Diagnosis and management of peripheral lung nodule.
ABSTRACT: A solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN) is a well-defined radiographic opacity up to 3 cm in diameter that is surrounded by unaltered aerated lung. Frequently, it is an incidental finding on chest radiographs and chest CT scans. Determining the probability of malignancy is the first step in the evaluation of SPN. This can be done by looking at specific risk factors and the rate of radiographic progression. Subsequent management is guided by the type of the nodule. Patients with solid nodules and low pretest probability can be followed radiographically; those with high probability, who are good surgical candidates, can be referred for surgical resection. When the pretest probability is in the intermediate range additional testing such as biopsy should be done. Various modalities are now available to obtain tissue diagnosis. These modalities differ in their yield and complication rate. Patients with SPN should be well informed of each approach's risks and benefits and should be able to make an informed decision regarding the different diagnostic and therapeutic modalities.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To determine the factors associated with lung cancer diagnosis and mortality after detecting a solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN) in routine clinical practice, in men and in women for both chest radiograph and CT. MATERIALS AND METHODS:A 5-year follow-up of a retrospective cohort of of 25,422 (12,594 men, 12,827 women) patients aged ?35 years referred for chest radiograph or CT in two hospitals in Spain (2010-2011). SPN were detected in 893 (546 men, 347 women) patients. We estimated the cumulative incidence of lung cancer at 5-years, the association of patient and nodule characteristics with SPN malignancy using Poisson logistic regression, stratifying by sex and type of imaging test. We calculated lung cancer specific mortality rate by sex and SPN detection and hazard rates by cox regression. RESULTS:133 (14.9%) out of 893 patients with an SPN and 505 (2.06%) of the 24,529 patients without SPN were diagnosed with lung cancer. Median diameter of SPN in women who developed cancer was larger than in men. Men who had a chest radiograph were more likely to develop a lung cancer if the nodule was in the upper-lobes, which was not the case for women. In patients with an SPN, smoking increased the risk of lung cancer among men (chest radiograph: RR = 11.3, 95%CI 1.5-83.3; CT: RR = 7.5, 95%CI 2.2, 26.0) but smoking was not significantly associated with lung cancer diagnosis or mortality among women with an SPN. The relative risk of lung cancer diagnosis in women with SPN versus those without was much higher compared to men (13.7; 95%CI 9.2, 20.4 versus 6.2; 95%CI 4.9,7.9). CONCLUSION:The factors associated with SPN malignancy and 5-year lung cancer mortality were different among men and women, especially regarding smoking history and SPN characteristics, where we observed a relatively high rate of lung cancer diagnosis among female non-smokers.
Project description:The appropriate management of the large number of lung nodules detected during the course of routine medical care presents a challenge. We aimed to evaluate the usual clinical practice in solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN) management and associated radiation exposure.We examined 893 radiology reports of consecutive patients undergoing chest computed tomography (CT) and radiography at two public hospitals in Spain. Information on diagnostic procedures from SPN detection and lung cancer diagnosis was collected prospectively for 18 months.More than 20% of patients with SPN detected on either chest radiograph (19.8%) or CT (26.1%) underwent no additional interventions and none developed lung cancer (100% negative predictive value). 346 (72.0%) patients with SPN detected on chest radiograph and 254 (61.5%) patients with SPN detected on CT had additional diagnostic tests and were not diagnosed with lung cancer. In patients undergoing follow-up imaging for SPNs detected on CT median number of additional imaging tests was 3.5 and the mean cumulative effective dose was 24.4 mSv; for those detected on chest radiograph the median number of additional imaging tests was 2.8 and the mean cumulative effective dose was 10.3 mSv.Patients who did not have additional interventions were not diagnosed of lung cancer. There was an excessive amount of interventions in a high percentage of patients presenting SPN, which was associated with an excess of radiation exposure.