Multiplexed imaging of immune cells in staged multiple sclerosis lesions by mass cytometry.
ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by demyelinated and inflammatory lesions in the brain and spinal cord that are highly variable in terms of cellular content. Here, we used imaging mass cytometry (IMC) to enable the simultaneous imaging of 15+ proteins within staged MS lesions. To test the potential for IMC to discriminate between different types of lesions, we selected a case with severe rebound MS disease activity after natalizumab cessation. With post-acquisition analysis pipelines we were able to: (1) Discriminate demyelinating macrophages from the resident microglial pool; (2) Determine which types of lymphocytes reside closest to blood vessels; (3) Identify multiple subsets of T and B cells, and (4) Ascertain dynamics of T cell phenotypes vis-à-vis lesion type and location. We propose that IMC will enable a comprehensive analysis of single-cell phenotypes, their functional states and cell-cell interactions in relation to lesion morphometry and demyelinating activity in MS patients.
Project description:Activated myeloid cells and astrocytes are the predominant cell types in active multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions. Both cell types can adopt diverse functional states that play critical roles in lesion formation and resolution. In order to identify phenotypic subsets of myeloid cells and astrocytes, we profiled two active MS lesions with thirteen glial activation markers using imaging mass cytometry (IMC), a method for multiplexed labeling of histological sections. In the acutely demyelinating lesion, we found multiple distinct myeloid and astrocyte phenotypes that populated separate lesion zones. In the post-demyelinating lesion, phenotypes were less distinct and more uniformly distributed. In both lesions cell-to-cell interactions were not random, but occurred between specific glial subpopulations and lymphocytes. Finally, we demonstrated that myeloid, but not astrocyte phenotypes were activated along a lesion rim-to-center gradient, and that marker expression in glial cells at the lesion rim was driven more by cell-extrinsic factors than in cells at the center. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates that highly multiplexed tissue imaging, combined with the appropriate computational tools, is a powerful approach to study heterogeneity, spatial distribution and cellular interactions in the context of MS lesions. Identifying glial phenotypes and their interactions at different lesion stages may provide novel therapeutic targets for inhibiting acute demyelination and low-grade, chronic inflammation.
Project description:Myelin regeneration can occur spontaneously in demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the underlying mechanisms and causes of its frequent failure remain incompletely understood. Here we show, using an in-vivo remyelination model, that demyelinated axons are electrically active and generate de novo synapses with recruited oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), which, early after lesion induction, sense neuronal activity by expressing AMPA (?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid)/kainate receptors. Blocking neuronal activity, axonal vesicular release or AMPA receptors in demyelinated lesions results in reduced remyelination. In the absence of neuronal activity there is a ?6-fold increase in OPC number within the lesions and a reduced proportion of differentiated oligodendrocytes. These findings reveal that neuronal activity and release of glutamate instruct OPCs to differentiate into new myelinating oligodendrocytes that recover lost function. Co-localization of OPCs with the presynaptic protein VGluT2 in MS lesions implies that this mechanism may provide novel targets to therapeutically enhance remyelination.
Project description:In this project we focused on white matter injury in relapsing remitting MS. We concentrated on material obtained from patients who suffered from fulminant active MS to identify possible sources for ROS production in relation to demyelination and neurodegeneration. Overall design: We performed genome-wide microarray analyses of gene expression in carefully dissected lesions of patients with fulminant acute MS. Preceding the gene expression profiling all cases were characterized histologically and areas of interest were identified. We included 4 control cases, 2 active MS cases from which we separated 3 distinct lesions areas per case (NAWM, initial lesion and early demyelinated lesion) and 1 active MS case from which we separated 2 distinct lesion areas (NAWM and early demyelinated lesion). The RNA was isolated from those areas, amplified and hybridized to Agilent G4112A whole genome microarrays. UPDATE in 2013! We additionally included a fourth acute MS case, from which we microdissected 2 different initial lesions and 2 different early demyelinated lesions. Data was re-normalized and re-analyzed.
