ZTL mediates degradation of target proteins. It is not clear how ZTL can accumulate to high levels in the ligh while its targets remain stable. Two deubiquitylating enzymes, UBIQUITIN-SPECIFIC PROTEASE 12 and UBIQUITIN-SPECIFIC PROTEASE 13 (UBP12 and UBP13), which regulate colock period and protein ubiquitylation in a manner opposite to ZTL, were shown to associate with the ZTL protein complex. Here we demonstrate that the ZTL light-dependent interacting partner GIGANTEA (GI), recruites UBP12 and UBP13 to the ZTL photoreceptor complex.
Project description:Nucleocytoplasmic partitioning of core clock components is essential for the proper operation of the circadian system. Previous work has shown that the F-box protein ZEITLUPE (ZTL) and clock element GIGANTEA (GI) heterodimerize in the cytosol, thereby stabilizing ZTL. Here, we report that ZTL post-translationally and reciprocally regulates protein levels and nucleocytoplasmic distribution of GI in Arabidopsis. We use ectopic expression of the N-terminus of ZTL, which contains the novel, light-absorbing region of ZTL (the LOV domain), transient expression assays and ztl mutants to establish that the levels of ZTL, a cytosolic protein, help govern the abundance and distribution of GI in the cytosol and nucleus. Ectopic expression of the ZTL N-terminus lengthens period, delays flowering time and alters hypocotyl length. We demonstrate that these phenotypes can be explained by the competitive interference of the LOV domain with endogenous GI-ZTL interactions. A complex of the ZTL N-terminus polypeptide with endogenous GI (LOV-GI) blocks normal GI function, causing degradation of endogenous ZTL and inhibition of other GI-related phenotypes. Increased cytosolic retention of GI by the LOV-GI complex additionally inhibits nuclear roles of GI, thereby lengthening flowering time. Hence, we conclude that under endogenous conditions, GI stabilization and cytoplasmic retention occurs naturally through a LOV domain-mediated GI-ZTL interaction, and that ZTL indirectly regulates GI nuclear pools by sequestering GI to the cytosol. As the absence of either GI or ZTL compromises clock function and diminishes the protein abundance of the other, our results highlight how their reciprocal co-stabilization is essential for robust circadian oscillations.
Project description:Protein ubiquitination is a very diverse post-translational modification leading to protein degradation or delocalization, or altering protein activity. In Arabidopsis thaliana, two E3 ligases, BIG BROTHER (BB) and DA2, activate the latent peptidases DA1, DAR1 and DAR2 by mono-ubiquitination at multiple sites. Subsequently, these activated peptidases destabilize various positive growth regulators. Here, we show that two ubiquitin-specific proteases, UBP12 and UBP13, deubiquitinate DA1, DAR1 and DAR2, hence reducing their peptidase activity. Overexpression of UBP12 or UBP13 strongly decreased leaf size and cell area, and resulted in lower ploidy levels. Mutants in which UBP12 and UBP13 were downregulated produced smaller leaves that contained fewer and smaller cells. Remarkably, neither UBP12 nor UBP13 were found to be cleavage substrates of the activated DA1. Our results therefore suggest that UBP12 and UBP13 work upstream of DA1, DAR1 and DAR2 to restrict their protease activity and hence fine-tune plant growth and development.
Project description:A LOV (Light, Oxygen, or Voltage) domain containing blue-light photoreceptor ZEITLUPE (ZTL) directs circadian timing by degrading clock proteins in plants. Functions hinge upon allosteric differences coupled to the ZTL photocycle; however, structural and kinetic information was unavailable. Herein, we tune the ZTL photocycle over two orders of magnitude. These variants reveal that ZTL complexes with targets independent of light, but dictates enhanced protein degradation in the dark. In vivo experiments definitively show photocycle kinetics dictate the rate of clock component degradation, thereby impacting circadian period. Structural studies demonstrate that photocycle dependent activation of ZTL depends on an unusual dark-state conformation of ZTL. Crystal structures of ZTL LOV domain confirm delineation of structural and kinetic mechanisms and identify an evolutionarily selected allosteric hinge differentiating modes of PAS/LOV signal transduction. The combined biochemical, genetic and structural studies provide new mechanisms indicating how PAS/LOV proteins integrate environmental variables in complex networks.
