Safety of Electronic Cigarette Use During Breastfeeding: Qualitative Study Using Online Forum Discussions.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) are an increasingly popular alternative to smoking, helping to prevent relapse in those trying to quit and with the potential to reduce harm as they are likely to be safer than standard cigarettes. Many women return to smoking in the postpartum period having stopped during pregnancy, and while this can affect their decisions about breastfeeding, little is known about women's opinions on using e-cigs during this period. OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study is to explore online forum users' current attitudes, motivations, and barriers to postpartum e-cig use, particularly as a breastfeeding mother. METHODS:Data were collected via publicly accessible (identified by Google search) online forum discussions, and a priori codes identified. All transcripts were entered into NVivo for analysis, with a template approach to thematic analysis being used to code all transcripts from which themes were derived. RESULTS:Four themes were identified: use, perceived risk, social support and evidence, with a number of subthemes identified within these. Women were using e-cigs to prevent postpartum return to smoking, but opinions on their safety were conflicting. They were concerned about possible transfer of harmful products from e-cigs via breastmilk and secondhand exposure, so they were actively seeking and sharing information on e-cigs from a variety of sources. Although some women were supportive of e-cig use, others provided harsh judgement for mothers who used them. CONCLUSIONS:E-cigs have the potential to reduce the number of women who return to smoking in the postpartum period and potentially improve breastfeeding rates, if breastfeeding mothers have access to relevant and reliable information. Health care providers should consider discussing e-cigs with mothers at risk of returning to smoking in the postpartum period.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: Approximately 40% of women who smoke tobacco quit smoking during pregnancy, yet up to 85% relapse after delivery. Those who resume smoking often do so by 2 to 8 weeks postpartum. Smoking mothers are more than twice as likely to quit breastfeeding by 10 weeks postpartum. The hospitalization of a newborn, while stressful, is an opportunity to emphasize the importance of a smoke-free environment for babies. Supporting maternal-infant bonding may reduce maternal stress and motivate mothers to remain smoke free and continue breastfeeding. The objective of this study was to reduce postpartum smoking relapse and prolong breastfeeding duration during the first 8 weeks postpartum in mothers who quit smoking just before or during pregnancy and have newborns admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). STUDY DESIGN: This study was an Institutional Review Board-approved prospective randomized clinical trial. After informed consent, mothers of newborns admitted to the NICU were randomized to a control or intervention group. Both groups received weekly encouragement to remain smoke free and routine breastfeeding support. Mothers in the intervention group were also given enhanced support for maternal-infant bonding including information about newborn behaviors, and were encouraged to frequently hold their babies skin-to-skin. RESULT: More mothers were smoke free (81 vs 46%, P<0.001) and breastfeeding (86 vs 21%, P<0.001) in the intervention than in the control group at 8 weeks postpartum. CONCLUSION: Interventions to support mother-infant bonding during a newborn's hospitalization in the NICU are associated with reduced rates of smoking relapse and prolonged duration of breastfeeding during the first 8 weeks postpartum.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Nicotine-containing electronic cigarette (e-cig) use has become widespread. However, understanding the biological impact of e-cigs compared with smoking on the lung is needed. There are major gaps in knowledge for chronic effects and for an etiology to recent acute lung toxicity leading to death among vapers.<h4>Methods</h4>We conducted bronchoscopies in a cross-sectional study of 73 subjects (42 never-smokers, 15 e-cig users, and 16 smokers). Using bronchoalveolar lavage and brushings, we examined lung inflammation by cell counts, cytokines, genome-wide gene expression, and DNA methylation.<h4>Results</h4>There were statistically significant differences among never-smokers, e-cig users, and smokers for inflammatory cell counts and cytokines (FDR <i>q</i> < 0.1). The e-cig users had values intermediate between smokers and never-smokers, with levels for most of the biomarkers more similar to never-smokers. For differential gene expression and DNA methylation, e-cig users also more like never-smokers; many of these genes corresponded to smoking-related pathways, including those for xenobiotic metabolism, aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling, and oxidative stress. Differentially methylated genes were correlated with changes in gene expression, providing evidence for biological effects of the methylation associations.<h4>Conclusions</h4>These data indicate that e-cigs are associated with less toxicity than cigarettes for smoking-related pathways. What is unknown may be unique effects for e-cigs not measured herein, and a comparison of smokers completely switching to e-cigs compared with former smokers. Clinical trials for smokers switching to e-cigs who undergo serial bronchoscopy and larger cross-sectional studies of former smokers with and without e-cig use, and for e-cigs who relapse back to smoking, are needed.<h4>Impact</h4>These data can be used for product regulation and for informing tobacco users considering or using e-cigs. What is unknown may be unique effects for e-cigs not measured herein, and clinical trials with serial bronchoscopy underway can demonstrate a direct relationship for changes in lung biomarkers.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Recently, electronic cigarette (e-cig) usage has increased significantly, making it a potentially effective smoking cessation tool. In Muslim countries, most people who use e-cigarettes fast the month of Ramadan, which results in intermittent fasting. This study aims to reveal the severity of e-cig withdrawal symptoms among users during this intermittent fasting period.<h4>Methods</h4>A self-administered survey was developed and validated to solicit anonymous responses from e-cig users living in Jordan, through a cross-sectional study design. Participants were recruited through social media resources. Severity scores of physical (out of 11) and psychological (out of 8) withdrawal symptoms for each participant were assessed and calculated for each participant, depending on the symptoms reported.<h4>Results</h4>A convenience sample (n?=?523) of e-cig adult users were recruited. The majority of the participants were males (96.4%) aged between 18 and 40 years (86.4%). Many participants replaced tobacco smoking with e-cig (53.5%) in order to help them stop smoking. More than half of the participants experienced relatively weak physical (0.82?±?1.78) and psychological (1.24?±?1.89) withdrawal symptoms during the month of fasting. Most of the participants (63.2%) preferred to engage themselves with a busy schedule to tolerate the related withdrawal symptoms they experienced.<h4>Conclusion</h4>E-cigs could play a vital role in smoking cessation among tobacco smokers during intermittent fasting. Ramadan offers a good opportunity for smokers to quit, as the reported physical and psychological e-cig withdrawal symptoms were found to be relatively weak. Awareness and behavioral interventions would help clarify the effect of e-cigs and help determine alternative ways to cease smoking.