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Chest pain is a high-risk emergency department (ED) chief complaint; the majority of clinical resources are directed toward detecting and treating cardiopulmonary emergencies. However, at follow-up, 80%-95% of these patients have only a symptom-based diagnosis; a large number have undiagnosed anxiety disorders. OBJECTIVE:Our aim was to measure the frequency of self-identified stress or anxiety among chest pain patients, and compare their pretest probabilities, care processes, and outcomes. METHODS:Patients were divided into two groups: explicitly self-reported anxiety and stress or not at 90-day follow-up, then compared on several variables: ultralow (<2.5%) pretest probability, outcome rates for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and pulmonary embolism (PE), radiation exposure, total costs at 30 days, and 90-day recidivism. RESULTS:Eight hundred and forty-five patients were studied. Sixty-seven (8%) explicitly attributed their chest pain to "stress" or "anxiety"; their mean ACS pretest probability was 4% (95% confidence interval 2.9%-5.7%) and 49% (33/67) had ultralow pretest probability (0/33 with ACS or PE). None (0/67) were diagnosed with anxiety. Seven hundred and seventy-eight did not report stress or anxiety and, of these, 52% (403/778) had ultralow ACS pretest probability. Only one patient (0.2%; 1/403) was diagnosed with ACS and one patient (0.4%; 1/268) was diagnosed with PE. Patients with self-reported anxiety had similar radiation exposure, associated costs, and nearly identical (25.4% vs. 25.7%) ED recidivism to patients without reported anxiety. CONCLUSIONS:Without prompting, 8% of patients self-identified "stress" or "anxiety" as the etiology for their chest pain. Most had low pretest probability, were over-investigated for ACS and PE, and not investigated for anxiety syndromes.
Project description:Objective testing for DVT is crucial because clinical assessment alone is unreliable and the consequences of misdiagnosis are serious. This guideline focuses on the identification of optimal strategies for the diagnosis of DVT in ambulatory adults.The methods of this guideline follow those described in Methodology for the Development of Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis Guidelines: Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines.We suggest that clinical assessment of pretest probability of DVT, rather than performing the same tests in all patients, should guide the diagnostic process for a first lower extremity DVT (Grade 2B). In patients with a low pretest probability of first lower extremity DVT, we recommend initial testing with D-dimer or ultrasound (US) of the proximal veins over no diagnostic testing (Grade 1B), venography (Grade 1B), or whole-leg US (Grade 2B). In patients with moderate pretest probability, we recommend initial testing with a highly sensitive D-dimer, proximal compression US, or whole-leg US rather than no testing (Grade 1B) or venography (Grade 1B). In patients with a high pretest probability, we recommend proximal compression or whole-leg US over no testing (Grade 1B) or venography (Grade 1B).Favored strategies for diagnosis of first DVT combine use of pretest probability assessment, D-dimer, and US. There is lower-quality evidence available to guide diagnosis of recurrent DVT, upper extremity DVT, and DVT during pregnancy.
Project description:Given the radiation concerns inherent to the x-ray modalities, accurately estimating the radiation doses that patients receive during different imaging modalities is crucial. This study estimated organ doses, effective doses, and risk indices for the three clinical chest x-ray imaging techniques (chest radiography, tomosynthesis, and CT) using 59 anatomically variable voxelized phantoms and Monte Carlo simulation methods.A total of 59 computational anthropomorphic male and female extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) adult phantoms were used in this study. Organ doses and effective doses were estimated for a clinical radiography system with the capability of conducting chest radiography and tomosynthesis (Definium 8000, VolumeRAD, GE Healthcare) and a clinical CT system (LightSpeed VCT, GE Healthcare). A Monte Carlo dose simulation program (PENELOPE, version 2006, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain) was used to mimic these two clinical systems. The Duke University (Durham, NC) technique charts were used to determine the clinical techniques for the radiographic modalities. An exponential relationship between CTDIvol and patient diameter was used to determine the absolute dose values for CT. The simulations of the two clinical systems compute organ and tissue doses, which were then used to calculate effective dose and risk index. The calculation of the two dose metrics used the tissue weighting factors from ICRP Publication 103 and BEIR VII report.The