Bone marrow concentrate-induced mesenchymal stem cell conditioned medium facilitates wound healing and prevents hypertrophic scar formation in a rabbit ear model.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Hypertrophic scars (HSs) are formed via an aberrant response to the wound healing process. HSs can be cosmetic or can result in functional problems. Prolonged proliferation and remodeling phases disrupt wound healing, leading to excessive collagen production and HS formation. However, there are currently no satisfactory drugs to prevent HS formation. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) conditioned medium (CM) has therapeutic effects on wound healing and preventing HS formation. Bone marrow concentrate (BMC) contains various growth factors and cytokines that are crucial for regeneration and has been applied in the clinical setting. In this study, we evaluated the effects of BMC-induced MSC CM on HS formation in a rabbit ear model. METHODS:We established a rabbit ear wound model by generating full-thickness wounds in the ears of rabbits (n = 12) and treated wounds with MSC CM, BMC CM, or BMC-induced MSC CM. Dermal fibroblasts from human hypertrophic scar were stimulated with transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) for 24 h and cultured in each culture medium for 72 h. We measured the hypertrophic scar (HS) formation during the skin regeneration by measuring the expression of several remodeling molecules and the effect of these conditioned media on active human HS fibroblasts. RESULTS:Our results showed that BMC-induced MSC CM had greater antifibrotic effects than MSC CM and BMC CM significantly attenuated HS formation in rabbits. BMC-induced MSC CM accelerated wound re-epithelization by increasing cell proliferation. Additionally, BMC-induced MSC CM also inhibited fibrosis by decreasing profibrotic gene and protein expression, promoting extracellular matrix turnover, inhibiting fibroblast contraction, and reversing myofibroblast activation. CONCLUSIONS:BMC-induced MSC CM modulated the proliferation and remodeling phases of wound healing, representing a potential wound healing agent and approach for preventing HS formation.
Project description:Background:In burn patients, wound healing is often accompanied by hypertrophic scar (HS) development, resulting in both functional and aesthetic problems. HSs are characterised by abundant presence of myofibroblasts that contribute to overproduction of extracellular matrix (ECM) that is regulated by the TGF-? signalling pathway. Studies have shown that inhibition of TGF-? receptors in fibrotic diseases reduces the fibrotic load. In the present study, we aim to inactivate ALK5, also known as TGF-? receptor I, in human HS fibroblasts by exon skipping using antisense oligonucleotides (AONs). Methods:HS biopsies were used to isolate and set up fibroblast monocultures. AONs targeting ALK5 were supplemented to the fibroblast cultures to induce exon skipping, while pharmacological ALK5 inhibition was induced using SB431542. AON delivery in HS fibroblasts was examined using immunofluorescence (IF), while TGF-? signalling downstream targets, such as Smad2/3, PAI-1, ACTA2, COL1A1 and COL3A1, were analysed using touchdown polymerase chain reaction (PCR), quantitative PCR (qPCR), IF or western blotting. Results:Our data clearly demonstrate that AONs were successfully delivered in the nuclei of HS fibroblasts and that functional exon skipping of ALK5 took place as confirmed with touchdown PCR and qPCR. In addition, exon skipping affected the expression of ECM-related genes, such as type I/III collagens, PAI-1 and CCN2. Moreover, AON treatment did not affect the migration of HS fibroblasts in a model for wound healing. Conclusion:Exon skipping is a promising tool to modulate the TGF-? signalling pathway in HS. This would open a therapeutic window for the treatment of patients suffering from HSs.