Project description:ROOT MERISTEM GROWTH FACTOR (RGF) 1 is an important peptide hormone that regulates root growth. Upon binding to its receptor, RGFR1, RGF1 regulates the expression of two transcription factors, PLETHORA 1 and 2 (PLT1/2), to influence root meristem development. Here, we show that the ubiquitin-specific proteases UBP12 and UBP13 are positive regulators of root meristem development and that UBP13 interacts directly with RGF1 receptor (RGFR1) and its close homolog RGFR2. The ubp12,13 double-mutant root is completely insensitive to exogenous applied RGF1. Consistent with this result, RGF1-induced ubiquitination and turnover of RGFR1 protein were accelerated in ubp12,13-mutant plants but were delayed in transgenic plants overexpressing UBP13 Genetic analysis showed that PLT2 or RGFR1 overexpression partially rescued the short-root phenotype and the reduced cortical root meristem cell number in ubp12,13 plants. Together, our results demonstrate that UBP12/13 are regulators of the RGF1-RGFR1-PLT1/2 signaling pathway and that UBP12/13 can counteract RGF1-induced RGFR1 ubiquitination, stabilize RGFR1, and maintain root cell sensitivity to RGF1.
Project description:The ubiquitin system is known to be involved in maintaining the integrity of mitochondria, but little is known about the role of deubiquitylating (DUB) enzymes in such functions. Budding yeast cells deleted for UBP13 and its close homolog UBP9 displayed a high incidence of petite colonies and slow respiratory growth at 37°C. Both Ubp9 and Ubp13 interacted directly with Duf1 (DUB-associated factor 1), a WD40 motif-containing protein. Duf1 activates the DUB activity of recombinant Ubp9 and Ubp13 in vitro and deletion of DUF1 resulted in the same respiratory phenotype as the deletion of both UBP9 and UBP13. We show that the mitochondrial defects of these mutants resulted from a strong decrease at 37°C in the de novo biosynthesis of Atp9, a membrane-bound component of ATP synthase encoded by mitochondrial DNA. The defect appears at the level of ATP9 mRNA translation, while its maturation remained unchanged in the mutants. This study describes a new role of the ubiquitin system in mitochondrial biogenesis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Stable gene repression is essential for normal growth and development. Polycomb repressive complexes 1 and 2 (PRC1&2) are involved in this process by establishing monoubiquitination of histone 2A (H2Aub1) and subsequent trimethylation of lysine 27 of histone 3 (H3K27me3). Previous work proposed that H2Aub1 removal by the ubiquitin-specific proteases 12 and 13 (UBP12 and UBP13) is part of the repressive PRC1&2 system, but its functional role remains elusive. RESULTS:We show that UBP12 and UBP13 work together with PRC1, PRC2, and EMF1 to repress genes involved in stimulus response. We find that PRC1-mediated H2Aub1 is associated with gene responsiveness, and its repressive function requires PRC2 recruitment. We further show that the requirement of PRC1 for PRC2 recruitment depends on the initial expression status of genes. Lastly, we demonstrate that removal of H2Aub1 by UBP12/13 prevents loss of H3K27me3, consistent with our finding that the H3K27me3 demethylase REF6 is positively associated with H2Aub1. CONCLUSIONS:Our data allow us to propose a model in which deposition of H2Aub1 permits genes to switch between repression and activation by H3K27me3 deposition and removal. Removal of H2Aub1 by UBP12/13 is required to achieve stable PRC2-mediated repression.