Project description:Lesions obtained early in the course of multiple sclerosis (MS) have been studied immunocytochemically, and compared with the early stages of the experimental lesion induced in rats by the intraspinal injection of lipopolysaccharide. Large hemispheric or double hemispheric sections were examined from patients who had died in the course of acute or early relapsing multiple sclerosis. In MS patients exhibiting hypoxia-like lesions [Pattern III; Lucchinetti et al. Ann Neurol (2000) 47: 707-17], focal areas in the white matter showed mild oedema, microglial activation and mild axonal injury in the absence of overt demyelination. In such lesions T-cell infiltration was mild and restricted to the perivascular space. Myeloperoxidase and the inducible form of nitric oxide synthase were expressed primarily by microglia, and the activated form of these cells was associated with extracellular deposition of precipitated fibrin. In addition, these lesions showed up-regulation of proteins involved in tissue preconditioning. When active demyelination started, lesions were associated with massive T-cell infiltration and microglia and macrophages expressed all activation markers studied. Similar tissue alterations were found in rats in the pre-demyelinating stage of lesions induced by the focal injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide into the spinal white matter. We suggest that the areas of microglial activation represent an early stage of tissue injury, which precedes the formation of hypoxia-like demyelinated plaques. The findings indicate that mechanisms associated with innate immunity may play a role in the formation of hypoxia-like demyelinating lesions in MS.
Project description:Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the CNS and remyelination in MS ultimately fails. Although strategies to promote myelin repair are eagerly sought, mechanisms underlying remyelination in vivo have been elusive. CXCR2 is expressed on neutrophils and oligodendrocyte lineage cells in the CNS. CXCR2-positive neutrophils facilitate inflammatory demyelination in demyelination models such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and cuprizone intoxication. Systemic injection of a small molecule CXCR2 antagonist at the onset of EAE decreased demyelinated lesions. These results left the cellular target of the CXCR2 antagonist uncertain and did not clarify whether CXCR2 blockade prevented demyelination or promoted remyelination. Here, we show that the actions of CXCR2 on nonhematopoietic cells unexpectedly delay myelin repair. Bone marrow chimeric mice (Cxcr2(+/-)-->Cxcr2(-/-) and Cxcr2(+/-)-->Cxcr2(+/+)) were subjected to two distinct models of myelin injury. In all cases, myelin repair was more efficient in Cxcr2(+/-)-->Cxcr2(-/-) animals. Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) in demyelinated lesions of Cxcr2(+/-)-->Cxcr2(-/-) mice proliferated earlier and more vigorously than in tissues from Cxcr2(+/-)--> Cxcr2(+/+) animals. In vitro demyelinated CNS slice cultures also showed better myelin repair when CXCR2 was blocked with neutralizing antibodies or was genetically deleted. Our results suggest that CXCR2 inactivation permits optimal spatiotemporal positioning of OPCs in demyelinating lesions to receive local proliferative and differentiating signals. Given that CXCR2 exerts dual functions that promote demyelination and decrease remyelination by actions toward hematopoietic cells and nonhematopoietic cells, respectively, our findings identify CXCR2 as a promising drug target for clinical demyelinating disorders.
Project description:In this project we focused on white matter injury in relapsing remitting MS. We concentrated on material obtained from patients who suffered from fulminant active MS to identify possible sources for ROS production in relation to demyelination and neurodegeneration. To identify possible sources for ROS production in relation to demyelination and neurodegeneration in MS, we used genome wide microarray analysis of gene expression in carefully dissected lesion areas of patients with fulminant acute MS. Preceding the gene expression profiling all cases were characterized histologically and areas of interest were identified. We included 4 control cases, 2 active MS cases were we separated 3 distinct lesions areas (NAWM, initial lesion and early demyelinated lesion) and 1 active MS case were we separated 2 distinct lesion areas (NAWM and early demyelinated lesion). The RNA was isolated from those areas, amplified and hybridized to Agilent G4112A whole genome microarrays.
