Why Use the Radial Artery? The Saphenous Vein is the Second Graft of Choice for CABG in Brazil.
ABSTRACT: The saphenous vein (SV) is the most commonly used conduit for coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) and the second conduit of choice in Brazil and many other countries. The radial artery (RA) is suggested, by some, to be superior to SV grafts, although its use in the USA declined over a 10 year period. The patency of SV grafts (SVG) is improved when the vein is harvested with minimal trauma using the no-touch (NT) technique. This improved performance is due to the preservation of the outer pedicle surrounding the SV and reduction in vascular damage that occurs when using conventional techniques (CT) of harvesting. While the patency of NT SVGs has been shown superior to the RA at 36 months in one study, data from the RADIAL trial suggests the RA to be the superior conduit. When additional data using NT SVG is included in this trial the difference in risk of graft occlusion between the RA and SV grafts dissipates with there no longer being a significant difference in patency between conduits. The importance of preserving SV structure and the impact of NT harvesting on conduit choice for CABG patients are discussed in this short review.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Where each patient has all three conduits of internal mammary artery (IMA), saphenous vein graft (SVG) and radial artery (RA), most confounders affecting comparison between conduits can be mitigated. Additionally, since SVG progressively fails over time, restricting patient angiography to the late period only can mitigate against early SVG patency that may have occluded in the late period. METHODS:Research protocol driven conventional angiography was performed for patients with at least one of each conduit of IMA, RA and SVG and a minimum of 7?years postoperative. The primary analysis was perfect patency and secondary analysis was overall patency including angiographic evidence of conduit lumen irregularity from conduit atheroma. Multivariable generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) was used. Patency excluded occluded or "string sign" conduits. Perfect patency was present in patent grafts if there was no lumen irregularity. RESULTS:Fifty patients underwent coronary angiography at overall duration postoperative 13.1?±?2.9, and age 74.3?±?7.0?years. Of 196 anastomoses, IMA 62, RA 77 and SVG 57. Most IMA were to the left anterior descending territory and most RA and SVG were to the circumflex and right coronary territories. Perfect patency RA 92.2% was not different to IMA 96.8%, P?=?0.309; and both were significantly better than SVG 17.5%, P?<?0.001. Patency RA 93.5% was also not different to IMA 96.8%, P?=?0.169, and both arterial conduits were significantly higher than SVG 82.5%, P?=?0.029. Grafting according to coronary territory was not significant for perfect patency, P?=?0.997 and patency P?=?0.289. Coronary stenosis predicted perfect patency for RA only, P?=?0.030 and for patency, RA, P?=?0.007, and SVG, P?=?0.032. When both arterial conduits were combined, perfect patency, P?<?0.001, and patency, P?=?0.017, were superior to SVG. CONCLUSIONS:All but one patent internal mammary artery or radial artery grafts had perfect patency and had superior perfect patency and overall patency compared to saphenous vein grafts.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Single centre studies support No Touch (NT) saphenous vein graft (SVG) harvesting technique. The primary objective of the SUPERIOR SVG study was to determine whether NT versus conventional (CON) SVG harvesting was associated with improved SVG patency 1?year after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG). METHODS:Adults undergoing isolated CABG with at least 1 SVG were eligible. CT angiography was performed 1-year post CABG. Leg adverse events were assessed with a questionnaire. A systematic review was performed for published NT graft patency studies and results aggregated including the SUPERIOR study results. RESULTS:Two hundred and-fifty patients were randomized across 12-centres (NT 127 versus CON 123 patients). The primary outcome (study SVG occlusion or cardiovascular (CV) death) was not significantly different in NT versus CON (NT: 7/127 (5.5%), CON 13/123 (10.6%), p?=?0.15). Similarly, the proportion of study SVGs with significant stenosis or total occlusion was not significantly different between groups (NT: 8/102 (7.8%), CON: 16/107 (15.0%), p?=?0.11). Vein harvest site infection was more common in the NT patients 1?month postoperatively (23.3% vs 9.5%, p?<?0.01). Including this study's results, in a meta-analysis, NT was associated with a significant reduction in SVG occlusion, Odds Ratio 0.49, 95% Confidence Interval 0.29-0.82, p?=?0.007 in 3 randomized and 1 observational study at 1?year postoperatively. CONCLUSIONS:The NT technique was not associated with improved patency of SVGs at 1-year following CABG while early vein harvest infection was increased. The aggregated data is supportive of an important reduction of SVG occlusion at 1?year with NT harvesting. TRIAL REGISTRATION:NCT01047449 .
