Calbindin-D28K Limits Dopamine Release in Ventral but Not Dorsal Striatum by Regulating Ca2+ Availability and Dopamine Transporter Function.
ABSTRACT: The calcium-binding protein calbindin-D28K, or calb1, is expressed at higher levels by dopamine (DA) neurons originating in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) than in the adjacent substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). Calb1 has received attention for a potential role in neuroprotection in Parkinson's disease. The underlying physiological roles for calb1 are incompletely understood. We used cre-loxP technology to knock down calb1 in mouse DA neurons to test whether calb1 governs axonal release of DA in the striatum, detected using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry ex vivo. In the ventral but not dorsal striatum, calb1 knockdown elevated DA release and modified the spatiotemporal coupling of Ca2+ entry to DA release. Furthermore, calb1 knockdown enhanced DA uptake but attenuated the impact of DA transporter (DAT) inhibition by cocaine on underlying DA release. These data reveal that calb1 acts through a range of mechanisms underpinning both DA release and uptake to limit DA transmission in the ventral but not dorsal striatum.
Project description:Calbindin-D28k is a calcium-binding protein that belongs to the troponin C superfamily. It is expressed in many tissues, including brain, intestine, kidney and pancreas, and performs roles as both a calcium buffer and a calcium sensor and carries out diverse physiological functions of importance. In order to resolve the crystal structure of human calbindin-D28k and to gain a better understanding of its biological functions, recombinant human calbindin-D28k was crystallized at 291 K using PEG 3350 as precipitant and a 2.4 A resolution X-ray data set was collected from a single flash-cooled crystal (100 K). The crystal belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 108.1, b = 28.2, c = 70.6 A, beta = 107.8 degrees . The presence of one molecule per asymmetric unit is presumed, corresponding to a Matthews coefficient of 1.75 A(3) Da(-1).
Project description:The calcium-binding protein calbindin-D28k is critical for hippocampal function and cognition, but its expression is markedly decreased in various neurological disorders associated with epileptiform activity and seizures. In Alzheimer's disease (AD) and epilepsy, both of which are accompanied by recurrent seizures, the severity of cognitive deficits reflects the degree of calbindin reduction in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). However, despite the importance of calbindin in both neuronal physiology and pathology, the regulatory mechanisms that control its expression in the hippocampus are poorly understood. Here we report an epigenetic mechanism through which seizures chronically suppress hippocampal calbindin expression and impair cognition. We demonstrate that ?FosB, a highly stable transcription factor, is induced in the hippocampus in mouse models of AD and seizures, in which it binds and triggers histone deacetylation at the promoter of the calbindin gene (Calb1) and downregulates Calb1 transcription. Notably, increasing DG calbindin levels, either by direct virus-mediated expression or inhibition of ?FosB signaling, improves spatial memory in a mouse model of AD. Moreover, levels of ?FosB and calbindin expression are inversely related in the DG of individuals with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) or AD and correlate with performance on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). We propose that chronic suppression of calbindin by ?FosB is one mechanism through which intermittent seizures drive persistent cognitive deficits in conditions accompanied by recurrent seizures.
Project description:Relatively little is known about the molecular control of midbrain dopamine release. Using high-fidelity imaging of pHluorin-tagged vesicular monoamine transporter 2 in dopamine neurons, we found that exocytosis was more loosely coupled to calcium entry than in fast synapses. In ventral tegmental area neurons, this allows exocytosis to be efficiently controlled by a native fast calcium buffer, calbindin-D28k, maintaining a lower vesicular release probability compared with substantia nigra neurons.
Project description:Although cognitive flexibility is mediated by different areas of the prefrontal cortex, evidence from patients with Parkinson's disease suggests an additional involvement of striatal dopamine (DA) signaling. Because both dorsal and ventral striatum receive prefrontal cortex projections, it is unclear whether DA signaling to either one or both of these regions is required for cognitive flexibility.Cognitive flexibility was examined with a water U-maze paradigm in which mice had to shift from an initially acquired escape strategy to a new strategy or to reverse the initially learned strategy. We tested mice with conditionally inactive tyrosine hydroxylase genes that can be activated by Cre recombinase. With region-specific viral gene therapy we selectively restricted DA signaling to either dorsal or ventral striatum.Restricting DA signaling to the ventral striatum did not impair learning of the initial strategy or reversal-learning but strongly disrupted strategy-shifting. In contrast, mice with DA signaling restricted to the dorsal striatum had intact learning of the initial strategy, reversal-learning, and strategy-shifting.Dopamine signaling in both dorsal and ventral striatum is sufficient for reversal-learning, whereas only DA signaling in the dorsal striatum is sufficient for the more demanding strategy-shifting task.
Project description:Calbindin-D28K is a widely expressed calcium-buffering cytoplasmic protein that is involved in many physiological processes. It has been shown to interact with other proteins, suggesting a role as a calcium sensor. Many of the targets of calbindin-D28K are of therapeutic interest: for example, inositol monophosphatase, the putative target of lithium therapy in bipolar disorder. Presented here is the first crystal structure of human calbindin-D28K. There are significant deviations in the tertiary structure when compared with the NMR structure of rat calbindin-D28K (PDB entry 2g9b), despite 98% sequence identity. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) indicates that the crystal structure better predicts the properties of calbindin-D28K in solution compared with the NMR structure. Here, the first direct visualization of the calcium-binding properties of calbindin-D28K is presented. Four of the six EF-hands that make up the secondary structure of the protein contain a calcium-binding site. Two distinct conformations of the N-terminal EF-hand calcium-binding site were identified using long-wavelength calcium single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD). This flexible region has previously been recognized as a protein-protein interaction interface. SAXS data collected in both the presence and absence of calcium indicate that there are no large structural differences in the globular structure of calbindin-D28K between the calcium-loaded and unloaded proteins.
