Diagnostic value of polymerase chain reaction/acid-fast bacilli in conjunction with computed tomography-guided pleural biopsy in tuberculous pleurisy: A diagnostic accuracy study.
ABSTRACT: Patients with tuberculous pleurisy often remain undiagnosed even after blind thoracentesis and closed pleural biopsy (PB). In this study, we assessed the value of computed tomography (CT)-guided core needle biopsy of pleural lesion and evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/staining for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) in suspicious tuberculous pleurisy undiagnosed in blind thoracentesis.Patients with exudative pleural effusion (PE) without specific etiology after blind thoracentesis and closed PB were enrolled in this study. PB specimens were obtained through CT-guided core needle biopsy of pleural lesion, then underwent PCR, AFB, histopathological examination, and some routine tests. Diagnostic values were evaluated through sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, positive predictive value, and accuracy.A total of 261 participants (TB group: 241, non-TB group: 20) were recruited. In this cohort, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 56.0%, 95.0%, and 59.0%, respectively for PCR, whereas 57.3%, 95.0%, and 60.2%, respectively for AFB. Their parallel test achieved an improved sensitivity (76.8%) and accuracy (77.8%), with a slight decrease in specificity (90.0%). In histopathological examination, granuloma was the most common finding in TB group (88.4%, 213/241), but also observed in non-TB group (10.0%, 2/20). In addition, pleural lymphocyte percentage in TB group was significantly higher than that of non-TB group (92% vs 61%, respectively; P?=?.003). However, no significant differences were found for other biomarkers.CT-guided core needle PB is essential for patients with exudative PE but undiagnosed after blind thoracentesis. Combining with PCR and AFB, it strongly improves the diagnosis of tuberculous pleurisy.
Project description:BACKGROUND Traditional diagnostic methods for tuberculosis (TB) cannot be reliably applied to tuberculous pleurisy. Therefore, this prospective, randomized, controlled trial was performed to compare the diagnostic sensitivity and safety of ultrasound-guided cutting-needle pleural biopsy versus thoracoscopic pleural biopsy in patients suspected of tuberculous pleurisy following inconclusive thoracentesis. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 196 adult patients with acid-fast bacillus (AFB)-negative exudative pleural effusions clinically suspected of tuberculous pleurisy were recruited. Enrollees were randomized into 2 cohorts: ultrasound-guided cutting-needle pleural biopsy (n=96) or thoracoscopic pleural biopsy (n=96). The overall diagnostic yields, diagnostic sensitivities for tuberculous pleurisy, and post-procedural complications for both cohorts were statistically compared. RESULTS Ultrasound-guided pleural biopsy displayed an overall diagnostic yield of 83%, while thorascopic pleural biopsy displayed a similar overall diagnostic yield of 86% (?²=1.88, df=1, p=0.17). There were 127 patients conclusively diagnosed with tuberculous pleurisy, resulting in a tuberculous pleurisy prevalence of 65% in this patient population (66% in the ultrasound cohort vs. 63% in the thoracoscopy cohort; p>0.05). Ultrasound-guided pleural biopsy displayed a sensitivity of 82% in detecting tuberculous pleurisy, while thorascopic pleural biopsy displayed a similar sensitivity of 90% (?²=1.05, df=1, p=0.30). The sensitivities of these 2 modalities did not significantly differ based on the degree of pleural thickening (p>0.05). Post-procedural complications were minor. CONCLUSIONS Ultrasound-guided and thoracoscopic pleural biopsy both display strong (>80%) but statistically similar overall diagnostic yields for diagnosing pleural effusions following inconclusive thoracentesis. Both modalities also display strong (>80%) but statistically similar sensitivities in detecting tuberculous pleurisy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Tuberculous pleurisy (TBP) is the most common form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB). However, rapid diagnostic methods with high accuracy for tuberculous pleurisy are urgently needed. In the present study, we evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of Xpert MTB/RIF, LAMP and SAT-TB assay with pleural fluids from culture-positive TBP patients. METHODS:We prospectively enrolled 300 patients with exudative pleural effusions used as the samples for Xpert MTB/RIF, LAMP and SAT-TB assay. Of these, 265 including 223 patients diagnosed with TBP and 42 non-TBP patients used as controls were analyzed. RESULTS:The sensitivities of Xpert MTB/RIF (27.4%), LAMP (26.5%) and SAT-TB assay (32.3%) were significantly higher than that of pleural effusion smear (14.3%, X2?=?20.65, P?<? 0.001), whereas they were much lower than expected for the analysis of pleural effusion samples. Both SAT-TB assay and Xpert MTB/RIF demonstrated high specificities (100%) and PPVs (100%), but the NPVs of all of the tests were?<?22%. The area under ROC curve of pleural effusion smear, LAMP, Xpert MTB/RIF and SAT-TB assays was 0.524 (95% CI 0.431-0.617), 0.632 (95% CI 0.553-0.71), 0.637 (95% CI 0.56-0.714) and 0.673 (95% CI 0.6-0.745). SAT-TB assays had the highest AUC. CONCLUSION:Nucleic acid amplification tests are not the first choice in the diagnosis of tuberculous pleurisy. In this type of test, SAT-TB is recommended because of its low cost, relatively more accurate compared with the other two tests. This prospective study was approved by The Ethics Committee of the Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital (approval number: K19-148). TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: ChiCTR1900026234 (Retrospectively registered). The registration date is September 28, 2019.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The Xpert MTB/RIF assay is an automated molecular test that is designed to simultaneously detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) complex and rifampin resistance. However, there are relatively few studies on this method in China. Xpert has been routinely used at Peking University People's Hospital (PKUPH) since November 2016. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of Xpert, and provide a reference and guidance for the detection and diagnosis of TB in non-TB specialized hospitals. METHODS:The medical records of inpatients simultaneously tested with Xpert, acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear microscopy, and interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA, by T-SPOT®.TB) at PKUPH from November 2016 to October 2018 were reviewed. Active TB cases were considered according to a composite reference standard (CRS). Then, the three methods were evaluated and compared. RESULTS:In total, 787 patients simultaneously tested with Xpert, AFB, and IGRA were enrolled; among them 11.3% (89/787) were diagnosed and confirmed active pulmonary TB (PTB, 52 cases), extrapulmonary TB (EPTB, 17 cases), and tuberculous pleurisy (TP, 20 cases). The sensitivity of Xpert in detecting PTB, EPTB, and TP was 88.5, 76.5, and 15.0%, respectively, which was slightly lower than IGRA (96.2, 82.4, and 95.0%, respectively), but higher than AFB (36.5, 11.8, and 0%, respectively); IGRA showed the highest sensitivity, but its specificity (55.9, 67.1, and 45.2%, respectively) was significantly lower than Xpert (99.6, 99.4, and 100%, respectively) and AFB (99.0, 99.4, and 100%, respectively) (P?<?0.001). The sensitivity of Xpert in detecting lung tissue, cerebrospinal fluid, lymph nodes, and joint fluid was 100%, followed by sputum (88.5%), alveolar lavage (85.7%), and bronchoscopy secretion (81.2%); the pleural fluid sensitivity was the lowest, only 15.0%. For AFB negative patients, the sensitivity of Xpert in detecting PTB, EPTB, and TP was 84.9, 73.3, and 15.0%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:Xpert showed both high sensitivity and high specificity, and suggested its high value in TB diagnosis; however, the application of pleural fluid is still limited, and should be improved. Owing to the high sensitivity of IGRA, it is recommended for use as a supplementary test, especially for assisting in the diagnosis of TP and EPTB.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>IFN-? is presently the only soluble immunological marker used to help diagnose latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) infection. However, IFN-? is not available to distinguish latent from active TB infection. Moreover, extrapulmonary tuberculosis, such as tuberculous pleurisy, cannot be properly diagnosed by IFN-? release assay. As a result, other disease- or infection-related immunological biomarkers that would be more effective need to be screened and identified.<h4>Methodology</h4>A panel of 41 soluble immunological molecules (17 cytokines and 24 chemokines) was tested using Luminex liquid array-based multiplexed immunoassays. Samples, including plasma and pleural effusions, from healthy donors (HD, n?=?12) or patients with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI, n?=?20), pulmonary tuberculosis (TB, n?=?12), tuberculous pleurisy (TP, n?=?15) or lung cancer (LC, n?=?15) were collected and screened for soluble markers. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and pleural fluid mononuclear cells (PFMCs) were also isolated to investigate antigen-specific immune factors.<h4>Principal findings</h4>For the 41 examined factors, our results indicated that three patterns were closely associated with infection and disease. (1) Significantly elevated plasma levels of IL-2, IP-10, CXCL11 and CXCL12 were present in both patients with tuberculosis and in a sub-group participant with latent tuberculosis infection who showed a higher level of IFN-? producing cells by ELISPOT assay compared with other latently infected individuals. (2) IL-6 and IL-9 were only significantly increased in plasma from active TB patients, and the two factors were consistently highly secreted after M.tb antigen stimulation. (3) When patients developed tuberculous pleurisy, CCL1, CCL21 and IL-6 were specifically increased in the pleural effusions. In particular, these three factors were consistently highly secreted by pleural fluid mononuclear cells following M.tb-specific antigen stimulation. In conclusion, our data imply that the specific secretion of soluble immunological factors, in addition to IFN-?, may be used to evaluate M.tb infection and tuberculosis disease.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Tuberculous pleurisy is traditionally indicated by extreme lymphocytosis in pleural fluid and low yield of effusion culture. However, there is considerable inconsistency among previous study results. In addition, these data should be updated due to early effusion studies and advances in culture methods. METHODS: From January 2004 to June 2009, patients with tuberculous pleurisy were retrospectively identified from the mycobacteriology laboratories and the pathology and tuberculosis registration databases of two hospitals in Taiwan where tuberculosis is endemic. Pleural fluid characteristics and yields of mycobacterial cultures using liquid media were evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 382 patients with tuberculous pleurisy were identified. The median lymphocyte percentage of total cells in pleural fluids was 84% (IQR 64-95%) and 17% of cases had a lymphocyte percentage of <50%. The lymphocyte percentage was negatively associated with the probability of a positive effusion culture (OR 0.97; 95% CI 0.96 to 0.99). The diagnostic yields were 63% for effusion culture, 48% for sputum culture, 79% for the combination of effusion and sputum cultures, and 74% for histological examination of pleural biopsy specimens. CONCLUSION: The degree of lymphocyte predominance in tuberculous pleurisy was lower than was previously thought. The lymphocyte percentage in pleural fluid was negatively associated with the probability of a positive effusion culture. With the implementation of a liquid culture method, the sensitivity of effusion culture was much higher than has been previously reported, and the combination of effusion and sputum cultures provided a good diagnostic yield.
