Incidence of healthcare-associated infections in a tertiary hospital in Beijing, China: results from a real-time surveillance system.
ABSTRACT: Background:To quantify the five year incidence trend of all healthcare-associated infections (HAI) using a real-time HAI electronic surveillance system in a tertiary hospital in Beijing, China. Methods:The real-time surveillance system scans the hospital's electronic databases related to HAI (e.g. microbiological reports and antibiotics administration) to identify HAI cases. We conducted retrospective secondary analyses of the data exported from the surveillance system for inpatients with all types of HAIs from January 1st 2013 to December 31st 2017. Incidence of HAI is defined as the number of HAIs per 1000 patient-days. We modeled the incidence data using negative binomial regression. Results:In total, 23361 HAI cases were identified from 633990 patients, spanning 6242375 patient-days during the 5-year period. Overall, the adjusted five-year HAI incidence rate had a marginal reduction from 2013 (4.10 per 1000 patient days) to 2017 (3.62 per 1000 patient days). The incidence of respiratory tract infection decreased significantly. However, the incidence rate of bloodstream infections and surgical site infection increased significantly. Respiratory tract infection (43.80%) accounted for the most substantial proportion of HAIs, followed by bloodstream infections (15.74%), and urinary tract infection (12.69%). A summer peak in HAIs was detected among adult and elderly patients. Conclusions:This study shows how continuous electronic incidence surveillance based on existing hospital electronic databases can provide a practical means of measuring hospital-wide HAI incidence. The estimated incidence trends demonstrate the necessity for improved infection control measures related to bloodstream infections, ventilator-associated pneumonia, non-intensive care patients, and non-device-associated HAIs, especially during summer months.
Project description:Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are adverse complications of hospitalisation resulting in delayed recovery and increased costs. The aim of this study was an analysis of epidemiological factors obtained in the framework of constant, comprehensive (hospital-wide) infection registration, and identification of priorities and needs in infection control, both with regard to targeted surveillance, as well as preventative actions. The study was carried out according to the methodology recommended by the HAI-Net (Surveillance Network) coordinated by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, in the multiprofile hospital in Southern Poland, between 2012 and 2016. A total of 159,028 patients were under observation and 2184 HAIs were detected. The incidence was 1.4/100 admissions (2.7/1000 patient-das of hospitalisation) and significantly differed depending on the type of the patient care: in intensive care units (ICU) 16.9%; in surgical units, 1.3%; non-surgical units, 1.0%; and paediatric units, 1.8%. The most common HAI was gastrointestinal infections (GIs, 28.9%), followed by surgical site infections (SSIs, 23.0%) and bloodstream infections (BSIs, 16.1%). The vast majority of GIs, BSIs, urinary tract infections, and incidents of pneumonia (PN) were detected in non-ICUs. As many as 33.2% of cases of HAI were not confirmed microbiologically. The most frequently detected etiologic agent of infections was Clostridium difficile-globally and in GI (49%). Comprehensive analysis of the results allowed to identify important elements of surveillance of infections, i.e., surveillance of GI, PN, and BSI not only in ICU, but also in non-ICU wards, indicating a need for implementing rapid actions to improve compliance with HAI prevention procedures.
Project description:Introduction: The objective of the analysis was to determine the epidemiology of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in neurosurgical patients, paying special attention to two time points, 2003 and 2017, in order to evaluate the effectiveness of a surveillance program introduced in 2003 and efforts to reduce infection rates. Materials and methods: Continuous surveillance during 2003?2017 carried out using the HAI-Net methodology allowed us to detect 476 cases of HAIs among 10,332 patients staying in a 42-bed neurosurgery unit. The intervention in this before?after study (2003?2017) comprised standardized HAI surveillance with regular analysis and feedback. Results: The HAI incidence during the whole study was 4.6%. Surgical site infections (SSIs) accounted for 33% of all HAIs with an incidence rate of 1.5%. The remaining infections were pneumonia (1.1%) and bloodstream infections (0.9%). The highest SSI incidence concerned spinal fusion (FUSN, 2.2%), craniotomy (1.9%), and ventricular shunt (5.1%) while the associated total HAI incidence rates were 4.1%, 8.0%, and 18.6%, respectively. A significant reduction was found in HAI incidence between 2003 and 2017 in regard to the most common surgery types: laminectomy (4.5% vs. 0.8%); FUSN (11.8% vs. 0.8%); and craniotomy (10.1% vs. 0.4%). Significant changes were also achieved in selected elements of the unit's work: pre-hospitalization duration, hospital stay, and surgery length reductions. Simultaneously, the general condition of patients became significantly worse: there was an increase in patients' age and decreases in their general condition as expressed by ASA scores (The American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification system). Conclusions: HAI epidemiology changed substantially during the study period. Among the main types of HAI, SSIs were slightly predominant, but non-surgical HAIs accounted for almost two thirds of all infections; this indicates the need for surveillance of infection types other than SSIs in surgical patients. The implementation of active surveillance based on regular analysis and feedback led to a significant reduction in HAI incidence.
