Clinical Outcomes After Intensifying Antihypertensive Medication Regimens Among Older Adults at Hospital Discharge.
ABSTRACT: Importance:Transient elevations of blood pressure (BP) are common in hospitalized older adults and frequently lead practitioners to prescribe more intensive antihypertensive regimens at hospital discharge than the patients were using before hospitalization. Objective:To investigate the association between intensification of antihypertensive regimens at hospital discharge and clinical outcomes after discharge. Design, Setting, and Participants:In this retrospective cohort study, patients 65 years and older with hypertension who were hospitalized in Veterans Health Administration national health system facilities from January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2013, for common noncardiac conditions were studied. Data analysis was performed from October 1, 2018, to March 10, 2019. Exposures:Discharge with antihypertensive intensification, defined as receiving a prescription at hospital discharge for a new or higher-dose antihypertensive than was being used before hospitalization. Propensity scores were used to construct a matched-pairs cohort of patients who did and did not receive antihypertensive intensifications at hospital discharge. Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary outcomes of hospital readmission, serious adverse events, and cardiovascular events were assessed by competing risk analysis. The secondary outcome was the change in systolic BP within 1 year of hospital discharge. Results:The propensity-matched cohort included 4056 hospitalized older adults with hypertension (mean [SD] age, 77  years; 3961 men [97.7%]), equally split between those who did vs did not receive antihypertensive intensifications at hospital discharge. Groups were well matched on all baseline covariates (all standardized mean differences <0.1). Within 30 days, patients receiving intensifications had a higher risk of readmission (hazard ratio [HR], 1.23; 95% CI, 1.07-1.42; number needed to harm [NNH], 27; 95% CI, 16-76) and serious adverse events (HR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.06-1.88; NNH, 63; 95% CI, 34-370). At 1 year, no differences were found in cardiovascular events (HR, 1.18; 95% CI, 0.99-1.40) or change in systolic BP among those who did vs did not receive intensifications (mean BP, 134.7 vs 134.4; difference-in-differences estimate, 0.6 mm Hg; 95% CI, -2.4 to 3.7 mm Hg). Conclusions and Relevance:Among older adults hospitalized for noncardiac conditions, prescription of intensified antihypertensives at discharge was not associated with reduced cardiac events or improved BP control within 1 year but was associated with an increased risk of readmission and serious adverse events within 30 days.
Project description:The Affordable Care Act has led to US national reductions in hospital 30-day readmission rates for heart failure (HF), acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and pneumonia. Whether readmission reductions have had the unintended consequence of increasing mortality after hospitalization is unknown.To examine the correlation of paired trends in hospital 30-day readmission rates and hospital 30-day mortality rates after discharge.Retrospective study of Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries aged 65 years or older hospitalized with HF, AMI, or pneumonia from January 1, 2008, through December 31, 2014.Thirty-day risk-adjusted readmission rate (RARR).Thirty-day RARRs and 30-day risk-adjusted mortality rates (RAMRs) after discharge were calculated for each condition in each month at each hospital in 2008 through 2014. Monthly trends in each hospital's 30-day RARRs and 30-day RAMRs after discharge were examined for each condition. The weighted Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated for hospitals' paired monthly trends in 30-day RARRs and 30-day RAMRs after discharge for each condition.In 2008 through 2014, 2?962?554 hospitalizations for HF, 1?229?939 for AMI, and 2?544?530 for pneumonia were identified at 5016, 4772, and 5057 hospitals, respectively. In January 2008, mean hospital 30-day RARRs and 30-day RAMRs after discharge were 24.6% and 8.4% for HF, 19.3% and 7.6% for AMI, and 18.3% and 8.5% for pneumonia. Hospital 30-day RARRs declined in the aggregate across hospitals from 2008 through 2014; monthly changes in RARRs were -0.053% (95% CI, -0.055% to -0.051%) for HF, -0.044% (95% CI, -0.047% to -0.041%) for AMI, and -0.033% (95% CI, -0.035% to -0.031%) for pneumonia. In contrast, monthly aggregate changes across hospitals in hospital 30-day RAMRs after discharge varied by condition: HF, 0.008% (95% CI, 0.007% to 0.010%); AMI, -0.003% (95% CI, -0.005% to -0.001%); and pneumonia, 0.001% (95% CI, -0.001% to 0.003%). However, correlation coefficients in hospitals' paired monthly changes in 30-day RARRs and 30-day RAMRs after discharge were weakly positive: HF, 0.066 (95% CI, 0.036 to 0.096); AMI, 0.067 (95% CI, 0.027 to 0.106); and pneumonia, 0.108 (95% CI, 0.079 to 0.137). Findings were similar in secondary analyses, including with alternate definitions of hospital mortality.Among Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries hospitalized for heart failure, acute myocardial infarction, or pneumonia, reductions in hospital 30-day readmission rates were weakly but significantly correlated with reductions in hospital 30-day mortality rates after discharge. These findings do not support increasing postdischarge mortality related to reducing hospital readmissions.
