1H, 15N and 13C backbone resonance assignments of the P146A variant of ?-phosphoglucomutase from Lactococcus lactis in its substrate-free form.
ABSTRACT: ?-Phosphoglucomutase (?PGM) is a magnesium-dependent phosphoryl transfer enzyme that catalyses the reversible isomerisation of ?-glucose 1-phosphate and glucose 6-phosphate, via two phosphoryl transfer steps and a ?-glucose 1,6-bisphosphate intermediate. Substrate-free ?PGM is an essential component of the catalytic cycle and an understanding of its dynamics would present significant insights into ?PGM functionality, and enzyme catalysed phosphoryl transfer in general. Previously, 30 residues around the active site of substrate-free ?PGMWT were identified as undergoing extensive millisecond dynamics and were unassignable. Here we report 1H, 15N and 13C backbone resonance assignments of the P146A variant (?PGMP146A) in its substrate-free form, where the K145-A146 peptide bond adopts a trans conformation in contrast to all crystal structures of ?PGMWT, where the K145-P146 peptide bond is cis. In ?PGMP146A millisecond dynamics are suppressed for all but 17 residues, allowing 92% of backbone resonances to be assigned. Secondary structure predictions using TALOS-N reflect ?PGM crystal structures, and a chemical shift comparison between substrate-free ?PGMP146A and ?PGMWT confirms that the solution conformations are very similar, except for the D137-A147 loop. Hence, the isomerisation state of the 145-146 peptide bond has little effect on structure but the cis conformation triggers millisecond dynamics in the hinge (V12-T16), the nucleophile (D8) and residues that coordinate the transferring phosphate group (D8 and S114-S116), and the D137-A147 loop (V141-A142 and K145). These millisecond dynamics occur in addition to those for residues involved in coordinating the catalytic MgII ion and the L44-L53 loop responsible for substrate discrimination.
Project description:Enzyme regulation is vital for metabolic adaptability in living systems. Fine control of enzyme activity is often delivered through post-translational mechanisms, such as allostery or allokairy. ?-phosphoglucomutase (?PGM) from Lactococcus lactis is a phosphoryl transfer enzyme required for complete catabolism of trehalose and maltose, through the isomerisation of ?-glucose 1-phosphate to glucose 6-phosphate via ?-glucose 1,6-bisphosphate. Surprisingly for a gatekeeper of glycolysis, no fine control mechanism of ?PGM has yet been reported. Herein, we describe allomorphy, a post-translational control mechanism of enzyme activity. In ?PGM, isomerisation of the K145-P146 peptide bond results in the population of two conformers that have different activities owing to repositioning of the K145 sidechain. In vivo phosphorylating agents, such as fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, generate phosphorylated forms of both conformers, leading to a lag phase in activity until the more active phosphorylated conformer dominates. In contrast, the reaction intermediate ?-glucose 1,6-bisphosphate, whose concentration depends on the ?-glucose 1-phosphate concentration, couples the conformational switch and the phosphorylation step, resulting in the rapid generation of the more active phosphorylated conformer. In enabling different behaviours for different allomorphic activators, allomorphy allows an organism to maximise its responsiveness to environmental changes while minimising the diversion of valuable metabolites.
Project description:The enzyme phosphomannomutase/phosphoglucomutase (PMM/PGM) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa catalyzes an intramolecular phosphoryl transfer across its phosphosugar substrates, which are precursors in the synthesis of exoproducts involved in bacterial virulence. Previous structural studies of PMM/PGM have established a key role for conformational change in its multistep reaction, which requires a dramatic 180° reorientation of the intermediate within the active site. Here hydrogen-deuterium exchange by mass spectrometry and small angle x-ray scattering were used to probe the conformational flexibility of different forms of PMM/PGM in solution, including its active, phosphorylated state and the unphosphorylated state that occurs transiently during the catalytic cycle. In addition, the effects of ligand binding were assessed through use of a substrate analog. We found that both phosphorylation and binding of ligand produce significant effects on deuterium incorporation. Phosphorylation of the conserved catalytic serine has broad effects on residues in multiple domains and is supported by small angle x-ray scattering data showing that the unphosphorylated enzyme is less compact in solution. The effects of ligand binding are generally manifested near the active site cleft and at a domain interface that is a site of conformational change. These results suggest that dephosphorylation of the enzyme may play two critical functional roles: a direct role in the chemical step of phosphoryl transfer and secondly through propagation of structural flexibility. We propose a model whereby increased enzyme flexibility facilitates the reorientation of the reaction intermediate, coupling changes in structural dynamics with the unique catalytic mechanism of this enzyme.