Project description:BACKGROUND:Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) using saphenous vein grafts (SVG) is vitiated by poor long-term patency of the vein grafts. Pedicled SVG harvested with the "no-touch" (NT) technique have demonstrated improved patency and could confer better outcomes. We aim to compare long-term results after CABG where NT or conventional technique was used for vein graft harvesting in a hypothesis-generating registry-based study. METHODS:Two propensity score matched cohorts (1349 patients) undergoing CABG with veins harvested with NT (NTT) or conventional (CT) technique in Sweden over the period 2005-2015 were used to compare long-term outcomes. Mortality, postoperative incidence of coronary angiography and need for reintervention was recorded and multivariable hazard ratios adjusted for risk factors were calculated. RESULTS:The mean follow-up time (SD) was 6.8 (3.3) years for NTT and 6.6 (3.2) years for CT. The adjusted hazard ratios for death, first angiography and need for reintervention for NTT patients were (95% CI) 0.97 (0.80-1.19), 0.76 (0.63-0.93), 0.91 (0.78-1.05), and 0.91 (0.71-1.17), respectively. Failed grafts were found in 43.2% of NTT patients and 53.6% of CT patients at angiography. CONCLUSIONS:In this study NT grafting was associated with a lower risk for repeat angiography, however no difference could be observed for mortality and need for reintervention. The earlier reported improvements in patency of NT veins could possibly be reflected in an improved clinical outcome during the first 10?years after surgery.
Project description:Background Saphenous vein grafts (SVGs) are broadly used in coronary artery bypass grafting despite their inferior patency compared with arterial grafts. Recently, the no-touch technique (NT), in which an SVG is harvested with a pedicle of perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) without conduit distension, was shown to improve long-term patency compared with conventional preparation (CV), wherein outer tissue is removed with distension. The NT was also reportedly associated with reduced atherosclerosis. Although endothelial damage provoked by conventional distension may underlie poor patency when CV is performed, the precise mechanisms underlying the salutary effects of the NT have been unclear. Methods and Results Residual SVGs prepared with CV (CV-SVGs) or NT (NT-SVGs) were obtained during coronary artery bypass grafting. Nitric oxide (NO<sub>2</sub><sup>-</sup>/NO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup> (NO<sub>x</sub>)) levels after 24 hours of tissue culture were quantified. The protein expression and localization were analyzed. The isometric force of SVG strips was measured. NT-SVGs showed superior NO<sub>x</sub> production to CV-SVGs. PVAT generated the majority of NO<sub>x</sub> in NT-SVGs. PVAT highly expressed arginosuccinate synthase 1, a rate-limiting enzyme in the molecular circuit for NO synthesis, thereby continuously providing the substrate for NO. A substantial level of endothelial NO synthase was also expressed in PVAT. Pharmacological inhibition of arginosuccinate synthase 1 or endothelial NO synthase significantly suppressed the NO<sub>x</sub> production in NT-SVGs. PVAT induced vasorelaxation through NO production, even in the endothelium-denuded SVG strips. Conclusions Preserving PVAT was predominantly involved in the superior NO<sub>x</sub> production in NT-SVGs. Since NO plays crucial roles in suppressing atherosclerosis, this mechanism may greatly contribute to the excellent patency in NT-SVGs.