Project description:The impact of infection prevention and control (IPC) programs in limited resource countries such as Russia are largely unknown due to a lack of reliable data. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of an IPC program with respect to healthcare associated infection (HAI) prevention and to define the incidence of HAIs in a Russian ICU.A pioneering IPC program was implemented in a neuro-ICU at Burdenko Neurosurgery Institute in 2010 and included hand hygiene, surveillance, contact precautions, patient isolation, and environmental cleaning measures. This prospective observational cohort study lasted from 2011 to 2016, included high-risk ICU patients, and evaluated the dynamics of incidence, etiological spectrum, and resistance profile of four types of HAIs, including subgroup analysis of device-associated infections. Survival analysis compared patients with and without HAIs.We included 2038 high-risk patients. By 2016, HAI cumulative incidence decreased significantly for respiratory HAIs (36.1% vs. 24.5%, p-value?=?0.0003), urinary-tract HAIs (29.1% vs. 21.3%, p-value?=?0.0006), and healthcare-associated ventriculitis and meningitis (HAVM) (16% vs. 7.8%, p-value?=?0.004). The incidence rate of EVD-related HAVM dropped from 22.2 to 13.5 cases per 1000 EVD-days. The proportion of invasive isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii resistant to carbapenems decreased 1.7 and 2 fold, respectively. HAVM significantly impaired survival and independently increasing the probability of death by 1.43.The implementation of an evidence-based IPC program in a middle-income country (Russia) was highly effective in HAI prevention with meaningful reductions in antibiotic resistance.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) represent serious complications for patients within pediatric cardiac intensive care units (CICU). HAIs are associated with increased morbidity, mortality and resource utilization. There are few studies describing the epidemiology of HAIs across the entire spectrum of patients (surgical and nonsurgical) receiving care in dedicated pediatric CICUs. METHODS:Retrospective analyses of 22,839 CICU encounters from October 2013 to September 2016 across 22 North American CICUs contributing data to the Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care Consortium clinical registry. RESULTS:HAIs occurred in 2.4% of CICU encounters at a rate of 3.3 HAIs/1000 CICU days, with 73% of HAIs occurring in children <1 year. Eighty encounters (14%) had ?2 HAIs. Aggregate rates for the 4 primary HAIs are as follows: central line-associated blood stream infection, 1.1/1000 line days; catheter-associated urinary tract infections, 1.5/1000 catheter days; ventilator-associated pneumonia, 1.9/1000 ventilator days; surgical site infections, 0.81/100 operations. Surgical and nonsurgical patients had similar HAIs rates/1000 CICU days. Incidence was twice as high in surgical encounters and increased with surgical complexity; postoperative infection occurred in 2.8% of encounters. Prematurity, younger age, presence of congenital anomaly, Society of Thoracic Surgeons-European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery Congenital Heart Surgery Mortality Categories (STAT) 4-5 surgery, admission with an active medical condition, open sternum and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation were independently associated with HAIs. In univariable analysis, HAI was associated with longer hospital length of stay and durations of urinary catheter, central venous catheter and ventilation. Mortality was 24.4% in patients with HAIs versus 3.4% in those without, P < 0.0001. CONCLUSIONS:We provide comprehensive multicenter benchmark data regarding rates of HAIs within dedicated pediatric CICUs. We confirm that although rare, HAIs of all types are associated with significant resource utilization and mortality.