Project description:Arginine kinase catalyzes reversible phosphoryl transfer between ATP and arginine, buffering cellular ATP concentrations. Structures of substrate-free and -bound enzyme have highlighted a range of conformational changes thought to occur during the catalytic cycle. Here, NMR is used to characterize the intrinsic backbone dynamics over multiple timescales. Relaxation dispersion indicates rigid-body motion of the N-terminal domain and flexible dynamics in the I182-G209 loop, both at millisecond rates commensurate with k(cat), implying that either might be rate limiting upon catalysis. Lipari-Szabo analysis indicates backbone flexibility on the nanosecond timescale in the V308-V322 loop, while the rest of the enzyme is more rigid in this timescale. Thus, intrinsic dynamics are most prominent in regions that have been independently implicated in conformational changes. Substrate-free enzyme may sample an ensemble of different conformations, of which a subset is selected upon substrate binding, with critical active site residues appropriately configured for binding and catalysis.
Project description:Often considered an archetypal dimeric coiled coil, tropomyosin nonetheless exhibits distinctive "noncanonical" core residues located at the hydrophobic interface between its component α-helices. Notably, a charged aspartate, D137, takes the place of nonpolar residues otherwise present. Much speculation has been offered to rationalize potential local coiled-coil instability stemming from D137 and its effect on regulatory transitions of tropomyosin over actin filaments. Although experimental approaches such as electron cryomicroscopy reconstruction are optimal for defining average tropomyosin positions on actin filaments, to date, these methods have not captured the dynamics of tropomyosin residues clustered around position 137 or elsewhere. In contrast, computational biochemistry, involving molecular dynamics simulation, is a compelling choice to extend the understanding of local and global tropomyosin behavior on actin filaments at high resolution. Here, we report on molecular dynamics simulation of actin-free and actin-associated tropomyosin, showing noncanonical residue D137 as a locus for tropomyosin twist variation, with marked effects on actin-tropomyosin interactions. We conclude that D137-sponsored coiled-coil twisting is likely to optimize electrostatic side-chain contacts between tropomyosin and actin on the assembled thin filament, while offsetting disparities between tropomyosin pseudorepeat and actin subunit periodicities. We find that D137 has only minor local effects on tropomyosin coiled-coil flexibility, (i.e., on its flexural mobility). Indeed, D137-associated overtwisting may actually augment tropomyosin stiffness on actin filaments. Accordingly, such twisting-induced stiffness of tropomyosin is expected to enhance cooperative regulatory translocation of the tropomyosin cable over actin.
Project description:The alpha-D-phosphohexomutase superfamily is composed of four related enzymes that catalyze a reversible, intramolecular phosphoryl transfer on their sugar substrates. The enzymes in this superfamily play important and diverse roles in carbohydrate metabolism in organisms from bacteria to humans. Recent structural and mechanistic studies of one member of this superfamily, phosphomannomutase/phosphoglucomutase (PMM/PGM) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, have provided new insights into enzyme mechanism and substrate recognition. Here we use sequence-sequence and sequence-structure comparisons via evolutionary trace analysis to examine 71 members of the alpha-D-phosphohexomutase superfamily. These analyses show that key residues in the active site, including many of those involved in substrate contacts in the P. aeruginosa PMM/PGM complexes, are conserved throughout the enzyme family. Several important regions show class-specific differences in sequence that appear to be correlated with differences in substrate specificity exhibited by subgroups of the family. In addition, we describe the translocation of a 20-residue segment containing the catalytic phosphoserine of phosphoacetylglucosamine mutase, which uniquely identifies members of this subgroup.