Project description:Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1A1)-positive dopaminergic (DA) neurons at the ventral substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) preferentially degenerate in Parkinson's disease (PD). Their projection pattern and dopamine release properties, however, remains uncharacterized. Here we show that ALDH1A1-positive axons project predominantly to the rostral two-thirds of dorsal striatum. A portion of these axons converge on a small fraction of striosome compartments restricted to the dorsolateral striatum (DLS), where less dopamine release was measured compared to the adjacent matrix enriched with the ALDH1A1-negative axons. Genetic ablation of Aldh1a1 substantially increases the dopamine release in striosomes, but not in matrix. Additionally, the presence of PD-related human ?-synuclein A53T mutant or dopamine transporter (DAT) blockers also differentially affects the dopamine output in striosomes and matrix. Together, these results demonstrate distinct dopamine release characteristics of ALDH1A1-positive DA fibers, supporting a regional specific function of ALDH1A1 in regulating dopamine availability/release in striatum.
Project description:Dysfunctions of dopaminergic homeostasis leading to either low or high dopamine (DA) levels are causally linked to Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and addiction. Major sites of DA synthesis are the mesencephalic neurons originating in the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area; these structures send major projections to the dorsal striatum (DSt) and nucleus accumbens (NAcc), respectively. DA finely tunes its own synthesis and release by activating DA D2 receptors (D2R). To date, this critical D2R-dependent function was thought to be solely due to activation of D2Rs on dopaminergic neurons (D2 autoreceptors); instead, using site-specific D2R knock-out mice, we uncover that D2 heteroreceptors located on non-DAergic medium spiny neurons participate in the control of DA levels. This D2 heteroreceptor-mediated mechanism is more efficient in the DSt than in NAcc, indicating that D2R signaling differentially regulates mesolimbic- versus nigrostriatal-mediated functions. This study reveals previously unappreciated control of DA signaling, shedding new light on region-specific regulation of DA-mediated effects.
Project description:Dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the midbrain provide rich topographic innervation of the striatum and are central to learning and to generating actions. Despite the importance of this DA innervation, it remains unclear whether and how DA neurons are specialized on the basis of the location of their striatal target. Thus, we sought to compare the function of subpopulations of DA neurons that target distinct striatal subregions in the context of an instrumental reversal learning task. We identified key differences in the encoding of reward and choice in dopamine terminals in dorsal versus ventral striatum: DA terminals in ventral striatum responded more strongly to reward consumption and reward-predicting cues, whereas DA terminals in dorsomedial striatum responded more strongly to contralateral choices. In both cases the terminals encoded a reward prediction error. Our results suggest that the DA modulation of the striatum is spatially organized to support the specialized function of the targeted subregion.
Project description:1alpha,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] is known to modulate Ca2+ metabolism in several cell types. Vitamin-D-dependent calcium binding proteins such as calbindin-D28K (28 kDa calcium binding proteins) have been shown to be regulated by 1,25(OH)2D3 but the mechanisms controlling calbindin synthesis are still poorly understood in human osteoblast cell culture models. The human bone marrow stromal cells (HBMSC) described in this paper developed a calcified matrix, expressed osteocalcin (OC), osteopontin (OP) and responded to 1,25(OH)2D3. The expression of vitamin D receptor mRNA was demonstrated by reverse transcription-PCR. Calbindin-D28K protein was identified only in cells arising from the sixth subculture, which exhibited a calcified matrix and all of the osteoblastic markers, e.g. OC and OP. It was demonstrated by dot-immunodetection using immunological probes, and by in situ hybridization using labelled cDNA probes. Moreover, vitamin D3 enhanced calbindin-D28K synthesis as well as OC synthesis and alkaline phosphatase activity. Uptake of 45Ca induced into the matrix by 1,25(OH)2D3 supports the hypothesis that the calcium-enriched matrix could trap calbindin-D proteins. In conclusion, the studies in vitro described in the present paper indicate, for the first time, a possible role of calbindin-D28K in mineralized matrix formation in HBMSC.
Project description:The dopamine (DA) terminal field in the rat dorsal striatum is organized as a patchwork of domains that show distinct DA kinetics. The rate and short-term plasticity of evoked DA release, the rate of DA clearance and the actions of several dopaminergic drugs are all domain-dependent. The patchwork arises in part from local variations in the basal extracellular concentration of DA, which establishes an autoinhibitory tone in slow but not fast domains. The present study addressed the hypothesis that a domain patchwork might also exist in the nucleus accumbens core (NAcc), a DA terminal field that is deeply involved in reward processing and the mechanisms underlying substance abuse. DA recordings in the NAcc by fast-scan voltammetry during electrical stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle confirmed that the NAcc contains a patchwork of fast and slow domains showing significantly different rates of evoked DA release and DA clearance. Moreover, the NAcc domains are substantially different from those in the dorsal striatum. There were no signs in the NAcc of short-term plasticity of DA release during multiple consecutive stimuli, and no signs of a domain-dependent autoinhibitory tone. Thus, the NAcc domains are distinct from each other and from the domains of the dorsal striatum.