ABSTRACT: Tumor immune tolerance remains a major barrier for effective anti-cancer therapy. A growing number of pathways whereby solid tumors escape immune surveillance have been characterized (1). This progress led us to revisit the "hallmarks of cancer" and brought forward many promising immunotherapies. Every growing bodies of research have brought forward many exciting treatment strategies for hematological cancers like chimeric antigen receptor T cells (CAR-T cells) and immune checkpoint inhibitors. Given the distinct characteristics of the different cancers, some benefited profoundly from such therapies while some remain challenging for scientists and physicians. Here, we discuss the unique aspect of hematological malignancies, and briefly review the history, existing and future of immunotherapies for this group of cancer.
Project description:Recent cancer treatment modalities have been intensively focused on immunotherapy. The success of chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy for treatment of refractory B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia has pushed forward research on hematological malignancies. Among the effector types of innate lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) cells show great importance in immune surveillance against infectious and tumor diseases. Particularly, the role of NK cells has been argued in either elimination of target tumor cells or escape of tumor cells from immune surveillance. Therefore, an NK cell activation approach has been explored. Recent findings demonstrate that invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells capable of producing IFN-? when optimally activated can promptly trigger NK cells. Here, we review the role of NKT and/or NK cells and their interaction in anti-tumor responses by highlighting how innate immune cells recognize tumors, exert effector functions, and amplify adaptive immune responses. In addition, we discuss these innate lymphocytes in hematological disorders, particularly multiple myeloma and acute myeloid leukemia. The immune balance at different stages of both diseases is explored in light of disease progression. Various types of innate immunity-mediated therapeutic approaches, recent advances in clinical immunotherapies, and iNKT-mediated cancer immunotherapy as next-generation immunotherapy are then discussed.
Project description:Complement, as a central immune surveillance system, can be activated within seconds upon stimulation, thereby displaying multiple immune effector functions. However, in pathologic scenarios (like in tumor progression), activated complement can both display protective effects to control tumor development and passively promotes the tumor growth. Clinical investigations show that patients with several hematological malignancies often display abnormal level of specific complement components, which in turn modulates complement activation or deregulated cascade. In the past decades, complement-dependent cytotoxicity and complement-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis were fully approved to display vital roles in monoclonal antibody-based immunotherapies, especially in therapies against hematological malignancies. However, tumor-mediated complement evasion presents a big challenge for such a therapy. This review aims to provide an integrative overview on the roles of the complement in tumor promotion, highlights complement mediated effects on antibody-based immunotherapy against distinct hematological tumors, hopefully provides a theoretical basis for the development of complement-based cancer targeted therapies.
Project description:Autoimmunity and hematological malignancies are often concomitant in patients. A causal bidirectional relationship exists between them. Loss of immunological tolerance with inappropriate activation of the immune system, likely due to environmental and genetic factors, can represent a breeding ground for the appearance of cancer cells and, on the other hand, blood cancers are characterized by imbalanced immune cell subsets that could support the development of the autoimmune clone. Considerable effort has been made for understanding the proteins that have a relevant role in both processes; however, literature advances demonstrate that microRNAs (miRNAs) surface as the epigenetic regulators of those proteins and control networks linked to both autoimmunity and hematological malignancies. Here we review the most up-to-date findings regarding the miRNA-based molecular mechanisms that underpin autoimmunity and hematological malignancies.
Project description:As the most common type of cancer in the world, hematological malignancies (HM) account for 10% of all annual cancer deaths and have attracted more attention. Conventional treatments, such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), could relieve patients suffering HM. However, serious side effects and high costs bring patients both physical complaints and mental pressure. Recently, compared with conventional therapeutic strategies for HM patients, antibody-based immunotherapies, including cancer vaccines, oncolytic virus therapies, monoclonal antibody treatments, and CAR-T cell therapies, have displayed longer survival time and fewer adverse reactions, even though specific efficacy and safety of these antibody-based immunotherapies still need to be evaluated and improved. This review summarized the advantages of antibody-based immunotherapies over conventional treatments, as well as its existing difficulties and solutions, thereby enhancing the understanding and applications of antibody-based immunotherapies in HM treatment.
Project description:CD47, or integrin-associated protein, is a cell surface ligand expressed in low levels by nearly all cells of the body. It plays an integral role in various immune responses as well as autoimmunity, by sending a potent "don't eat me" signal to prevent phagocytosis. A growing body of evidence demonstrates that CD47 is overexpressed in various hematological malignancies and its interaction with SIRP? on the phagocytic cells prevents phagocytosis of cancer cells. Additionally, it is expressed by different cell types in the tumor microenvironment and is required for establishing tumor metastasis. Overexpression of CD47 is thus often associated with poor clinical outcomes. CD47 has emerged as a potential therapeutic target and is being investigated in various preclinical studies as well as clinical trials to prove its safety and efficacy in treating hematological neoplasms. This review focuses on different therapeutic mechanisms to target CD47, either alone or in combination with other cell surface markers, and its pivotal role in impairing tumor growth and metastatic spread of various types of hematological malignancies.