Project description:The autoregulatory loops of the circadian clock consist of feedback regulation of transcription/translation circuits but also require finely coordinated cytoplasmic and nuclear proteostasis. Although protein degradation is important to establish steady-state levels, maturation into their active conformation also factors into protein homeostasis. HSP90 facilitates the maturation of a wide range of client proteins, and studies in metazoan clocks implicate HSP90 as an integrator of input or output. Here we show that the Arabidopsis circadian clock-associated F-box protein ZEITLUPE (ZTL) is a unique client for cytoplasmic HSP90. The HSP90-specific inhibitor geldanamycin and RNAi-mediated depletion of cytoplasmic HSP90 reduces levels of ZTL and lengthens circadian period, consistent with ztl loss-of-function alleles. Transient transfection of artificial microRNA targeting cytoplasmic HSP90 genes similarly lengthens period. Proteolytic targets of SCF(ZTL), TOC1 and PRR5, are stabilized in geldanamycin-treated seedlings, whereas the levels of closely related clock proteins, PRR3 and PRR7, are unchanged. An in vitro holdase assay, typically used to demonstrate chaperone activity, shows that ZTL can be effectively bound, and aggregation prevented, by HSP90. GIGANTEA, a unique stabilizer of ZTL, may act in the same pathway as HSP90, possibly linking these two proteins to a similar mechanism. Our findings establish maturation of ZTL by HSP90 as essential for proper function of the Arabidopsis circadian clock. Unlike metazoan systems, HSP90 functions here within the core oscillator. Additionally, F-box proteins as clients may place HSP90 in a unique and more central role in proteostasis.
Project description:The circadian clock is the endogenous timer that coordinates physiological processes with daily and seasonal environmental changes. In Arabidopsis thaliana, establishment of the circadian period relies on targeted degradation of TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1 (TOC1) by the 26S proteasome. ZEITLUPE (ZTL) is the F-box protein that associates with the SCF (Skp/Cullin/F-box) E3 ubiquitin ligase that is responsible for marking TOC1 for turnover. CULLIN1 (CUL1) is a core component of SCF complexes and is involved in multiple signaling pathways. To assess the contribution of CUL1-containing SCF complexes to signaling within the plant oscillator, circadian rhythms were examined in the recessive, temperature-sensitive CUL1 allele axr6-3. The activity of CUL1 in this mutant declines progressively with increasing ambient temperature, resulting in more severe defects in CUL1-dependent activities at elevated temperature. Examination of circadian rhythms in axr6-3 revealed circadian phenotypes comparable to those observed in ztl null mutants; namely, lengthened circadian period, altered expression of core oscillator genes, and limited degradation of TOC1. In addition, treatment of seedlings with exogenous auxin did not alter TOC1 stability. These results demonstrate that CUL1 is required for TOC1 degradation and further suggest that this protein is the functional cullin for the SCF(ZTL) complex.
Project description:Protein ubiquitylation participates in a number of essential cellular processes including signal transduction and transcription, often by initiating the degradation of specific substrates through the 26S proteasome. Within the ubiquitin-proteasome system, deubiquitylating enzymes (DUBs) not only help generate and maintain the supply of free ubiquitin monomers, they also directly control functions and activities of specific target proteins by modulating the pool of ubiquitylated species. Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolases (UCHs) belong to an enzymatic subclass of DUBs, and are represented by three members in Arabidopsis, UCH1, UCH2 and UCH3. UCH1 and UCH2 influence auxin-dependent developmental pathways in Arabidopsis through their deubiquitylation activities, whereas biological and enzymatic functions of UCH3 remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that Arabidopsis UCH3 acts to maintain the period of the circadian clock at high temperatures redundantly with UCH1 and UCH2. Whereas single uch1, uch2 and uch3 mutants have weak circadian phenotypes, the triple uch mutant displays a drastic lengthening of period at high temperatures that is more extreme than the uch1 uch2 double mutant. UCH3 also possesses a broad deubiquitylation activity against a range of substrates that link ubiquitin via peptide and isopeptide linkages. While the protein target(s) of UCH1-3 are not yet known, we propose that these DUBs act on one or more factors that control period length of the circadian clock through removal of their bound ubiquitin moieties, thus ensuring that the clock oscillates with a proper period even at elevated temperatures.