Project description:Exudative pleural effusions, such as malignant and tuberculous pleural effusions, are associated with notable morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, a significant number of these effusions will remain undiagnosed despite thoracentesis. Traditionally, closed pleural biopsies have been the next best diagnostic step, but the diagnostic yield of blind closed pleural biopsies for malignant pleural effusions is insufficient. When image-guided targeted biopsies are not possible, both pleuroscopy and video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery are reasonable options for obtaining pleural biopsies, but the decision to select one procedure over the other continues to raise much debate. Pleuroscopy (aka. medical thoracoscopy, local anaesthetic thoracoscopy) is a relatively common procedure performed by interventional pulmonologists in the bronchoscopy suite with local anesthesia, often as an outpatient procedure, on spontaneously breathing patients. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery, on the other hand, is performed by thoracic surgeons in the operating room, on mechanically ventilated patients under general anesthesia, though admittedly considerable overlap exists in practice. Both pleuroscopy and video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery have reported diagnostic yields of over 90%, although pleuroscopy more often leads to the unsatisfactory diagnosis of 'non-specific' pleuritis. These cases of 'non-specific' pleuritis need to be followed up for at least one year, as 10-15% of them will eventually lead to the diagnosis of cancer, typically malignant pleural mesothelioma. Both procedures have their pros and cons, and it is therefore of paramount importance that all cases be discussed as part of a multidisciplinary approach to diagnosis within a "pleural team" that should ideally include interventional pulmonologists and thoracic surgeons.
Project description:Pleural fibrosis is defined as an excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) components that results in destruction of the normal pleural tissue architecture. It can result from diverse inflammatory conditions, especially tuberculous pleurisy. Pleural mesothelial cells (PMCs) play a pivotal role in pleural fibrosis. Calpain is a family of calcium-dependent endopeptidases, which plays an important role in ECM remodeling. However, the role of calpain in pleural fibrosis remains unknown. In the present study, we found that tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) induced calpain activation in PMCs and that inhibition of calpain prevented TPE-induced collagen-I synthesis and cell proliferation of PMCs. Moreover, our data revealed that the levels of angiotensin (ANG)-converting enzyme (ACE) were significantly higher in pleural fluid of patients with TPE than those with malignant pleural effusion, and ACE-ANG II in TPE resulted in activation of calpain and subsequent triggering of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/NF-?B signaling pathway in PMCs. Finally, calpain activation in PMCs and collagen depositions were confirmed in pleural biopsy specimens from patients with tuberculous pleurisy. Together, these studies demonstrated that calpain is activated by renin-angiotensin system in pleural fibrosis and mediates TPE-induced collagen-I synthesis and proliferation of PMCs via the PI3K/Akt/NF-?B signaling pathway. Calpain in PMCs might be a novel target for intervention in tuberculous pleural fibrosis.