Project description:Postpartum weight retention contributes to obesity risk in women. Given that most women who quit smoking as a result of pregnancy will resume smoking within 6 months postpartum and that there is a robust association between smoking and weight, we sought to evaluate postpartum weight retention as a function of postpartum smoking status among women who had quit smoking during pregnancy. Women (N = 183) with biochemically confirmed cigarette abstinence at the end of pregnancy were recruited between February 2003 and November 2006. Women self-reported demographic information and weight before pregnancy. Smoking status and weight were documented at the end of pregnancy and at 6, 12, and 24 weeks postpartum. Breastfeeding was reported at 6 weeks postpartum. Differences in weight retention by relapse status at each assessment were evaluated. To examine weight retention in the presence of conceptually relevant covariates, mixed models with log-transformed weight data were used. At 24 weeks postpartum, 34.6% of women remained abstinent. Women who remained abstinent throughout the 24-week period retained 4.7 ± 2.1 kg more than did women who had relapsed by 6 weeks postpartum, P = 0.03. This difference in postpartum weight retention was significant after controlling for relevant covariates (age, race, breastfeeding, and pregravid BMI). Resumption of smoking within the first 6 weeks following childbirth is associated with decreased postpartum weight retention, even after controlling for breastfeeding and pregravid weight. Interventions to sustain smoking abstinence postpartum might be enhanced by components designed to minimize weight retention.
Project description:Full breastfeeding (FBF) is promoted as effective for losing pregnancy weight during the postpartum period. This study evaluated whether longer FBF is associated with lower maternal postpartum weight retention (PPWR) as compared to a shorter FBF duration. The MILK (Mothers and Infants Linked for Healthy Growth) study is an ongoing prospective cohort of 370 mother-infant dyads, all of whom fully breastfed their infants for at least 1 month. Breastfeeding status was subsequently self-reported by mothers at 3 and 6 months postpartum. Maternal PPWR was calculated as maternal weight measured at 1, 3, and 6 months postpartum minus maternal prepregnancy weight. Using linear mixed effects models, by 6 months postpartum, adjusted means ± standard errors for weight retention among mothers who fully breastfed for 1-3 (3.40 ± 1.16 kg), 3-6 (1.41 ± 0.69 kg), and ≥6 months (0.97 ± 0.32 kg) were estimated. Compared to mothers who reported FBF for 1-3 months, those who reported FBF for 3-6 months and ≥6 months both had lower PPWR over the period from 1 to 6 months postpartum (p = 0.04 and p < 0.01, respectively). However, PPWR from 3 to 6 months was not significantly different among those who reported FBF for 3-6 versus ≥6 months (p > 0.05). Interventions to promote FBF past 3 months may increase the likelihood of postpartum return to prepregnancy weight.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cigarettes share a high rate of co-use with alcohol, particularly among young adults. Studies have demonstrated greater perceived pleasure from smoking cigarettes when drinking alcohol. However, little is known about co-use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) and alcohol. The current study sought to compare extent of use and perceived pleasure from cigarettes and e-cigs when drinking alcohol. METHODS:Young adult bar patrons in California cities (San Diego, Los Angeles, and San Francisco) were recruited in 2015-16 using randomized time-location sampling. Participants completed cross-sectional surveys in bars, reporting the percent of cigarette smoking/e-cig use that occurred under the influence of alcohol, and reported if pleasure from smoking cigarettes/using e-cigs changed when drinking alcohol. Analyses are limited to participants reporting current (past 30-day) use of cigarettes, e-cigs, and alcohol (N?=?269; M age?=?24.1; 40.1% female, 36.1% Non-Hispanic White). RESULTS:Participants reported a greater percentage of cigarette smoking compared to e-cig use under the influence of alcohol (cigarettes M?=?63.6%; e-cigs M?=?46.7%; p?<?.001). Participants also reported increased pleasure both from smoking cigarettes (M?=?3.9; [compared to midpoint of scale 3 - "no change"] p?<?.001) and using e-cigs (M?=?3.3; p?<?.001) when drinking alcohol. The increase in pleasure was more pronounced for cigarettes compared to e-cigs (p?<?.001). CONCLUSIONS:Drinking alcohol is associated with increases in perceived rewarding effects of both cigarettes and e-cigs and thus may increase their abuse liability. This effect may be stronger for cigarettes, which could be an important barrier to switching completely from smoking cigarettes to using e-cigs, or quitting both entirely.