average effective dose of the chest posteroanterior examination was found to be 0.04 mSv, which was 1.3% that of the chest CT examination. The average effective dose of the chest tomosynthesis examination was found to be about ten times that of the chest posteroanterior examination and about 12% that of the chest CT examination. With increasing patient average chest diameter, both the effective dose and risk index for CT increased considerably in an exponential fashion, while these two dose metrics only increased slightly for radiographic modalities and for chest tomosynthesis. Effective and organ doses normalized to mAs all illustrated an exponential decrease with increasing patient size. As a surface organ, breast doses had less correlation with body size than that of lungs or liver.Patient body size has a much greater impact on radiation dose of chest CT examinations than chest radiography and tomosynthesis. The size of a patient should be considered when choosing the best thoracic imaging modality.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To determine whether coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) should be performed in patients with any clinical probability of coronary artery disease (CAD), and whether the diagnostic performance differs between subgroups of patients.<h4>Design</h4>Prospectively designed meta-analysis of individual patient data from prospective diagnostic accuracy studies.<h4>Data sources</h4>Medline, Embase, and Web of Science for published studies. Unpublished studies were identified via direct contact with participating investigators.<h4>Eligibility criteria for selecting studies</h4>Prospective diagnostic accuracy studies that compared coronary CTA with coronary angiography as the reference standard, using at least a 50% diameter reduction as a cutoff value for obstructive CAD. All patients needed to have a clinical indication for coronary angiography due to suspected CAD, and both tests had to be performed in all patients. Results had to be provided using 2×2 or 3×2 cross tabulations for the comparison of CTA with coronary angiography. Primary outcomes were the positive and negative predictive values of CTA as a function of clinical pretest probability of obstructive CAD, analysed by a generalised linear mixed model; calculations were performed including and excluding non-diagnostic CTA results. The no-treat/treat threshold model was used to determine the range of appropriate pretest probabilities for CTA. The threshold model was based on obtained post-test probabilities of less than 15% in case of negative CTA and above 50% in case of positive CTA. Sex, angina pectoris type, age, and number of computed tomography detector rows were used as clinical variables to analyse the diagnostic performance in relevant subgroups.<h4>Results</h4>Individual patient data from 5332 patients from 65 prospective diagnostic accuracy studies were retrieved. For a pretest probability range of 7-67%, the treat threshold of more than 50% and the no-treat threshold of less than 15% post-test probability were obtained using CTA. At a pretest probability of 7%, the positive predictive value of CTA was 50.9% (95% confidence interval 43.3% to 57.7%) and the negative predictive value of CTA was 97.8% (96.4% to 98.7%); corresponding values at a pretest probability of 67% were 82.7% (78.3% to 86.2%) and 85.0% (80.2% to 88.9%), respectively. The overall sensitivity of CTA was 95.2% (92.6% to 96.9%) and the specificity was 79.2% (74.9% to 82.9%). CTA using more than 64 detector rows was associated with a higher empirical sensitivity than CTA using up to 64 rows (93.4% <i>v</i> 86.5%, P=0.002) and specificity (84.4% <i>v</i> 72.6%, P<0.001). The area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve for CTA was 0.897 (0.889 to 0.906), and the diagnostic performance of CTA was slightly lower in women than in with men (area under the curve 0.874 (0.858 to 0.890) <i>v</i> 0.907 (0.897 to 0.916), P<0.001). The diagnostic performance of CTA was slightly lower in patients older than 75 (0.864 (0.834 to 0.894), P=0.018 <i>v</i> all other age groups) and was not significantly influenced by angina pectoris type (typical angina 0.895 (0.873 to 0.917), atypical angina 0.898 (0.884 to 0.913), non-anginal chest pain 0.884 (0.870 to 0.899), other chest discomfort 0.915 (0.897 to 0.934)).<h4>Conclusions</h4>In a no-treat/treat threshold model, the diagnosis of obstructive CAD using coronary CTA in patients with stable chest pain was most accurate when the clinical pretest probability was between 7% and 67%. Performance of CTA was not influenced by the angina pectoris type and was slightly higher in men and lower in older patients.<h4>Systematic review registration</h4>PROSPERO CRD42012002780.