Project description:Importance:Elevated blood glucose levels are common in hospitalized older adults and may lead clinicians to intensify outpatient diabetes medications at discharge, risking potential overtreatment when patients return home. Objective:To assess how often hospitalized older adults are discharged with intensified diabetes medications and the likelihood of benefit associated with these intensifications. Design, Setting, and Participants:This retrospective cohort study examined patients aged 65 years and older with diabetes not previously requiring insulin. The study included patients who were hospitalized in a Veterans Health Administration hospital for common medical conditions between 2012 and 2013. Main Outcomes and Measures:Intensification of outpatient diabetes medications, defined as receiving a new or higher-dose medication at discharge than was being taken prior to hospitalization. Mixed-effect logistic regression models were used to control for patient and hospitalization characteristics. Results:Of 16?178 patients (mean [SD] age, 73  years; 15?895 [98%] men), 8535 (53%) had a preadmission hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level less than 7.0%, and 1044 (6%) had an HbA1c level greater than 9.0%. Overall, 1626 patients (10%) were discharged with intensified diabetes medications including 781 (5%) with new insulins and 557 (3%) with intensified sulfonylureas. Nearly half of patients receiving intensifications (49% [791 of 1626]) were classified as being unlikely to benefit owing to limited life expectancy or already being at goal HbA1c, while 20% (329 of 1626) were classified as having potential to benefit. Both preadmission HbA1c level and inpatient blood glucose recordings were associated with discharge with intensified diabetes medications. Among patients with a preadmission HbA1c level less than 7.0%, the predicted probability of receiving an intensification was 4% (95% CI, 3%-4%) for patients without elevated inpatient blood glucose levels and 21% (95% CI, 15%-26%) for patients with severely elevated inpatient blood glucose levels. Conclusions and Relevance:In this study, 1 in 10 older adults with diabetes hospitalized for common medical conditions was discharged with intensified diabetes medications. Nearly half of these individuals were unlikely to benefit owing to limited life expectancy or already being at their HbA1c goal.