Project description:Remyelination occurs in multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions but is generally considered to be insufficient. One of the major challenges in MS research is to understand the causes of remyelination failure and to identify therapeutic targets that promote remyelination. Activation of pancreatic endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) signaling in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress modulates cell viability and function under stressful conditions. There is evidence that PERK is activated in remyelinating oligodendrocytes in demyelinated lesions in both MS and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In this study, we sought to determine the role of PERK signaling in remyelinating oligodendrocytes in MS and EAE using transgenic mice that allow temporally controlled activation of PERK signaling specifically in oligodendrocytes. We demonstrated that persistent PERK activation was not deleterious to myelinating oligodendrocytes in young, developing mice or to remyelinating oligodendrocytes in cuprizone-induced demyelinated lesions. We found that enhancing PERK activation, specifically in (re)myelinating oligodendrocytes, protected the cells and myelin against the detrimental effects of interferon-?, a key proinflammatory cytokine in MS and EAE. More important, we showed that enhancing PERK activation in remyelinating oligodendrocytes at the recovery stage of EAE promoted cell survival and remyelination in EAE demyelinated lesions. Thus, our data provide direct evidence that PERK activation cell-autonomously enhances the survival and preserves function of remyelinating oligodendrocytes in immune-mediated demyelinating diseases.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To describe Japanese macaque encephalomyelitis (JME), a spontaneous inflammatory demyelinating disease occurring in the Oregon National Primate Research Center's (ONPRC) colony of Japanese macaques (JMs, Macaca fuscata). METHODS:JMs with neurologic impairment were removed from the colony, evaluated, and treated with supportive care. Animals were humanely euthanized and their central nervous systems (CNSs) were examined. RESULTS:ONPRC's JM colony was established in 1965 and no cases of JME occurred until 1986. Since 1986, 57 JMs spontaneously developed a disease characterized clinically by paresis of 1 or more limbs, ataxia, or ocular motor paresis. Most animals were humanely euthanized during their initial episode. Three recovered, later relapsed, and were then euthanized. There was no gender predilection and the median age for disease was 4 years. Magnetic resonance imaging of 8 cases of JME revealed multiple gadolinium-enhancing T(1) -weighted hyperintensities in the white matter of the cerebral hemispheres, brainstem, cerebellum, and cervical spinal cord. The CNS of monkeys with JME contained multifocal plaque-like demyelinated lesions of varying ages, including acute and chronic, active demyelinating lesions with macrophages and lymphocytic periventricular infiltrates, and chronic, inactive demyelinated lesions. A previously undescribed gamma-herpesvirus was cultured from acute JME white matter lesions. Cases of JME continue to affect 1% to 3% of the ONPRC colony per year. INTERPRETATION:JME is a unique spontaneous disease in a nonhuman primate that has similarities with multiple sclerosis (MS) and is associated with a novel simian herpesvirus. Elucidating the pathogenesis of JME may shed new light on MS and other human demyelinating diseases.
Project description:Over the past few decades, MRI-based visualization of demyelinated CNS lesions has become pivotal to the diagnosis and monitoring of multiple sclerosis (MS). In this Review, we outline current efforts to correlate imaging findings with the pathology of lesion development in MS, and the pitfalls that are being encountered in this research. Multimodal imaging at high and ultra-high magnetic field strengths is yielding biologically relevant insights into the pathophysiology of blood-brain barrier dynamics and both active and chronic inflammation, as well as mechanisms of lesion healing and remyelination. Here, we parallel the results in humans with advances in imaging of a primate model of MS - experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in the common marmoset - in which demyelinated lesions resemble their human counterparts far more closely than do EAE lesions in the rodent. This approach holds promise for the identification of innovative biological markers, and for next-generation clinical trials that will focus more on tissue protection and repair.
Project description:The pathological and radiological hallmarks of multiple sclerosis (MS) include multiple demyelinated lesions disseminated throughout the white matter of the central nervous system (CNS). More recently, the cerebral cortex has been shown to be affected in MS, but the elucidation of events causing cortical demyelination has been hampered by the lack of animal models reflecting such human cortical pathology. In this report, we have described the presence of cortical gray matter and callosal white matter demyelinating lesions in the chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model of MS. Similar to the pathological lesions of MS patients, EAE lesions have been classified as type I-leukocortical, type II-intracortical and type III-subpial. All of these lesions had varying degrees of demyelination, inflammatory cells and reactive astrocytes. Similar to MS, cortical layers during EAE showed demyelination, microglia activation, synaptic protein alterations and apoptotic cells. In addition, the callosal white matter during EAE had many inflammatory demyelinating lesions and axon degeneration. Functional electrophysiological conduction analysis showed deficits in both myelinated and unmyelinated callosal axons during early and late EAE. The chronic EAE mouse model has features that mimic cortical and callosal pathology of MS, and can be potentially used to screen agents to prevent these features of disease.