Project description:Background:Studies have demonstrated that female sex is an adverse risk factor in CABG. The primary aim of this study was to determine whether the radial artery (RA) was associated with reduced angiographic occlusion compared to the saphenous vein graft (SVG) stratified by sex in the multi-centered Radial Artery Patency Study (NCT00187356). Methods:Between 1996-2001, 529 patients less than 80 years, with graftable triple-vessel disease underwent isolated CABG across 11 centers with late angiographic and clinical follow-up. The primary objective was to compare complete occlusion of RA and SVG with respect to sex. The secondary objective was to determine cumulative patency of both grafts along with predictors of late graft occlusion stratified by sex. The additional objective was to compare major adverse cardiac events (MACE, defined as cardiac mortality, myocardial infarction or re-intervention) between women and men. Results:Of the 529 enrolled patients (13.4% women), 269 (women: n=41, 15.2%) underwent late angiography at a mean of 7.7±1.5 years after CABG. Women were older (64.1±6.7 versus 59.1±8.0 years, P<0.01) with a higher rate of diabetes (43.9% versus 28.5%, P=0.05). Smoking history was less common (48.8% versus 75.4%, P<0.01) while the mean number of grafts per patient were similar (women: 3.8±0.7, men: 3.8±0.6, P=0.65). RA occlusions were lower than SVG in women (RA: 9.8%, SVG: 26.8%, P=0.05) and in men (RA: 8.8%, SVG: 17.1%, P=0.01). The rate of RA and SVG occlusion was not statistically different between women and men, and cumulative patency curves were also similar between sexes for the RA and study SVG. Multivariable modeling showed that having a RA (versus SVG) was protective in women [odds ratio (OR) 0.15, P=0.04] and men: (OR 0.49, P=0.02). MACE (P=0.15) and event-free cardiac survival (log-rank P=0.14) were similar between women and men. Conclusions:Radial arteries are protective in both women and men with comparable burden of coronary disease and revascularization.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Despite the inferior patency compared to arterial grafts, a saphenous vein graft (SVG) is widely used for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). A lower atherosclerosis rate and higher patency have been reported for SVG obtained via the no-touch technique (NT) than via conventional preparation (CV). Although CV-mediated endothelial dysfunction is implied, the precise mechanism underlying the higher patency with NT is poorly understood. METHODS:Human residual SVGs during CABG and SVG sections after autopsy were analyzed. The endothelial surface was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and blindly compared between CV and NT. The endothelial integrity was also analyzed with immunohistochemistry. RESULTS:Unexpectedly, the hyperfine structure on SEM was comparable between CV and NT before grafting, and microvillus, a characteristic of endothelium, was indistinguishable between them. Von Willebrand Factor, an endothelial marker, was equally detected throughout the vascular wall in both groups from residual and postmortem sections. CONCLUSIONS:The morphological integrity of the endothelium was successfully preserved in SVG with CV, even at an ultrastructural level. Although its functionality remains to be addressed, other factors than the endothelium may be involved in the high patency obtained by NT. The present findings suggest that the characteristics of NT and surgical methodology should be reconsidered.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>previous studies evaluating external stents for saphenous vein grafts (SVG) in CABG were limited to on-pump isolated CABG and single grafting technique with one external stent per patient. The objective of this prospective study was to evaluate the safety and the short-term performance of external stents in a heterogeneous group of patients who underwent on- and off-pump CABG, single and sequential grafting.<h4>Methods</h4>102 patients undergoing CABG were enrolled in two centers. All patients received internal mammary artery to the left anterior descending artery and additional arterial and/or venous grafts. In each patient, at least one SVG was supported with an external stent. Grafts' patency and SVG lumen uniformity were assessed using CT angiography at a pre-defined time window of 6-12 months post procedure. All patients were prospectively followed-up via phone call and/or visit every 6 months for Major Adverse Cardiac and Cerebrovascular Events.<h4>Results</h4>51 patients (50%) underwent off-pump CABG and 23 patients (23%) were grafted with bilateral internal mammary arteries. Each patient received one or more SVG grafted in a sequential technique (44%) or as a single graft (56%). All SVG were externally stented in 84% of patients and in 16% (n = 16) one SVG was stented and one remained unsupported. At 6-12 months, patency rates of LIMA, RIMA, externally stented SVG and none-stented SVG were 100, 100, 98 and 87.5% respectively. 90% of the externally stented SVG had uniform lumen compared to 37% of the non-stented SVG. Clinical follow-up was completed for all patients with a mean duration of 20 months (range 6-54 months). During follow up period, one patient experienced myocardial infarction due to occlusion of the LIMA-LAD graft and one patient experienced a transient ischemic attack.<h4>Conclusions</h4>External stenting of SVG is feasible and safe in CABG setting which includes off pump CABG and sequential SVG grafting and associated with acceptable early patency rates.<h4>Trial registration</h4>Study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov. NCT01860274 (initial release 20.05.2013).
Project description:The saphenous vein is the most common conduit used in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) yet its failure rate is higher compared to arterial grafts. An improvement in saphenous vein graft performance is therefore a major priority in CABG. No-touch harvesting of the saphenous vein is one of the few interventions that has shown improved patency rates, comparable to that of the left internal thoracic artery. After more than two decades of no-touch research, this technique is now recognized as a Class IIa recommendation in the 2018 European Society of Cardiology and the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery guidelines on myocardial revascularization. In this review, we describe the structural alterations that occur in conventional versus no-touch saphenous vein grafts and how these changes affect graft patency. In addition, we discuss various strategies aimed at repairing saphenous vein grafts prepared at conventional CABG.
