The association between awareness and behavior concerning the need for protection when using pesticide sprays and neurologic symptoms: A latent class cluster analysis.
ABSTRACT: Pesticide exposure is a major health risk factor among agricultural workers, and poor protective behavior and a lack of awareness concerning the risks of pesticide use in developing countries may increase the intensity of pesticide exposure. This cross-sectional study aimed to explore the relationship between neurologic symptoms and protective behavior and awareness in relation to pesticide use in China. Latent class cluster analysis was used to categorize participants into 3 latent cluster subgroups, namely, a poor protective behavior subgroup, an excellent protective awareness and behavior subgroup, and a poor protective awareness subgroup, using a person-centered approach. Multivariate regression models were used to detect the association between the latent class cluster subgroups and self-reported neurologic symptoms. The results showed that poor protective behavior in pesticide use was an important negative predicator of neurologic symptoms such as reduced sleep quality, frequency of nightmares, debility, hypopsia, and hypomnesis. These findings suggest that targeted interventions for agricultural workers, especially local greenhouse farmers, are urgently needed to improve pesticide protection behavior.
Project description:Objective:The current study was aimed at using a latent profile analysis (LPA) model to classify greenhouse farmers into a potential cluster according to their exposure to pesticide residuals. Further, the association between self-rated health (SRH) and the cluster exposed to pesticide residual was explored. Methods:Four hundred sixty-four farmers from vegetable greenhouses were selected, their SRH information was gathered through questionnaires from the "Self-Rated Health Measurement Scale (SRHMS)" Version 1.0, and the corresponding pesticide residuals were detected in a laboratory. The linear mixed regression model was employed for association assessment. Results:Two latent clusters were extracted as samples, and the results showed that a high amount of pesticide residual accounted for poor physical health, but did not show statistical significance. In addition, an inverse significant association was observed between psychosocial symptoms and negative emotion and pesticide residual level. Furthermore, a diversity of significant relationship was observed in social health and its corresponding dimensions with latent cluster. Conclusions:LPA offers a holistic and parsimonious method to identify high-risk health clusters of greenhouse workers in various health aspects and allows for a personality-targeted intervention by a local health department.
Project description:The intensive use of pesticides has attracted great attention from the Chinese government. However, current regulations have had limited influence on their safe use. Although the acute neurologic effects of pesticides have been well documented, little is known about their cumulative effects. Knowledge of the impact of pesticides on health may convince farmers to minimize their use. We conducted a cross-sectional study in three provinces of China to evaluate the relationship between pesticide exposure and neurological dysfunction. Crop farmers were divided into two groups depending on their level of pesticide exposure. A total of 236 participants were assessed by questionnaire and neurological examination for symptoms and signs of neuropathy. Characteristics of neurologic dysfunction following cumulative low-level exposure were assessed with logistic regression analysis. Farmers exposed to high-level pesticide use had greater risk of developing sensations of numbness or prickling (odds ratio (OR) 2.62, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08-6.36). After adjusting for recent exposure, the risk of numbness or prickling symptoms (OR 2.55, 95% CI: 1.04-6.25) remained statistically significant. Loss of muscle strength and decreased deep tendon reflexes had OR > 2, however, this did not reach statistical significance. These findings suggest that overuse of pesticides increased risk of neurologic dysfunction among farmers, with somatosensory small fibers most likely affected. Measures that are more efficient should be taken to curb excessive use of pesticides.
Project description:AIMS:To assess knowledge, attitude, practice, and toxicity symptoms associated with pesticide use and exposure among 189 farm workers in the Gaza Strip. METHODS:A cross section of agricultural farm workers in the Gaza Strip were asked to fill in a questionnaire on knowledge, attitudes, practice towards pesticide use, and associated toxicity symptoms. RESULTS:Farm workers reported high levels of knowledge on the health impact of pesticides (97.9%). Moderate to high levels of knowledge were recorded on toxicity symptoms related to pesticides. Most farm workers were aware of the protective measures to be used during applying pesticides. However, no one took precautions unless they knew about the measures. Burning sensation in eyes/face was the commonest symptom (64.3%). The prevalence of self reported toxicity symptoms was dependent on mixing and use of high concentrations of pesticides. The highest percentage of self reported toxicity symptoms was found among the farm workers who returned to sprayed fields within one hour of applying pesticides. CONCLUSIONS:Farm workers in the Gaza Strip used pesticides extensively. Despite their knowledge about the adverse health impact of the pesticides, the use of protective measures was poor. Most had self reported toxicity symptoms, particularly the younger workers. It would be useful to minimise the use of pesticides and encourage alternative measures. Prevention and intervention programmes regarding the use of protective measures and monitoring the health status of farm workers should be implemented.