Project description:To determine whether the risk of cardiovascular mortality associated with cardiorenal syndrome subtype 1 (CRS1) in patients who were hospitalized for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) was greater than the expected risk based on the sum of its components, to estimate the predictive value of CRS1, and to determine whether the severity of CRS1 worsens the prognosis.Follow-up study of 1912 incident cases of ACS for 1 year after discharge. Cox regression models were estimated with time to event (in-hospital death, and readmission or death during the first year after discharge) as the dependent variable.The incidence of CRS1 was 9.2/1000 person-days of hospitalization (95% CI = 8.1-10.5), but these patients accounted for 56.6% (95% CI = 47.4-65.) of all mortality. The positive predictive value of CRS1 was 29.6% (95% CI = 23.9-36.0) for in-hospital death, and 51.4% (95% CI = 44.8-58.0) for readmission or death after discharge. The risk of in-hospital death from CRS1 (RR = 18.3; 95% CI = 6.3-53.2) was greater than the sum of risks associated with either acute heart failure (RR = 7.6; 95% CI = 1.8-31.8) or acute kidney injury (RR = 2.8; 95% CI = 0.9-8.8). The risk of events associated with CRS1 also increased with syndrome severity, reaching a RR of 10.6 (95% CI = 6.2-18.1) for in-hospital death at the highest severity level.The effect of CRS1 on in-hospital mortality is greater than the sum of the effects associated with each of its components, and it increases with the severity of the syndrome. CRS1 accounted for more than half of all mortality, and its positive predictive value approached 30% in-hospital and 50% after discharge.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Delirium affects more than seven million hospitalized adults in the United States annually. However, its impact on postdischarge healthcare utilization remains unclear. OBJECTIVE:To determine the association between delirium and 30-day hospital readmission. DESIGN:A retrospective cohort study. SETTING:A general community medical and surgical hospital. PATIENTS:All adults who were at least 65 years old, without a history of delirium or alcohol-related delirium, and were hospitalized from September 2010 to March 2015. MEASUREMENTS:The patients deemed at risk for or displaying symptoms of delirium were screened by nurses using the Confusion Assessment Method with a followup by a staff psychiatrist for a subset of screen-positive patients. Patients with delirium confirmed by a staff psychiatrist were compared with those without delirium. The primary outcome was the 30-day readmission rate. The secondary outcomes included emergency department (ED) visits 30 days postdischarge, mortality during hospitalization and 30 days postdischarge, and discharge location. RESULTS:The cohort included 718 delirious patients and 7,927 nondelirious patients. Using an unweighted multivariable logistic regression, delirium was determined to be significantly associated with the increased odds of readmission within 30 days of discharge (odds ratio (OR): 2.60; 95% CI, 1.96-3.44; P < .0001). Delirium was also significantly (P < .0001) associated with ED visits within 30 days postdischarge (OR: 2.18; 95% CI: 1.77-2.69) and discharge to a facility (OR: 2.52; 95% CI: 2.09-3.01). CONCLUSIONS:Delirium is a significant predictor of hospital readmission, ED visits, and discharge to a location other than home. Delirious patients should be targeted to reduce postdischarge healthcare utilization.
Project description:<b><i>Background:</i> </b> In heart failure (HF) management, early ambulation is recommended to prevent physical deconditioning. The effects of delayed ambulation on later clinical outcomes and the factors linked to delayed ambulation in hospitalized HF patients, however, remain unestablished. <b><i>Methods?and?Results:</i> </b> We retrospectively investigated 101 patients (mean age, 66±17 years) who were hospitalized for acute decompensated HF. During the mean follow-up of 244±15 days after hospital discharge, 34 patients had cardiovascular events leading to death or unplanned readmission. Patients with cardiovascular events had longer median days to acquire ambulation than those without cardiovascular events (11 days, IQR, 8-20 days vs. 7 days, IQR, 5-15 days, P<0.001). The optimal cut-off period until initiation of ambulation to discriminate cardiovascular events was 8 days, indicating that longer days (?8 days) to acquire ambulation was associated with higher rates of cardiovascular events, even after adjustment of multiple confounders. On multivariate analysis, age >65 years (odds ratio [OR], 2.49; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04-6.09) and increase in blood urea nitrogen (BUN; OR, 1.04; 95% CI: 1.01-1.08) were independent predictors of delayed ambulation. <b><i>Conclusions:</i> </b> Delayed ambulation is associated with older age and increased BUN in patients with acute HF. Time to ambulation in the recovery phase of acute HF is important, and delayed ambulation may increase the rate of cardiovascular events after hospital discharge.