Project description:Background: Stanford type A aortic dissection (STAAD) is often associated with coronary artery problems requiring coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). However, the prognosis of different proximal graft locations remains unclear. Methods: From May 2015 to April 2020, 62 patients with acute STAAD who underwent aortic surgery concomitant with CABG were enrolled in our study. Aortic bypass was defined as connecting the proximal end of the vein bridge to the artificial aorta (SVG-AO); non-aortic bypass was defined as connecting the proximal end of the vein bridge to a non-aorta vessel, including left subclavian artery, left common carotid artery, and right brachiocephalic artery (non-SVG-AO). We compared early- and mid-term results between patients in the above two groups. Early results included death and bleeding, and mid-term results graft patency, aortic-related events, and bleeding. Grafts were evaluated by post-operative coronary computed tomography angiography. According to the Fitzgibbon classification, grade A (graft stenosis <50%) is considered a patent graft. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess differences between aortic and non-aortic bypass in STAAD. Results: SVG-AO and non-SVG-AO were performed in 15 and 47 patients, respectively. There was no significant difference in death (log-rank test, p = 0.426) or bleeding (p = 0.766) between the two groups in the short term. One year of follow-up was completed in 37 patients (eight in the SVG-AO group and 29 in the non-SVG-AO group), among which 14/15 (93.3%) grafts were patent in the SVG-AO group and 32/33 (97.0%) grafts in the non-SVG-AO at 1 week, without a significant difference (p = 0.532). At 3 months, 12/13 (92.3%) grafts were patent in the SVG-AO group and 16/32 (50.0%) grafts in the non-SVG-AO, with a significant difference (p = 0.015), and 12/13 (92.3%) grafts in the SVG-AO group and 15/32 (46.9%) grafts in the non-SVG-AO group were patents, with a significant difference. Multivariate analysis showed proximal aortic bypass and dual anticoagulation to be protective factors for the 1-year patency of grafts. Conclusion: In patients requiring aortic dissection surgery with concomitant CABG, no differencess' between SVG-AO and SVG-non-AO in early outcomes were detected, but SVG-AO may have higher mid-term patency.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Vein graft disease (VGD) impairs graft patency rates and long-term outcomes after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). DuraGraft is a novel endothelial-damage inhibitor developed to efficiently protect the structural and functional integrity of the vascular endothelium. The DuraGraft registry will evaluate the long-term clinical outcomes of DuraGraft in patients undergoing CABG procedures. METHODS:This ongoing multicentre, prospective observational registry will enrol 3000 patients undergoing an isolated CABG procedure or a combined procedure (ie, CABG plus valve surgery or other surgery) with at least one saphenous vein grafts or one free arterial graft (ie, radial artery or mammary artery). If a patient is enrolled, all free grafts (SVG and arterial will be treated with DuraGraft. Data on baseline, clinical, and angiographic characteristics as well as procedural and clinical events will be collected. The primary outcome measure is the occurrence of a major adverse cardiac event (MACE; defined as death, non-fatal myocardial-infarction, or need for repeat-revascularisation). Secondary outcome measures are the occurrence of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE; defined as death, non-fatal myocardial-infarction, repeat-revascularisation, or stroke), patient-reported quality of life, and health-economic data. Patient assessments will be performed during hospitalisation, at 1-month, 1-year, and annually thereafter to 5?years post-CABG. Events will be adjudicated by an independent clinical events committee. This European, multi-institutional registry will provide detailed insights into clinical outcome associated with DuraGraft. DISCUSSION:This European, multi-institutional registry will provide detailed insights into clinical outcome associated with the use of DuraGraft. Beyond that, and given the comprehensive data sets comprising of patient, procedural, and graft parameters that are being collected, the registry will enable for multiple subgroup analyses targeting focus groups or specific clinical questions. These may include analysis of subpopulations such as patients with diabetes or multimorbid high-risk patients (patient level), evaluation of relevance of harvesting technique including endoscopic versus open conduit harvesting (procedural level), or particular graft-specific aspects (conduit level). TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02922088 . Registered October 3, 2016. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:The regional ethics committees have approved the registry. Results will be submitted for publication.