Project description:Radiologists make critical decisions based on searching and interpreting medical images. The probability of a lung nodule differs across anatomical regions within the chest, raising the possibility that radiologists might have a prior expectation that creates an attentional bias. The development of expertise is also thought to cause "tuning" to relevant features, allowing radiologists to become faster and more accurate at detecting potential masses within their domain of expertise. Here, we tested both radiologists and control participants with a novel attentional-cueing paradigm to investigate whether the deployment of attention was affected (1) by a context that might invoke prior knowledge for experts, (2) by a nodule localized either on the same or on opposite sides as a subsequent target, and (3) by inversion of the nodule-present chest radiographs, to assess the orientation specificity of any effects. The participants also performed a nodule detection task to verify that our presentation duration was sufficient to extract diagnostic information. We saw no evidence of priors triggered by a normal chest radiograph cue affecting attention. When the cue was an upright abnormal chest radiograph, radiologists were faster when the lateralised nodule and the subsequent target appeared at the same rather than at opposite locations, suggesting attention was captured by the nodule. The opposite pattern was present for inverted images. We saw no evidence of cueing for control participants in any condition, which suggests that radiologists are indeed more sensitive to visual features that are not perceived as salient by naïve observers.
Project description:We created and tested an educational intervention to support implementation of an institution wide QI project (the HEART Pathway) designed to improve care for patients with acute chest pain. Although online learning modules have been shown effective in imparting knowledge regarding QI projects, it is unknown whether these modules are effective across specialties and healthcare professions. Participants, including nurses, advanced practice clinicians, house staff and attending physicians (N = 486), were enrolled into an online, self-directed learning course exploring the key concepts of the HEART Pathway. The module was completed by 97% of enrollees (469/486) and 90% passed on the first attempt (422/469). Out of 469 learners, 323 completed the pretest, learning module and posttest in the correct order. Mean test scores across learners improved significantly from 74% to 89% from the pretest to the posttest. Following the intervention, the HEART Pathway was used for 88% of patients presenting to our institution with acute chest pain. Our data demonstrate that this online, self-directed learning module can improve knowledge of the HEART Pathway across specialties-paving the way for more efficient and informed care for acute chest pain patients.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Pulmonary nodules (PNs) are a common reason for referral to pulmonologists. The majority of data for the evaluation and management of PNs is derived from studies performed in academic medical centers. Little is known about the prevalence and diagnosis of PNs, the use of diagnostic testing, or the management of PNs by community pulmonologists.<h4>Methods</h4>This multicenter observational record review evaluated 377 patients aged 40 to 89 years referred to 18 geographically diverse community pulmonary practices for intermediate PNs (8-20 mm). Study measures included the prevalence of malignancy, procedure/test use, and nodule pretest probability of malignancy as calculated by two previously validated models. The relationship between calculated pretest probability and management decisions was evaluated.<h4>Results</h4>The prevalence of malignancy was 25% (n = 94). Nearly one-half of the patients (46%, n = 175) had surveillance alone. Biopsy was performed on 125 patients (33.2%). A total of 77 patients (20.4%) underwent surgery, of whom 35% (n = 27) had benign disease. PET scan was used in 141 patients (37%). The false-positive rate for PET scan was 39% (95% CI, 27.1%-52.1%). Pretest probability of malignancy calculations showed that 9.5% (n = 36) were at a low risk, 79.6% (n = 300) were at a moderate risk, and 10.8% (n = 41) were at a high risk of malignancy. The rate of surgical resection was similar among the three groups (17%, 21%, 17%, respectively; P = .69).<h4>Conclusions</h4>A substantial fraction of intermediate-sized nodules referred to pulmonologists ultimately prove to be lung cancer. Despite advances in imaging and nonsurgical biopsy techniques, invasive sampling of low-risk nodules and surgical resection of benign nodules remain common, suggesting a lack of adherence to guidelines for the management of PNs.