Project description:Enzymes sample multiple conformations during their catalytic cycles. Chemical shifts from Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) are hypersensitive to conformational changes and ensembles in solution. Phosphomannomutase/phosphoglucomutase (PMM/PGM) is a ubiquitous four-domain enzyme that catalyzes phosphoryl transfer across phosphohexose substrates. We compared states the enzyme visits during its catalytic cycle. Collective responses of Pseudomonas PMM/PGM to phosphosugar substrates and inhibitor were assessed using NMR-detected titrations. Affinities were estimated from binding isotherms obtained by principal component analysis (PCA). Relationships among phosphosugar-enzyme associations emerge from PCA comparisons of the titrations. COordiNated Chemical Shifts bEhavior (CONCISE) analysis provides novel discrimination of three ligand-bound states of PMM/PGM harboring a mutation that suppresses activity. Enzyme phosphorylation and phosphosugar binding appear to drive the open dephosphorylated enzyme to the free phosphorylated state, and on toward ligand-closed states. Domain 4 appears central to collective responses to substrate and inhibitor binding. Hydrogen exchange reveals that binding of a substrate analogue enhances folding stability of the domains to a uniform level, establishing a globally unified structure. CONCISE and PCA of NMR spectra have discovered novel states of a well-studied enzyme and appear ready to discriminate other enzyme and ligand binding states.
Project description:Experimental observations of fluoromagnesate and fluoroaluminate complexes of ?-phosphoglucomutase (?-PGM) have demonstrated the importance of charge balance in transition-state stabilization for phosphoryl transfer enzymes. Here, direct observations of ground-state analog complexes of ?-PGM involving trifluoroberyllate establish that when the geometry and charge distribution closely match those of the substrate, the distribution of conformers in solution and in the crystal predominantly places the reacting centers in van der Waals proximity. Importantly, two variants are found, both of which satisfy the criteria for near attack conformers. In one variant, the aspartate general base for the reaction is remote from the nucleophile. The nucleophile remains protonated and forms a nonproductive hydrogen bond to the phosphate surrogate. In the other variant, the general base forms a hydrogen bond to the nucleophile that is now correctly orientated for the chemical transfer step. By contrast, in the absence of substrate, the solvent surrounding the phosphate surrogate is arranged to disfavor nucleophilic attack by water. Taken together, the trifluoroberyllate complexes of ?-PGM provide a picture of how the enzyme is able to organize itself for the chemical step in catalysis through the population of intermediates that respond to increasing proximity of the nucleophile. These experimental observations show how the enzyme is capable of stabilizing the reaction pathway toward the transition state and also of minimizing unproductive catalysis of aspartyl phosphate hydrolysis.
Project description:Human ?-phosphoglucomutase?1 (?-PGM) catalyzes the isomerization of glucose-1-phosphate into glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) through two sequential phosphoryl transfer steps with a glucose-1,6-bisphosphate (G16P) intermediate. Given that the release of G6P in the gluconeogenesis raises the glucose output levels, ?-PGM represents a tempting pharmacological target for type?2 diabetes. Here, we provide the first theoretical study of the catalytic mechanism of human ?-PGM. We performed transition-path sampling simulations to unveil the atomic details of the two catalytic chemical steps, which could be key for developing transition state (TS) analogue molecules with inhibitory properties. Our calculations revealed that both steps proceed through a concerted SN 2-like mechanism, with a loose metaphosphate-like TS. Even though experimental data suggests that the two steps are identical, we observed noticeable differences: 1)?the transition state ensemble has a well-defined TS region and a late TS for the second step, and 2)?larger coordinated protein motions are required to reach the TS of the second step. We have identified key residues (Arg23, Ser117, His118, Lys389), and the Mg2+ ion that contribute in different ways to the reaction coordinate. Accelerated molecular dynamics simulations suggest that the G16P intermediate may reorient without leaving the enzymatic binding pocket, through significant conformational rearrangements of the G16P and of specific loop regions of the human ?-PGM.
