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Microbial Conversion of Protopanaxadiol-Type Ginsenosides by the Edible and Medicinal Mushroom Schizophyllum commune: A Green Biotransformation Strategy.

ABSTRACT: Previous studies have shown that many kinds of microorganisms, including bacteria, yeasts, and filamentous fungi, can convert parent ginsenosides into minor ginsenosides. However, most microorganisms used for ginsenoside transformations may not be safe for food consumption and drug development. In this study, 24 edible and medicinal mushrooms were screened by high-performance liquid chromatography analyses for their ability to microbiologically transform protopanaxadiol (PPD)-type ginsenosides. We observed that the degradation of ginsenosides by Schizophyllum commune was inhibited by high concentrations of sugar in the culture medium. However, the inhibition was avoided by maintaining sugar concentration below 15 g L-1. S. commune showed a strong ability to convert PPD-type ginsenosides (Rb1, Rc, Rb2, and Rd) into minor ginsenosides (F2, C-O, C-Y, C-Mc1, C-Mc, and C-K). The production and bioconversion rates of minor ginsenosides were significantly higher than those previously reported by food microorganisms. The fermentation process is efficient, nontoxic, eco-friendly, and economical, and the required biotransformation systems are readily available. This is the first report about the biotransformation of major ginsenosides into minor ginsenosides through fermentation by edible and medicinal mushrooms. Our results provide a green biodegradation strategy in transformation of ginsenosides using edible and medicinal mushrooms.


PROVIDER: S-EPMC6705088 | BioStudies | 2019-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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