Project description:Smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is common and difficult to diagnose. In this study, we investigated the diagnostic value of nucleic acid amplification testing and sequencing combined with acid-fast bacteria (AFB) staining of needle biopsy lung tissues for patients with suspected smear-negative PTB.Patients with suspected smear-negative PTB who underwent percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy between May 1, 2012, and June 30, 2015, were enrolled in this retrospective study. Patients with AFB in sputum smears were excluded. All lung biopsy specimens were fixed in formalin, embedded in paraffin, and subjected to acid-fast staining and tuberculous polymerase chain reaction (TB-PCR). For patients with positive AFB and negative TB-PCR results in lung tissues, probe assays and 16S rRNA sequencing were used for identification of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and diagnostic accuracy of PCR and AFB staining were calculated separately and in combination.Among the 220 eligible patients, 133 were diagnosed with TB (men/women: 76/57; age range: 17-80 years, confirmed TB: 9, probable TB: 124). Forty-eight patients who were diagnosed with other specific diseases were assigned as negative controls, and 39 patients with indeterminate final diagnosis were excluded from statistical analysis. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of histological AFB (HAFB) for the diagnosis of smear-negative were 61.7% (82/133), 100% (48/48), 100% (82/82), 48.5% (48/181), and 71.8% (130/181), respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of histological PCR were 89.5% (119/133), 95.8% (46/48), 98.3% (119/121), and 76.7% (46/60), respectively, demonstrating that histological PCR had significantly higher accuracy (91.2% [165/181]) than histological acid-fast staining (71.8% [130/181]), P < 0.001. Parallel testing of histological AFB staining and PCR showed the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy to be 94.0% (125/133), 95.8% (46/48), 98.4% (125/127), 85.2% (46/54), and 94.5% (171/181), respectively. Among patients with positive AFB and negative PCR results in lung tissue specimens, two were diagnosed with NTM infections (Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex and Mycobacterium kansasii).Nucleic acid amplification testing combined with acid-fast staining in lung biopsy tissues can lead to early and accurate diagnosis in patients with smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis. For patients with positive histological AFB and negative tuberculous PCR results in lung tissue, NTM infection should be suspected and could be identified by specific probe assays or 16S rRNA sequencing.
Project description:Background: The diagnostic value of pleural effusion mononuclear cells count for tuberculous pleurisy (TBP) is unclear. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic value of pleural effusion mononuclear cells count and its combination with adenosine deaminase (ADA) in TBP patients. Methods: We initially analyzed 296 patients with unknown pleural effusion from the Department of Respiratory Medicine at Provincial People's Hospital during January 2014 to February 2018. Ultimately, 100 tuberculous pleurisy (TBP) patients and 105 non-tuberculous pleurisy (non-TBP) patients with pleural effusion were investigated in the current study. Meanwhile, pleural effusion mononuclear cells count and ADA test were performed to evaluate the diagnostic value for TBP. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), positive likelihood ratio (LR+), negative likelihood ratio (LR-), accuracy and area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) of pleural effusion mononuclear cells count only and its combination with ADA for TBP diagnosis were investigated. Results: (i) The best cut-off value of pleural effusion mononuclear cells count for TBP diagnosis was 969.6 × 106/L, with the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 76, 57, and 66%, respectively. (ii) Combination of pleural effusion mononuclear cells count and ADA test suggested diagnostic value for TBP. Specifically, serial test showed the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy of 65, 90, 78%, respectively, whereas parallel test revealed the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy of 92, 45, 68%, respectively. The sensitivity of parallel test (92%) was significantly higher than pleural effusion mononuclear cells count alone (76%) (X2 = 23.19, p < 0.001). (iii) The area under the ROC of pleural effusion mononuclear cells count and it combined with ADA were 0.66 (95% CI, 0.59-0.72) and 0.83 (95% CI, 0.78-0.89), respectively, with statistically significant difference (Z = 3.46, p < 0.001). Conclusion: This retrospective case-control study demonstrated that pleural effusion mononuclear cells count is relatively useful for TBP diagnosis. Furthermore, the pleural effusion mononuclear cells count in combination with ADA can further improve the diagnostic accuracy of TBP.
Project description:Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase [NOX] enzymes serve several hemostatic and host defense functions in various lung diseases, but the role of NOX4 signaling in tuberculous pleurisy is not well understood. The role of NOX4 signaling in tuberculous pleural fibrosis was studied using invitro pleural mesothelial cell (PMC) experiments and a murine model of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette?Guérin (BCG) pleural infection. The production of NOX4 reactive oxygen species (NOX4?ROS) and the epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) in PMCs were both induced by heat-killed mycobacterium tuberculosis (HKMT). In cultured PMCs, HKMT-induced collagen-1 synthesis and EMT were blocked by pretreatment with small interfering RNA (siRNA) NOX4. Moreover, NOX4?ROS production and subsequent fibrosis were reduced by treatment with losartan and the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) inhibitor TAK-242. The HKMT-induced EMT and intracellular ROS production were mediated by NOX4 via the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling. Finally, in a BCG-induced pleurisy model, recruitment of inflammatory pleural cells, release of inflammatory cytokines, and thickened mesothelial fibrosis were attenuated by SiNOX4 compared to SiCon. Our study identified that HKMT-induced pleural fibrosis is mediated by NOX4?ERK?ROS via TLR4 and Angiotensin II receptor type1 (AT1R). There results suggest that NOX4 may be a novel therapeutic target for intervention in tuberculous pleural fibrosis.