Project description:Elevated blood pressure (BP) is frequently diagnosed in very elderly hospitalized patients. Accurate diagnosis of hypertension is challenging in the hospital environment, due to the "white coat effect," and both overtreatment and undertreatment can adversely affect clinical outcome. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) has the potential to avoid the "white coat effect" and accurately guide the management of hypertension. However, effects of the hospital environment on ABPM are unknown in the very elderly. We set out to enroll 45 patients, age ?70 years, with elevated conventional BP during hospitalization in this observational study. It was prespecified by protocol to assess initially the difference between 24-hour BP during hospital-admission and home follow-up. Subsequent analysis should investigate the change in anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-A [HADS-A]) after discharge, the correlation with change in 24-hour BP after discharge, and the prevalence of orthostatic hypertension. Thirty-one patients were included in the final analysis (age 83.5?±?4.4 years; 71% female). Twenty-four-hour BP decreased significantly after hospital discharge (systolic from 133.5?±?15.6 to 126.2?±?14.4?mm Hg [millimeter of mercury], P?=?.008; diastolic from 71.0?±?9.0 to 68.3?±?8.6?mm Hg, P?=?.046). Anxiety level (HADS-A) decreased significantly after discharge, from 7.5 (interquartile range [IQR]: 4.0-13.8) to 5.0 (IQR: 4.0-8.0, P?=?.012). The change in anxiety was a predictor of change in systolic BP after discharge (F[1,20]?=?5.9, P?=?.025). Sixty-one percent of the patients had significant orthostatic hypotension during hospital stay. In conclusion, 24-hour BP in very elderly patients is lower in the home environment than during hospitalization. This phenomenon seems to be directly linked to a lower anxiety-level at home. Reassessing hypertension at home may decrease the need for (intensified) antihypertensive medical therapy in a substantial number of patients. This is particularly important in the very elderly, who have a high prevalence of symptomatic and asymptomatic orthostatic hypotension, making them prone to hazardous effects of antihypertensive therapy.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Hemodialysis (HD) patients are hospitalized nearly twice yearly, and 35% of these patients are rehospitalized within 30-days postdischarge. We hypothesized that monitored oral nutritional supplementation (ONS) during HD treatment may decrease readmissions. METHODS:A cohort of maintenance HD patients, treated at a large dialysis organization, who were hospitalized with a postdischarge albumin of ?3.5 g/dL, without documented ONS use 90 days prior to the index hospitalization were identified. Individuals who received monitored intradialytic ONS postdischarge were compared to those without receipt of ONS. The outcome of interest was 30-day hospital readmissions. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between ONS receipt and 30-day readmission events, with adjustment for case-mix and laboratory variables. FINDINGS:Of 5479 eligible patients, ONS was prescribed to 1420 individuals. Mean age was 64.6 ± 14.1 (SD) years; median dialysis vintage was 3.9 years. There were 274 (19%) readmissions among ONS recipients vs. 1571 (38.7%) among controls during the 30-day follow-up period. Individuals who did not receive ONS had increased odds of readmission [OR 2.26 (95% CI 1.02, 2.53)] in 30 days, as compared to those who did receive ONS postdischarge. In sensitivity analyses using a propensity score matched cohort, the odds ratio of readmissions within 30 days postdischarge was 1.71 (95% CI: 1.42, 2.07) for individuals who did not receive ONS as compared to those who received ONS. DISCUSSION:Consumption of ONS during HD sessions is associated with reduced hospital readmission rates among in-center maintenance HD with severe hypoalbuminemia at 30 days post-hospital discharge.