Project description:Background:The study aimed to evaluate the distribution of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs), the incidence rates and device utilization ratio (DUR) of device-associated infections (DAIs), as well as the distribution and patterns of antimicrobial resistance of the responsible pathogens. Methods:Eligible patients who were admitted to an adult Intensive Care Unit (ICU) from May 1, 2013 to December 31, 2016 were included in the surveillance. Demographics, intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors, information regarding infection and isolated pathogens with antibiogram results were collected. Results:One thousand two hundred eighty-three patients were included in the surveillance. One hundred forty-seven HAIs were detected with a cumulative incidence of 9.2 per 100 patients 4-year period and an incidence rate of 17.4 per 1000 patient days. Fifty-six out of 1283 patients were affected by at least one episode of ICU-acquired pneumonia, and 72.7% of these were associated with intubation. ICU-acquired bloodstream infections (BSIs) occurred in 4.4% of patients and 89.5% were catheter-related. ICU-acquired urinary tract infections (UTIs) occurred in 1% of patients, with 84.6% of the episodes being associated with the use of an urinary catheter. The pattern of antimicrobial-resistance in the isolates showed, among the Gram-positive bacteria, that 66.6% and 16.6% of Staphylococcus epidermidis were oxacillin and teicoplanin resistant, respectively. Among the Gram-negative bacteria, carbapenem resistance was found in 91.6% of Acinetobacter baumannii and 28.5% of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates. Conclusions:The majority of HAIs in the ICU studied were associated with the use of invasive devices. Since a significant proportion of these HAIs are considered preventable, reinforcement of the evidence-based preventive procedures are needed.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>An estimated 4% of hospital admissions acquired healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and accounted for $9.8 (USD) billion in direct cost during 2011. In 2010, nearly 140 000 of the 3.5 million potentially preventable hospitalizations (PPHs) may have acquired an HAI. There is a knowledge gap regarding the co-occurrence of these events.<h4>Aims</h4>To estimate the period occurrences and likelihood of acquiring an HAI for the PPH population.<h4>Methods</h4>Retrospective, cross-sectional study using logistic regression analysis of 2011 Texas Inpatient Discharge Public Use Data File including 2.6 million admissions from 576 acute care hospitals. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Prevention Quality Indicator software identified PPH, and existing administrative data identification methodologies were refined for <i>Clostridium difficile</i> infection, central line-associated bloodstream infection, catheter-associated urinary tract infection, and ventilator-associated pneumonia. Odds of acquiring HAIs when admitted with PPH were adjusted for demographic, health status, hospital, and community characteristics.<h4>Findings</h4>We identified 272 923 PPH, 14 219 HAI, and 986 admissions with PPH and HAI. Odds of acquiring an HAI for diabetic patients admitted for lower extremity amputation demonstrated significantly increased odds ratio of 2.9 (95% confidence interval: 2.16-3.91) for <i>Clostridium difficile</i> infection. Other PPH patients had lower odds of acquiring HAI compared to non-PPH patients, and results were frequently significant.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Clinical implications include increased risk of HAI among diabetic patients admitted for lower extremity amputation. Methodological implications include identification of rare events for inpatient subpopulations and the need for improved codification of HAIs to improve cost and policy analyses regarding allocation of resources toward clinical improvements.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To conduct an updated assessment of the validity and reliability of administrative coded data (ACD) in identifying hospital-acquired infections (HAIs). METHODS:We systematically searched three libraries for studies on ACD detecting HAIs compared to manual chart review. Meta-analyses were conducted for prosthetic and nonprosthetic surgical site infections (SSIs), Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs), ventilator-associated pneumonias/events (VAPs/VAEs) and non-VAPs/VAEs, catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs), and central venous catheter-related bloodstream infections (CLABSIs). A random-effects meta-regression model was constructed. RESULTS:Of 1,906 references found, we retrieved 38 documents, of which 33 provided meta-analyzable data (N = 567,826 patients). ACD identified HAI incidence with high specificity (?93 percent), prosthetic SSIs with high sensitivity (95 percent), and both CDIs and nonprosthetic SSIs with moderate sensitivity (65 percent). ACD exhibited substantial agreement with traditional surveillance methods for CDI (? = 0.70) and provided strong diagnostic odds ratios (DORs) for the identification of CDIs (DOR = 772.07) and SSIs (DOR = 78.20). ACD performance in identifying nosocomial pneumonia depended on the ICD coding system (DORICD-10/ICD-9-CM = 0.05; p = .036). Algorithmic coding improved ACD's sensitivity for SSIs up to 22 percent. Overall, high heterogeneity was observed, without significant publication bias. CONCLUSIONS:Administrative coded data may not be sufficiently accurate or reliable for the majority of HAIs. Still, subgrouping and algorithmic coding as tools for improving ACD validity deserve further investigation, specifically for prosthetic SSIs. Analyzing a potential lower discriminative ability of ICD-10 coding system is also a pending issue.