Project description:Poor pesticide handling practices and risk-awareness among African farmers puts human health and the environment at risk. To investigate information available to farmers in Zanzibar (Tanzania), an interview study was conducted with retailers, and governmental pesticide importation to Zanzibar was examined. Pesticide retailers in Zanzibar did not have the necessary knowledge to safely handle or to advise farmers on proper use of pesticides. Licensed shop owners were rarely found in the shops; instead, untrained personnel were employed to sell the pesticides. Implementation of the legislation was weak, mainly due to lack of surveillance by governmental institutions. Poor governmental importation practices and unregulated private imports indicate serious weakness in the management of pesticide importation in Zanzibar. The situation calls for increased attention on the monitoring of pesticide importation and sales to protect the health of farmers and retailers, as well as the environment.
Project description:Pesticide exposure is associated with deleterious health effects. Prior studies suggest Latino farmworkers perceive little control over their occupational health. Using the Health Belief Model as a theoretical guide, we explored the perceptions of Latino farmworkers working in tobacco in North Carolina (n = 72) about benefits and facilitators of pesticide protective behaviors as well as barriers, and strategies to overcome barriers to their use. Interviews were conducted with participants at farmworker housing during non-work time. Qualitative data were analyzed using ATLAS.ti. Farmworkers recognized pesticide protective behaviors as helping them to not get sick and stay healthy. Farmworkers perceived work experience as facilitating protective behaviors. Wetness in the field was the most commonly cited barrier to protective behavior use. To overcome this barrier, farmworkers suggested use of water-resistant outerwear, as well as packing a change of clothes for mid-day, with space and time to change provided by employers. Examination of the efficacy and feasibility of farmworkers' suggestions for addressing barriers is warranted. Training and behavior modeling by experienced peers may improve behavior adoption and perceived control.
Project description:Suicide is an important public health problem. The most frequent psychiatric illnesses associated with suicide or severe suicide attempt are mood and psychotic disorders. The purpose of this paper is to provide an educational overview of suicidal behavior in individuals with schizophrenia. A lifetime suicide rate in individuals with schizophrenia is approximately 10%. Suicide is the largest contributor to the decreased life expectancy in individuals with schizophrenia. Demographic and psychosocial factors that increase a risk of suicide in individuals with schizophrenia include younger age, being male, being unmarried, living alone, being unemployed, being intelligent, being well-educated, good premorbid adjustment or functioning, having high personal expectations and hopes, having an understanding that life's expectations and hopes are not likely to be met, having had recent (i.e., within past 3 months) life events, having poor work functioning, and having access to lethal means, such as firearms. Throughout the first decade of their disorder, patients with schizophrenia are at substantially elevated suicide risk, although they continue to be at elevated suicide risk during their lives with times of worsening or improvement. Having awareness of symptoms, especially, awareness of delusions, anhedonia, asociality, and blunted affect, having a negative feeling about, or non-adherence with, treatment are associated with greater suicide risk in patients with schizophrenia. Comorbid depression and a history of suicidal behavior are important contributors to suicide risk in patients with schizophrenia. The only reliable protective factor for suicide in patients with schizophrenia is provision of and compliance with comprehensive treatment. Prevention of suicidal behavior in schizophrenia should include recognizing patients at risk, delivering the best possible therapy for psychotic symptoms, and managing comorbid depression and substance misuse.
Project description:Among millions of people who suffer from schistosomiasis in China, adolescents are at increased risk to be infected. However, there is a lack of theory-guided behavioral prevention intervention programs to protect these adolescents. This study attempted to apply the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) in predicting intentions to engage in protective behaviors against schistosomiasis infection.The participants were selected using the stratified cluster sampling method. Survey data were collected using anonymous self-reported questionnaire. The advanced structural equation modeling (SEM) method was utilized to assess the complex relationship among schistosomiasis knowledge, previous risk exposure and protective measures in predicting intentions to engage in protective behavior through the PMT constructs.Approximately 70% of participants reported they were always aware of schistosomiasis before exposure to water with endemic schistosomiasis, 6% of the participants reported frequency of weekly or monthly prior exposure to snail-conditioned water. 74% of participants reported having always engaged in protective behaviors in the past three months. Approximately 7% were unlikely or very unlikely to avoid contact with snail-conditioned water, and to use protective behaviors before exposure. Results from SEM analysis indicated that both schistosomiasis knowledge and prior exposure to schistosomiasis were indirectly related to behavior intentions through intrinsic rewards and self-efficacy; prior protective behaviors were indirectly related to behavior intentions through severity, intrinsic rewards and self-efficacy, while awareness had an indirect relationship with behavior intentions through self-efficacy. Among the seven PMT constructs, severity, intrinsic rewards and self-efficacy were significantly associated with behavior intentions.The PMT can be used to predict the intention to engage in protective behaviors against schistosomiasis. Schistosomiasis intervention programs should focus on the severity, intrinsic rewards and self-efficacy of protection motivation, and also increase the awareness of infection, and enrich the contents of schistosomiasis education.
