Clinical, histological, and genetic characterization of PYROXD1-related myopathy.
ABSTRACT: Recessive mutations in PYROXD1, encoding an oxidoreductase, were recently reported in families with congenital myopathy or limb-girdle muscular dystrophy. Here we describe three novel PYROXD1 families at the clinical, histological, and genetic level. Histological analyses on muscle biopsies from all families revealed fiber size variability, endomysial fibrosis, and muscle fibers with multiple internal nuclei and cores. Further characterization of the structural muscle defects uncovered aggregations of myofibrillar proteins, and provided evidence for enhanced oxidative stress. Sequencing identified homozygous or compound heterozygous PYROXD1 mutations including the first deep intronic mutation reinforcing a cryptic donor splice site and resulting in mRNA instability through exonisation of an intronic segment. Overall, this work expands the PYROXD1 mutation spectrum, defines and specifies the histopathological hallmarks of the disorder, and indicates that oxidative stress contributes to the pathomechanism. Comparison of all new and published cases uncovered a genotype/phenotype correlation with a more severe and early-onset phenotypic presentation of patients harboring splice mutations resulting in reduced PYROXD1 protein levels compared with patients carrying missense mutations.
Project description:This study establishes PYROXD1 variants as a cause of early-onset myopathy and uses biospecimens and cell lines, yeast, and zebrafish models to elucidate the fundamental role of PYROXD1 in skeletal muscle. Exome sequencing identified recessive variants in PYROXD1 in nine probands from five families. Affected individuals presented in infancy or childhood with slowly progressive proximal and distal weakness, facial weakness, nasal speech, swallowing difficulties, and normal to moderately elevated creatine kinase. Distinctive histopathology showed abundant internalized nuclei, myofibrillar disorganization, desmin-positive inclusions, and thickened Z-bands. PYROXD1 is a nuclear-cytoplasmic pyridine nucleotide-disulphide reductase (PNDR). PNDRs are flavoproteins (FAD-binding) and catalyze pyridine-nucleotide-dependent (NAD/NADH) reduction of thiol residues in other proteins. Complementation experiments in yeast lacking glutathione reductase glr1 show that human PYROXD1 has reductase activity that is strongly impaired by the disease-associated missense mutations. Immunolocalization studies in human muscle and zebrafish myofibers demonstrate that PYROXD1 localizes to the nucleus and to striated sarcomeric compartments. Zebrafish with ryroxD1 knock-down recapitulate features of PYROXD1 myopathy with sarcomeric disorganization, myofibrillar aggregates, and marked swimming defect. We characterize variants in the oxidoreductase PYROXD1 as a cause of early-onset myopathy with distinctive histopathology and introduce altered redox regulation as a primary cause of congenital muscle disease.
Project description:Next-generation sequencing is commonly used to screen for pathogenic mutations in families with Mendelian disorders, but due to the pace of discoveries, gaps have widened for some diseases between genetic and pathophysiological knowledge. We recruited and analyzed 16 families with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) of Arab descent from Saudi Arabia and Sudan who did not have confirmed genetic diagnoses. The analysis included both traditional and next-generation sequencing approaches. Cellular and metabolic studies were performed on Pyroxd1 siRNA C2C12 myoblasts and controls. Pathogenic mutations were identified in eight of the 16 families. One Sudanese family of Arab descent residing in Saudi Arabia harbored a homozygous c.464A>G, p.Asn155Ser mutation in PYROXD1, a gene recently reported in association with myofibrillar myopathy and whose protein product reduces thiol residues. Pyroxd1 deficiency in murine C2C12 myoblasts yielded evidence for impairments of cellular proliferation, migration, and differentiation, while CG10721 (Pyroxd1 fly homolog) knockdown in Drosophila yielded a lethal phenotype. Further investigations indicated that Pyroxd1 does not localize to mitochondria, yet Pyroxd1 deficiency is associated with decreased cellular respiration. This study identified pathogenic mutations in half of the LGMD families from the cohort, including one in PYROXD1. Developmental impairments were demonstrated in vitro for Pyroxd1 deficiency and in vivo for CG10721 deficiency, with reduced metabolic activity in vitro for Pyroxd1 deficiency.