Project description:Wound healing is a complex physiological process that repairs a skin lesion and produces fibrous tissue. In some cases, this process can lead to hypertrophic scars (HS) or keloid scars (KS), for which the pathophysiology remains poorly understood. Previous studies have reported the presence of oncostatin M (OSM) during the wound healing process; however, the role of OSM in pathological scarring remains to be precisely elucidated. This study aims to analyse the presence and involvement of OSM in the pathological scarring process. It was conducted with 18 patients, including 9 patients with hypertrophic scarring and 9 patients with keloid scarring. Histological tissue analysis of HS and KS showed minor differences in the organization of the extracellular matrix, the inflammatory infiltrate and the keratinocyte phenotype. Transcriptomic analysis showed increased expression levels of fibronectin, collagen I, TGF?1, ?-defensin-2 and S100A7 in both pathological samples. OSM expression levels were greater in HS than in KS and control skin. In vitro, OSM inhibited TGF?1-induced secretion of components of the extracellular matrix by normal and pathological fibroblasts. Overall, we suggest that OSM is involved in pathological wound healing processes by inhibiting the evolution of HS towards KS by controlling the fibrotic effect of TGF?1.
Project description:In a previous study, we isolated human amniotic fluid (AF)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AF-MSCs) and utilized normoxic conditioned medium (AF-MSC-norCM) which has been shown to accelerate cutaneous wound healing. Because hypoxia enhances the wound healing function of mesenchymal stem cell-conditioned medium (MSC-CM), it is interesting to explore the mechanism responsible for the enhancement of wound healing function. In this work, hypoxia not only increased the proliferation of AF-MSCs but also maintained their constitutive characteristics (surface marker expression and differentiation potentials). Notably, more paracrine factors, VEGF and TGF-?1, were secreted into hypoxic conditioned medium from AF-MSCs (AF-MSC-hypoCM) compared to AF-MSC-norCM. Moreover, AF-MSC-hypoCM enhanced the proliferation and migration of human dermal fibroblasts in vitro, and wound closure in a skin injury model, as compared to AF-MSC-norCM. However, the enhancement of migration of fibroblasts accelerated by AF-MSC-hypoCM was inhibited by SB505124 and LY294002, inhibitors of TGF-?/SMAD2 and PI3K/AKT, suggesting that AF-MSC-hypoCM-enhanced wound healing is mediated by the activation of TGF-?/SMAD2 and PI3K/AKT. Therefore, AF-MSC-hypoCM enhances wound healing through the increase of hypoxia-induced paracrine factors via activation of TGF-?/SMAD2 and PI3K/AKT pathways.
Project description:<h4>Summary</h4>The development of cutaneous pathological scars, namely, hypertrophic scars (HSs) and keloids, involves complex pathways, and the exact mechanisms by which they are initiated, evolved, and regulated remain to be fully elucidated. The generally held concepts that keloids and HSs represent "aberrant wound healing" or that they are "characterized by hyalinized collagen bundles" have done little to promote their accurate clinicopathological classification or to stimulate research into the specific causes of these scars and effective preventative therapies. To overcome this barrier, we review here the most recent findings regarding the pathology and pathogenesis of keloids and HSs. The aberrations of HSs and keloids in terms of the inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling phases of the wound healing process are described. In particular, the significant roles that the extracellular matrix and the epidermal and dermal layers of skin play in scar pathogenesis are examined. Finally, the current hypotheses of pathological scar etiology that should be tested by basic and clinical investigators are detailed. Therapies that have been found to be effective are described, including several that evolved directly from the aforementioned etiology hypotheses. A better understanding of pathological scar etiology and manifestations will improve the clinical and histopathological classification and treatment of these important lesions.