Project description:Smoke Sense is a citizen science project with investigative, educational, and action-oriented objectives at the intersection of wildland fire smoke and public health. Participants engage with a smartphone application to explore current and forecast visualizations of air quality, learn about how to protect health from wildfire smoke, and record their smoke experiences, health symptoms, and behaviors taken to reduce their exposures to smoke. Through participation in the project, individuals engage in observing changes in their environment and recording changes in their health, thus facilitating progression on awareness of health effects of air pollution and adoption of desired health-promoting behaviors. Participants can also view what others are reporting. Data from the pilot season (1 August 2017 to 7 January 2018; 5,598 downloads) suggest that there is a clear demand for personally relevant data during wildfire episodes motivated by recognition of environmental hazard and the personal concern for health. However, while participants shared clear perceptions of the environmental hazard and health risks in general, they did not consistently recognize their own personal health risk. The engagement in health protective behavior was driven in response to symptoms rather than as preventive courses of action. We also observed clear differences in the adoption likelihood of various health protective behaviors attributed to barriers and perceived benefits of these actions. As users experience a greater number and severity of symptoms, the perceived benefits of taking health protective actions exceeded the costs associated with the barriers and thus increased adoption of those actions. Based on pilot season data, we summarize key insights which may improve current health risk communications in nudging individuals toward health protective behavior; there is a need to increase personal awareness of risk and compelling evidence that health protective behaviors are beneficial.
Project description:To present the novel Symptom Cluster Experience Profile (SCEP) framework for guiding symptom research in adult survivors of childhood cancers and other subgroups at risk for high symptom burden.Empirically derived model of symptom cluster experience profiles, existing theoretical frameworks, and data-based literature on symptoms and quality of life in adult survivors of childhood cancers.In a previous study, the authors generated a preliminary model to characterize subgroups of adult survivors of childhood cancers with high-risk symptom cluster profiles. The authors developed the SCEP framework, which depicts symptom cluster experiences as subgroup-specific profiles that are driven by multiple sets of risk and protective factors. The risk and protective factors may directly and indirectly contribute to or alleviate symptoms through their effects on systemic stress. Systemic stress instigates and sustains the symptom experience that, in turn, is expressed through negative diffusion into other components of quality of life, such as functional status, general health perceptions, and overall quality of life.The SCEP framework is an initial approach to unbundle the complex heterogeneity that underlies the clustering of symptoms. By measuring a wide range of risk and protective factors in future studies of adult survivors of childhood cancers and other subgroups at risk for high symptom burden, further development and validation of the SCEP framework will occur.The SCEP framework can be used to specify mechanisms underlying symptom cluster profiles and derive interventions targeted to high-risk symptom profiles. Findings from future studies can be translated to risk-based surveillance and symptom management clinical practice guidelines.
Project description:Because multiple symptoms associated with "sickness behavior" have a negative impact on functional status and quality of life, increased information on the mechanisms that underlie inter-individual variability in this symptom experience is needed. The purposes of this study were to determine: if distinct classes of individuals could be identified based on their experience with pain, fatigue, sleep disturbance, and depression; if these classes differed on demographic and clinical characteristics; and if variations in pro- and anti- inflammatory cytokine genes were associated with latent class membership. Self-report measures of pain, fatigue, sleep disturbance, and depression were completed by 168 oncology outpatients and 85 family caregivers (FCs). Using latent class profile analysis (LCPA), three relatively distinct classes were identified: those who reported low depression and low pain (83%), those who reported high depression and low pain (4.7%), and those who reported high levels of all four symptoms (12.3%). The minor allele of IL4 rs2243248 was associated with membership in the "All high" class along with younger age, being White, being a patient (versus a FC), having a lower functional status score, and having a higher number of comorbid conditions. Findings suggest that LPCA can be used to differentiate distinct phenotypes based on a symptom cluster associated with sickness behavior. Identification of distinct phenotypes provides new evidence for the role of IL4 in the modulation of a sickness behavior symptom cluster in oncology patients and their FCs.