Project description:Excess maternal weight has been negatively associated with breastfeeding. We examined correlates of breastfeeding initiation and intensity in a racially diverse sample of overweight and obese women. This paper presents a secondary analysis of data from 450 women enrolled in a postpartum weight loss intervention (Active Mothers Postpartum [AMP]). Sociodemographic measures and body mass index (BMI), collected at 6 weeks postpartum, were examined for associations with breastfeeding initiation and lactation score (a measure combining duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding until 12 months postpartum). Data were collected September 2004-April 2007. In multivariable analyses, BMI was negatively associated with both initiation of breastfeeding (OR: .96; CI: .92-.99) and lactation score (? -0.22; P = 0.01). Education and infant gestational age were additional correlates of initiation, while race, working full-time, smoking, parity, and gestational age were additional correlates of lactation score. Some racial differences in these correlates were noted, but were not statistically significant. Belief that breastfeeding could aid postpartum weight loss was initially high, but unrelated to breastfeeding initiation or intensity. Maintenance of this belief over time, however, was associated with lower lactation scores. BMI was negatively correlated with breastfeeding initiation and intensity. Among overweight and obese women, unrealistic expectations regarding the effect of breastfeeding on weight loss may negatively impact breastfeeding duration. In general, overweight and obese women may need additional encouragement to initiate breastfeeding and to continue breastfeeding during the infant's first year.
Project description:BACKGROUND:An outbreak of E-cigarette or Vaping Product Use-Associated Lung Injury (EVALI) with significant morbidity and mortality was reported in 2019. While most patients with EVALI report vaping tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) oils contaminated with vitamin E acetate, a subset report only vaping with nicotine-containing electronic cigarettes (e-cigs). Whether or not e-cigs cause EVALI, the outbreak highlights the need for identifying long term health effects of e-cigs. EVALI pathology includes alveolar damage, pneumonitis and/or organizing pneumonia, often with lipid-laden macrophages (LLM). We assessed LLM in the lungs of healthy smokers, e-cig users, and never-smokers as a potential marker of e-cig toxicity and EVALI. METHODS:A cross-sectional study using bronchoscopy was conducted in healthy smokers, e-cig users, and never-smokers (n = 64). LLM, inflammatory cell counts, and cytokines were determined in bronchial alveolar fluids (BAL). E-cig users included both never-smokers and former light smokers. FINDINGS:High LLM was found in the lungs of almost all smokers and half of the e-cig users, but not those of never-smokers. LLM were not related to THC exposure or smoking history. LLM were significantly associated with inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 in e-cig users, but not smoking-related cytokines. INTERPRETATION:This is the first report of lung LLM comparing apparently healthy smokers, e-cig users, and never-smokers. LLM are not a specific marker for EVALI given the frequent positivity in smokers; whether LLMs are a marker of lung inflammation in some e-cig users requires further study. FUNDING:The National Cancer Institute, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, the Food and Drug Administration Center for Tobacco Products, the National Center For Advancing Translational Sciences, and Pelotonia Intramural Research Funds.
Project description:The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, overlaps with the ongoing epidemics of cigarette smoking and electronic cigarette (e-cig) vaping. However, there is scarce data relating COVID-19 risks and outcome with cigarette or e-cig use. In this study, we mined three independent RNA expression datasets from smokers and vapers to understand the potential relationship between vaping/smoking and the dysregulation of key genes and pathways related to COVID-19. We found that smoking, but not vaping, upregulates ACE2, the cellular receptor that SARS-CoV-2 requires for infection. Both smoking and use of nicotine and flavor-containing e-cigs led to upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inflammasome-related genes. Specifically, chemokines including CCL20 and CXCL8 are upregulated in smokers, and CCL5 and CCR1 are upregulated in flavor/nicotine-containing e-cig users. We also found genes implicated in inflammasomes, such as CXCL1, CXCL2, NOD2, and ASC, to be upregulated in smokers and these e-cig users. Vaping flavor and nicotine-less e-cigs, however, did not lead to significant cytokine dysregulation and inflammasome activation. Release of inflammasome products, such as IL-1B, and cytokine storms are hallmarks of COVID-19 infection, especially in severe cases. Therefore, our findings demonstrated that smoking or vaping may critically exacerbate COVID-19-related inflammation or increase susceptibility to COVID-19.