Project description:Biallelic pathogenic variants in the gene PYROXD1 have recently been described to cause early-onset autosomal recessive myopathy. Myopathy associated with PYROXD1 pathogenic variants is rare and reported in only 17 individuals. Known pathogenic variants in PYROXD1 include missense, insertion and essential splice-site variants. Here we describe a consanguineous family of individuals affected with late-onset myopathy and homozygous PYROXD1 missense variants (NM_024854.5:c.464A>G [p.Asn155Ser]) expanding our understanding of the possible disease phenotypes of PYROXD1-associated myopathy.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To describe adult-onset limb-girdle-type muscular dystrophy caused by biallelic variants in the PYROXD1 gene, which has been recently linked to early-onset congenital myofibrillar myopathy.<h4>Methods</h4>Whole exome sequencing was performed for adult-onset neuromuscular disease patients with no molecular diagnosis. Patients with PYROXD1 variants underwent clinical characterization, lower limb muscle MRI, muscle biopsy and spirometry. A yeast complementation assay was used to determine the biochemical consequences of the genetic variants.<h4>Results</h4>We identified four patients with biallelic PYROXD1 variants. Three patients, who had symptom onset in their 20s or 30s, were homozygous for the previously described p.Asn155Ser. The fourth patient, with symptom onset at age 49, was compound heterozygous for p.Asn155Ser variant and previously unknown p.Tyr354Cys. All patients presented with a LGMD-type phenotype of symmetric muscle weakness and wasting. Symptoms started in proximal muscles of the lower limbs, and progressed slowly to involve also upper limbs in a proximal-predominant fashion. All patients remained ambulant past the age of 60. They had restrictive lung disease but no cardiac impairment. Muscle MRI showed strong involvement of anterolateral thigh muscles. Muscle biopsy displayed chronic myopathic changes. Yeast complementation assay demonstrated the p.Tyr354Cys mutation to impair PYROXD1 oxidoreductase ability.<h4>Conclusion</h4>PYROXD1 variants can cause an adult-onset slowly progressive LGMD-type phenotype.
Project description:We report two novel splice region mutations in OPA1 in two unrelated families presenting with autosomal-dominant optic atrophy type 1 (ADOA1) (ADOA or Kjer type optic atrophy). Mutations in OPA1 encoding a mitochondrial inner membrane protein are a major cause of ADOA.We analyzed two unrelated families including four affected individuals clinically suspicious of ADOA. Standard ocular examinations were performed in affected individuals of both families. All coding exons, as well as exon-intron boundaries of the OPA1 gene were sequenced. In addition, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) was performed to uncover copy number variations in OPA1. mRNA processing was monitored using RT-PCR and subsequent cDNA analysis.We report two novel splice region mutations in OPA1 in two unrelated individuals and their affected relatives, which were previously not described in the literature. In one family the heterozygous insertion and deletion c.[611-37_611-38insACTGGAGAATGTAAAGGGCTTT;611-6_611-16delCATATTTATCT] was found in all investigated family members leading to the activation of an intronic cryptic splice site. In the second family sequencing of OPA1 disclosed a de novo heterozygous deletion c.2012+4_2012+7delAGTA resulting in exon 18 and 19 skipping, which was not detected in healthy family members.We identified two novel intronic mutations in OPA1 affecting the correct OPA1 pre-mRNA splicing, which was confirmed by OPA1 cDNA analysis. This study shows the importance of transcript analysis to determine the consequences of unclear intronic mutations in OPA1 in proximity to the intron-exon boundaries.
Project description:The molecular diagnosis of muscle disorders is challenging: genetic heterogeneity (>100 causal genes for skeletal and cardiac muscle disease) precludes exhaustive clinical testing, prioritizing sequencing of specific genes is difficult due to the similarity of clinical presentation, and the number of variants returned through exome sequencing can make the identification of the disease-causing variant difficult. We have filtered variants found through exome sequencing by prioritizing variants in genes known to be involved in muscle disease while examining the quality and depth of coverage of those genes. We ascertained two families with autosomal dominant limb-girdle muscular dystrophy of unknown etiology. To identify the causal mutations in these families, we performed exome sequencing on five affected individuals using the Agilent SureSelect Human All Exon 50 Mb kit and the Illumina HiSeq 2000 (2×100 bp). We identified causative mutations in desmin (IVS3+3A>G) and filamin C (p.W2710X), and augmented the phenotype data for individuals with muscular dystrophy due to these mutations. We also discuss challenges encountered due to depth of coverage variability at specific sites and the annotation of a functionally proven splice site variant as an intronic variant.