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In the current COVID-19 pandemic, aggressive Infection Prevention and Control (IPC) measures have been adopted to prevent healthcare-associated transmission of COVID-19. We evaluated the impact of a multi-modal IPC strategy originally designed for the containment of COVID-19 on the rates of other hospital-acquired-infections (HAIs). METHODOLOGY:From February-August 2020, a multi-modal IPC strategy was implemented across a large healthcare campus in Singapore, comprising improved segregation of patients with respiratory symptoms, universal masking and heightened adherence to Standard Precautions. The following rates of HAI were compared pre- and post-pandemic: healthcare-associated respiratory-viral-infection (HA-RVI), MRSA and CP-CRE acquisition rates, healthcare-facility-associated C.difficile infections (HCFA-CDI) and device-associated HAIs. RESULTS:Enhanced IPC measures introduced to contain COVID-19 had the unintended positive consequence of containing HA-RVI. The cumulative incidence of HA-RVI decreased from 9.69 cases per 10,000 patient-days to 0.83 cases per 10,000 patient-days (incidence-rate-ratio=0.08; 95%CI=0.05-0.13, p<0.05). Hospital-wide MRSA acquisition rates declined significantly during the pandemic (incidence-rate-ratio=0.54, 95%CI=0.46-0.64, p<0.05), together with central-line-associated-bloodstream infection (CLABSI) rates (incidence-rate-ratio=0.24, 95%CI=0.07-0.57, p<0.05); likely due to increased compliance with Standard Precautions. Despite the disruption caused by the pandemic, there was no increase in CP-CRE acquisition, and rates of other HAIs remained stable. CONCLUSION:Multimodal IPC strategies can be implemented at scale to successfully mitigate healthcare-associated transmission of RVIs. Good adherence to personal-protective-equipment and hand hygiene kept other HAI rates stable even during an ongoing pandemic where respiratory infections were prioritized for interventions.
Project description:PURPOSE:Some publications suggest high rates of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and of nosocomial pneumonia portending a poor prognosis in ICU cancer patients. A better understanding of the epidemiology of HAIs in these patients is needed. METHODS:A retrospective analysis of all the patients hospitalized for ??48 h during a 12-year period in the 12-bed ICU of the Gustave Roussy hospital, monitored prospectively for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and bloodstream infection (BSI) and for use of medical devices. RESULTS:During 3388 first stays in the ICU, 198 cases of VAP and 103 primary, 213 secondary, and 77 catheter-related BSIs were recorded. The VAP rate was 24.5/1000 ventilator days (95% confidence interval [CI] 21.2-28.0); the catheter-related BSI rate was 2.3/1000 catheter days (95% CI 1.8-2.8). The cumulative incidence during the first 25 days of exposure was 58.8% (95% CI 49.1-66.6%) for VAP, 8.9% (95% CI, 6.2-11.5%) for primary, 15.1% (95% CI 11.6-18.5%) for secondary and 5.0% (95% CI 3.2-6.8%) for catheter-related BSIs. VAP or BSIs were not associated with a higher risk of ICU mortality. CONCLUSIONS:This is the first study to report HAI rates in a large cohort of critically ill cancer patients. Although both the incidence of VAP and the rate of BSI are higher than in general ICU populations, this does not impact patient outcomes. The occurrence of device-associated infections is essentially due to severe medical conditions in patients and to the characteristics of malignancy.
Project description:HIV-infected patients may be at a greater risk of Hospital-Acquired Infections (HAIs) but risks factors for HAIs have not been well described in this population.The aim of this study was to examine the incidence, temporal trends and risk factors of HAIs among adult HIV positive patients.This was a retrospective cohort study carried out in an academic health system in New York City which included four hospitals over a 9-year period from 2006 to 2014. Simple and multiple logistic regression models were built to determine risk factors associated with site-specific HAIs such as Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs), Pneumonia (PNUs) and Bloodstream Infections (BSIs).There were 10,575 HIV positive discharges and 1,328 had HAIs: 697 UTIs, 555 BSIs and 192 PNUs. The incidence rate of HAIs decreased from 19.8 to 15.1 new infections per 1000 persondays between 2006 and 2014 (p value<0.001). In addition to the expected risk factors of urinary catheter use for UTI and central venous line use for BSI, symptomatic HIV and renal failure were significant risk factors for both UTIs (95% CI OR: (1.24, 2.27) and (1.46, 2.11) respectively) and BSIs (95% CIs OR: (2.28, 4.18) and (1.81, 2.71) respectively).HIV-infected patients had similar risk factors for HAIs as HIV-uninfected patients. Further research is required to address how patients' CD4 counts and viral loads affect their susceptibility to HAIs.