Project description:Early hospital readmission of patients after discharge is a public health problem. One major cause of hospital readmission is dysfunctions in integrated pathways between community and hospital care that can cause adverse drug events. Furthermore, the French ENEIS 2 study showed that 1.3% of hospital stays originated from serious adverse drug events in 2009. Pharmacy-led medication reviews at hospital transitions are an effective means of decreasing medication discrepancies when conducted at admission or discharge. However, it is difficult to assess the true impact of pharmacist-led medication reviews in specific high-risk populations, such as pediatric and geriatric populations. In such a context, it is important to demonstrate the effectiveness of medication reconciliation as part of a standardized medication review process-in pediatric and elderly populations-on all-cause readmissions in a large randomized controlled clinical trial. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of the pharmacist-led medication review on the rate of readmissions and/or death after hospital discharge and patient treatment satisfaction.The study is a randomized controlled clinical trial. A total of 1400 hospitalized patients will be randomized in two groups: (1) the experimental group (group receiving a pharmacist-led medication review) and (2) the control group (group receiving usual care). The pharmacist-led medication review process includes medication reconciliation, treatment review and medication liaison service. The primary endpoint will be the rate of readmissions and/or death at 30 days following initial hospitalization discharge. The secondary endpoints will be the rate of hospital readmission, the rate of emergency department visits, the rate of mortality, the number of consultations and patient treatment satisfaction at 30 days following initial hospitalization discharge.A randomized controlled trial provides the most extensive evidence on the impact of pharmacist-led medication reviews on early hospital readmission for extreme age populations.Current Controlled Trials, NCT02734017 . Registered on 4 May 2016.
Project description:Readmission within 30 days after hospitalization for heart failure (HF) is a major public health problem.To examine whether timing and type of post-discharge follow-up impacts risk of 30-day readmission in adults hospitalized for HF.Nested matched case-control study (January 1, 2006-June 30, 2013).A large, integrated health care delivery system in Northern California.Hospitalized adults with a primary diagnosis of HF discharged to home without hospice care.Outpatient visits and telephone calls with cardiology and general medicine providers in non-emergency department and non-urgent care settings were counted as follow-up care. Statistical adjustments were made for differences in patient sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, acute severity of illness, hospitalization characteristics, and post-discharge medication changes and laboratory testing.Among 11,985 eligible adults, early initial outpatient contact within 7 days after discharge was associated with lower odds of readmission [adjusted odds ratio (OR)=0.81; 95% CI, 0.70-0.94], whereas later outpatient contact between 8 and 30 days after hospital discharge was not significantly associated with readmission (adjusted OR=0.99; 95% CI, 0.82-1.19). Initial contact by telephone was associated with lower adjusted odds of 30-day readmission (adjusted OR=0.85; 95% CI, 0.69-1.06) but was not statistically significant.In adults discharged to home after hospitalization for HF, outpatient follow-up with a cardiology or general medicine provider within 7 days was associated with a lower chance of 30-day readmission.
Project description:The value of inpatient dermatology consultations has traditionally been demonstrated with frequency in changes of diagnosis and management; however, the impact of dermatology consultations on metrics such as hospital length of stay and readmission rates remains unknown.To determine the association of dermatology consultations with patient care in hospitalized patients using objective values.We retrospectively queried the deidentified database of patients hospitalized between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2014, at a single university medical center. A total of 413 patients with a primary inflammatory skin condition discharge diagnosis and 647 patients with primary inflammatory skin condition admission diagnosis were selected.Hospital length of stay and 1-year readmission with inflammatory skin conditions.The 413 patients with a primary inflammatory skin condition discharge diagnosis were 61.0% female and had a mean (SD) age of 55.1 (16.4) years. The 647 patients with primary inflammatory skin condition admission diagnosis were 50.8% female and had a mean (SD) age of 57.8 (15.9) years. Multivariable modeling showed that dermatology consultations were associated with a reduction of 1-year inflammatory skin condition readmissions among patients who were discharged primarily with an inflammatory skin condition (readmission probability, 0.0025; 95% CI, 0.00020-0.030 with dermatology consult vs 0.026; 95% CI, 0.0065-0.10 without; odds ratio, 0.093; 95% CI, 0.010-0.840; P?=?.03). No other confounding variable was associated with reduction in readmissions. Multivariable modeling also showed that dermatology consultations were associated with a reduction in the adjusted hospital length of stay by 2.64 days (95% CI, 1.75-3.53 days; P?<?.001).Dermatology consultations were associated with improvements of outcomes among hospitalized patients. The expansion of the role of dermatology consultation services may improve patient care in a cost-effective manner.