Project description:Calpainopathy, also known as limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) type 2A (LGMD2A) or LGMD R1 Calpain3-related, is one of the most common genetically characterized forms of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy with a wide range of phenotypic severity. We evaluated a consanguineous family with a clinical phenotype consistent with calpainopathy in whom conventional sequencing did not detect any mutations in the CAPN3 gene. Using whole exome sequencing paired with haplotype analysis, we identified a homozygous deep intronic single base pair deletion in CAPN3 (c.946-29delT). Familial segregation studies were consistent with recessive inheritance. Immunoblotting of muscle tissue from the patient showed complete absence of calpain 3. In silico analysis predicted the deletion to disrupt the branch point and subsequently alter splicing of exon 7. Studies of patient fibroblasts and muscle tissue confirmed altered splicing, resulting in an inclusion of a 389-bp intronic sequence upstream of exon 7, originating from a cryptic splice acceptor site in intron 6. This out-of-frame insertion results in a premature stop codon, leading to an apparent absence of protein likely due to degradation of the transcript via nonsense-mediated decay. We then designed phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PMOs) as splice modulators to block the new splice acceptor site. This approach successfully prevented the aberrant splicing - reverting the majority of the splice to the wildtype transcript. These results confirm the pathogenicity of this novel deep intronic mutation and provide a mutation-specific therapeutic strategy. Thus, deep intronic mutations in CAPN3 may be pathogenic and should be considered in the appropriate clinical setting. The identification of mutations which may be missed by traditional Sanger sequencing is essential as they may be excellent targets for individualized therapeutic strategies using RNA-directed splice modulation.
Project description:Allele-specific expression (ASE) of the Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) gene occurs in up to one-third of families with adenomatous polyposis (FAP) that have screened mutation-negative by conventional techniques. To advance our understanding of the genomic basis of this phenomenon, 54 APC mutation-negative families (21 with classical FAP and 33 with attenuated FAP, AFAP) were investigated. We focused on four families with validated ASE and scrutinized these families by sequencing of the blood transcriptomes (RNA-seq) and genomes (WGS). Three families, two with classical FAP and one with AFAP, revealed deep intronic mutations associated with pseudoexons. In all three families, intronic mutations (c.646-1806T>G in intron 6, c.1408+729A>G in intron 11, and c.1408+731C>T in intron 11) created new splice donor sites resulting in the insertion of intronic sequences (of 127 bp, 83 bp, and 83 bp, respectively) in the APC transcript. The respective intronic mutations were absent in the remaining polyposis families and the general population. Premature stop of translation as the predicted consequence as well as co-segregation with polyposis supported the pathogenicity of the pseudoexons. We conclude that next generation sequencing on RNA and genomic DNA is an effective strategy to reveal and validate pseudoexons that are regularly missed by traditional screening methods and is worth considering in apparent mutation-negative polyposis families.
Project description:TUB is the first identified member of the TULP family of four proteins with unknown function. A spontaneous mutation in murine tub causes retinal degeneration, obesity, and deafness. Mutations in another member of the TULP family, TULP1, are a cause of autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (RP). These findings prompted us to investigate TUB as a candidate gene for RP and Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA). A mutation screen of the entire coding region of the TUB gene in 159 unrelated patients with autosomal recessive RP, 114 unrelated patients with simplex RP, and 21 unrelated patients with LCA uncovered 18 sequence variations. Of these, seven were missense mutations, six were isocoding changes, and five were intronic polymorphisms. All seven missense mutations were identified as heterozygous changes and no defect could be found in the other allele. None of the isocoding variants or intronic polymorphisms are predicted to create or destroy splice donor or acceptor sites based on splice-site prediction software. Although variant alleles of the TUB gene were found, none could be definitively associated with a specific retinal disease.
Project description:Inherited optic neuropathies (ION) present an important cause of blindness in the European working-age population. Recently we reported the discovery of four independent families with deep intronic mutations in the main inherited optic neuropathies gene OPA1. These deep intronic mutations cause mis-splicing of the OPA1 pre-messenger-RNA transcripts by creating cryptic acceptor splice sites. As a rescue strategy we sought to prevent mis-splicing of the mutant pre-messenger-RNA by applying 2'O-methyl-antisense oligonucleotides (AONs) with a full-length phosphorothioate backbone that target the cryptic acceptor splice sites and the predicted novel branch point created by the deep intronic mutations, respectively. Transfection of patient-derived primary fibroblasts with these AONs induced correct splicing of the mutant pre-messenger-RNA in a time and concentration dependent mode of action, as detected by pyrosequencing of informative heterozygous variants. The treatment showed strong rescue effects (~55%) using the cryptic acceptor splice sites targeting AON and moderate rescue (~16%) using the branch point targeting AON. The highest efficacy of Splice correction could be observed 4 days after treatment however, significant effects were still seen 14 days post-transfection. Western blot analysis revealed increased amounts of OPA1 protein with maximum amounts at ~3 days post-treatment. In summary, we provide the first mutation-specific in vitro rescue strategy for OPA1 deficiency using synthetic AONs.