Project description:Tauhe beta-phosphoglucomutase (beta-PGM) of the haloacid dehalogenase enzyme superfamily (HADSF) catalyzes the conversion of beta-glucose 1-phosphate (betaG1P) to glucose 6-phosphate (G6P) using Asp8 of the core domain active site to mediate phosphoryl transfer from beta-glucose 1,6-(bis)phosphate (betaG1,6bisP) to betaG1P. Herein, we explore the mechanism by which hydrolysis of the beta-PGM phospho-Asp8 is avoided during the time that the active site must remain open to solvent to allow the exchange of the bound product G6P with the substrate betaG1P. On the basis of structural information, a model of catalysis is proposed in which the general acid/base (Asp10) side chain moves from a position where it forms a hydrogen bond to the Thr16-Ala17 portion of the domain-domain linker to a functional position where it forms a hydrogen bond to the substrate leaving group O and a His20-Lys76 pair of the cap domain. This repositioning of the general acid/base within the core domain active site is coordinated with substrate-induced closure of the cap domain over the core domain. The model predicts that Asp10 is required for general acid/base catalysis and for stabilization of the enzyme in the cap-closed conformation. It also predicts that hinge residue Thr16 plays a key role in productive domain-domain association, that hydrogen bond interaction with the Thr16 backbone amide NH group is required to prevent phospho-Asp8 hydrolysis in the cap-open conformation, and that the His20-Lys76 pair plays an important role in substrate-induced cap closure. The model is examined via kinetic analyses of Asp10, Thr16, His20, and Lys76 site-directed mutants. Replacement of Asp10 with Ala, Ser, Cys, Asn, or Glu resulted in no observable activity. The kinetic consequences of the replacement of linker residue Thr16 with Pro include a reduced rate of Asp8 phosphorylation by betaG1,6bisP, a reduced rate of cycling of the phosphorylated enzyme to convert betaG1P to G6P, and an enhanced rate of phosphoryl transfer from phospho-Asp8 to water. The X-ray crystal structure of the T16P mutant at 2.7 A resolution provides a snapshot of the enzyme in an unnatural cap-open conformation where the Asp10 side chain is located in the core domain active site. The His20 and Lys76 site-directed mutants exhibit reduced activity in catalysis of the Asp8-mediated phosphoryl transfer between betaG1,6bisP and betaG1P but no reduction in the rate of phospho-Asp8 hydrolysis. Taken together, the results support a substrate induced-fit model of catalysis in which betaG1P binding to the core domain facilitates recruitment of the general acid/base Asp10 to the catalytic site and induces cap closure.
Project description:Prior evidence supporting the direct observation of phosphorane intermediates in enzymatic phosphoryl transfer reactions was based on the interpretation of electron density corresponding to trigonal species bridging the donor and acceptor atoms. Close examination of the crystalline state of beta-phosphoglucomutase, the archetypal phosphorane intermediate-containing enzyme, reveals that the trigonal species is not PO-3 , but is MgF-3 (trifluoromagnesate). Although MgF-3 complexes are transition state analogues rather than phosphoryl group transfer reaction intermediates, the presence of fluorine nuclei in near-transition state conformations offers new opportunities to explore the nature of the interactions, in particular the independent measures of local electrostatic and hydrogen-bonding distributions using 19F NMR. Measurements on three beta-PGM-MgF-3 -sugar phosphate complexes show a remarkable relationship between NMR chemical shifts, primary isotope shifts, NOEs, cross hydrogen bond F...H-N scalar couplings, and the atomic positions determined from the high-resolution crystal structure of the beta-PGM-MgF--3 -G6P complex. The measurements provide independent validation of the structural and isoelectronic MgF--3 model of near-transition state conformations.