Project description:T cell immune protection plays a pivotal role in the treatment of patients with hematological malignancies. However, T cell exhaustion might lead to the possibility of immune escape of hematological malignancies. Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) with chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cells can restore the activity of exhausted T cell through reprogramming and is widely used in the treatment of relapsed/refractory (r/r) hematological malignancies. Of note, CD19, CD20, CD30, CD33, CD123, and CD269 as ideal targets have shown extraordinary potential for CAR-T cell therapy and other targets such as CD23 and SLAMF7 have brought promising future for clinical trials. However, CAR-T cells can also produce some adverse events after treatment of hematological malignancies, such as cytokine release syndrome (CRS), neurotoxicity, and on-target/off-tumor toxicity, which may cause systemic immune stress inflammation, destruction of the blood-brain barrier, and even normal tissue damage. In this review, we aim to summarize the composition of CAR-T cell and its application in the treatment of acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL), multiple myeloma (MM), and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Moreover, we will review the disadvantages of CAR-T cell therapy and propose several comprehensive recommendations which might guide its development.
Project description:Inflammation is implicated in the progression of multiple types of cancers including lung, colorectal, breast and hematological malignancies. Cyclooxygenases (Cox) -1 and -2 are important enzymes involved in the regulation of inflammation. Elevated Cox-2 expression is associated with a poor cancer prognosis. Hematological malignancies, which are among the top 10 most predominant cancers in the USA, express high levels of Cox-2. Current therapeutic approaches against hematological malignances are insufficient as many patients develop resistance or relapse. Therefore, targeting Cox-2 holds promise as a therapeutic approach to treat hematological malignancies. NSAIDs and Cox-2 selective inhibitors are anti-inflammatory drugs that decrease prostaglandin and thromboxane production while promoting the synthesis of specialized proresolving mediators. Here, we review the evidence regarding the applicability of NSAIDs, such as aspirin, as well as Cox-2 specific inhibitors, to treat hematological malignancies. Furthermore, we discuss how FDA-approved Cox inhibitors can be used as anti-cancer drugs alone or in combination with existing chemotherapeutic treatments.
Project description:Today, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are a widespread and necessary tool for biomedical science. In the hematological cancer field, since rituximab became the first mAb approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of B-cell malignancies, a number of effective mAbs targeting lineage-specific antigens (LSAs) have been successfully developed. Non-LSAs (NLSAs) are molecules that are not restricted to specific leukocyte subsets or tissues but play relevant pathogenic roles in blood cancers including the development, proliferation, survival, and refractoriness to therapy of tumor cells. In consequence, efforts to target NLSAs have resulted in a plethora of mAbs-marketed or in development-to achieve different goals like neutralizing oncogenic pathways, blocking tumor-related chemotactic pathways, mobilizing malignant cells from tumor microenvironment to peripheral blood, modulating immune-checkpoints, or delivering cytotoxic drugs into tumor cells. Here, we extensively review several novel mAbs directed against NLSAs undergoing clinical evaluation for treating hematological malignancies. The review focuses on the structure of these antibodies, proposed mechanisms of action, efficacy and safety profile in clinical studies, and their potential applications in the treatment of hematological malignancies.
Project description:Inhibitory molecules such as PD-1, CTLA-4, LAG-3, or TIM-3 play a role to keep a balance in immune function. However, many cancers exploit such molecules to escape immune surveillance. Accumulating data support that their functions are dysregulated in lymphoid neoplasms, including plasma cell myeloma, myelodysplastic syndrome, and acute myeloid leukemia. In lymphoid neoplasms, aberrations in 9p24.1 (PD-L1, PD-L2, and JAK2 locus), latent Epstein-Barr virus infection, PD-L1 3'-untranslated region disruption, and constitutive JAK-STAT pathway are known mechanisms to induce PD-L1 expression in lymphoma cells. Clinical trials demonstrated that PD-1 blockade is an attractive way to restore host's immune function in hematological malignancies, particularly classical Hodgkin lymphoma. Numerous clinical trials exploring PD-1 blockade as a single therapy or in combination with other immune checkpoint inhibitors in patients with hematologic cancers are under way. Although impressive clinical response is observed with immune checkpoint inhibitors in patients with certain cancers, not all patients respond to immune checkpoint inhibitors. Therefore, to identify best candidates who would have excellent response to checkpoint inhibitors is of utmost importance. Several possible biomarkers are available, but consensus has not been made and pursuit to discover the best biomarker is ongoing.
Project description:Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) therapies such as anti-programmed death 1 (PD-1) and anti-CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4) have dramatically transformed treatment in solid tumor oncology. While immunotherapeutic approaches such as stem cell transplantation and anti-cancer monoclonal antibodies have made critical contributions to improve outcomes in hematological malignancies, clinical benefits of ICB are observed in only limited tumor types that are particularly characterized by a high infiltration of immune cells. Importantly, even patients that initially respond to ICB are unable to achieve long-term disease control using these therapies. Indeed, primary and acquired resistance mechanisms are differentially orchestrated in hematological malignancies depending on tumor types and/or genotypes, and thus, an in-depth understanding of the disease-specific immune microenvironments will be essential in improving efficacy. In addition to PD-1 and CTLA-4, various T cell immune checkpoint molecules have been characterized that regulate T cell responses in a non-redundant manner. Several lines of evidence suggest that these T cell checkpoint molecules might play unique roles in hematological malignancies, highlighting their potential as therapeutic targets. Targeting innate checkpoint molecules on natural killer cells and/or macrophages has also emerged as a rational approach against tumors that are resistant to T cell-mediated immunity. Given that various monoclonal antibodies against tumor surface proteins have been clinically approved in hematological malignancies, innate checkpoint blockade might play a key role to augment antibody-mediated cellular cytotoxicity and phagocytosis. In this review, we discuss recent advances and emerging roles of immune checkpoint blockade in hematological malignancies.