Project description:Background:Cell-based therapies are being developed to meet the need for curative therapy in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Bone marrow- (BM-) derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) enhance tissue repair and induce neoangiogenesis through paracrine action of secreted proteins and extracellular vesicles (EVs). Administration of allogeneic BM MSCs is less desirable in a patient population likely to require a kidney transplant, but potency of autologous MSCs should be confirmed, given previous indications that CKD-induced dysfunction is present. While the immunomodulatory capacity of CKD BM MSCs has been established, it is unknown whether CKD affects wound healing and angiogenic potential of MSC-derived CM and EVs. Methods:MSCs were cultured from BM obtained from kidney transplant recipients (N = 15) or kidney donors (N = 17). Passage 3 BM MSCs and BM MSC-conditioned medium (CM) were used for experiments. EVs were isolated from CM by differential ultracentrifugation. BM MSC differentiation capacity, proliferation, and senescence-associated ?-galactosidase activity was assessed. In vitro promigratory and proangiogenic capacity of BM MSC-derived CM and EVs was assessed using an in vitro scratch wound assay and Matrigel angiogenesis assay. Results:Healthy and CKD BM MSCs exhibited similar differentiation capacity, proliferation, and senescence-associated ?-galactosidase activity. Scratch wound migration was not significantly different between healthy and CKD MSCs (P = 0.18). Healthy and CKD BM MSC-derived CM induced similar tubule formation (P = 0.21). There was also no difference in paracrine regenerative function of EVs (scratch wound: P = 0.6; tubulogenesis: P = 0.46). Conclusions:Our results indicate that MSCs have an intrinsic capacity to produce proangiogenic paracrine factors, including EVs, which is not affected by donor health status regarding CKD. This suggests that autologous MSC-based therapy is a viable option in CKD.
Project description:Hypertrophic scars (HS) arise from traumatic or surgical injuries and the subsequent abnormal wound healing, which is characterized by continuous and histologically localized inflammation. Therefore, inhibiting local inflammation is an effective method of treating HS. Recent insight into the role of interleukin-10 (IL-10), an important anti-inflammatory cytokine, in fibrosis has increased our understanding of the pathophysiology of HS and has suggested new therapeutic targets. This review summarizes the recent progress in elucidating the role of IL-10 in the formation of HS and its therapeutic potential based on current research. This knowledge will enhance our understanding of the role of IL-10 in scar formation and shed new light on the regulation and potential treatment of HS.
Project description:The prevalence of nonhealing wounds is predicted to increase due to the growing aging population. Despite the use of novel skin substitutes and wound dressings, poorly vascularized wound niches impair wound repair. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been reported to provide paracrine signals to promote wound healing, but the effect of human Wharton's jelly-derived MSCs (WJ-MSCs) has not yet been described in human normal skin.Human WJ-MSCs and normal skin fibroblasts were isolated from donated umbilical cords and normal adult human skin. Fibroblasts were treated with WJ-MSC-conditioned medium (WJ-MSC-CM) or nonconditioned medium.Expression of genes involved in re-epithelialization (transforming growth factor-?2), neovascularization (hypoxia-inducible factor-1?) and fibroproliferation (plasminogen activator inhibitor-1) was upregulated in WJ-MSC-CM-treated fibroblasts (P?0.05). WJ-MSC-CM enhanced normal skin fibroblast proliferation (P?0.001) and migration (P?0.05), and promoted wound healing in an excisional full-thickness skin murine model.Under our experimental conditions, WJ-MSCs enhanced skin wound healing in an in vivo mouse model.
Project description:Hypertrophic scars (HSs) are a type of pathological scar which are induced by surgery, burn injuries or trauma during the healing process. Due to the high recurrence rates and strong invasive properties, HSs have become a major clinical issue. Resveratrol has been identified as a potential agent to suppress scar formation; however, the underlying mechanism of action remains unclear. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of resveratrol on HS-derived fibroblasts (HSFBs) in vitro. MTT assay was performed to evaluate cell viability following the resveratrol treatment. Western blot and RT-qPCR analysis was used to identify the expression levels and the relationship among autophagic markers, miR-4654 and resveratrol treatment. Finally, GFP-LC3 stable HSFBs cells were generated to further assess the effect of resveratrol. The results revealed that resveratrol significantly induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner and induced autophagy by downregulating the expression levels of Rheb in HSFBs. Notably, microRNA-4654 (miR-4654) was significantly decreased in the HSFBs and re-upregulated by resveratrol treatment dose-dependently. Through the bioinformatic analysis and luciferase assay, miR-4654 was identified to directly target Rheb. Transfection studies showed that miR-4654 negative correlated with Rheb expression, suggesting that the autophagic process may be altered by the miR-4654/Rheb axis under the control of resveratrol. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggested that resveratrol may promote autophagy by upregulating miR-4654, which in turn may suppress Rheb expression via directly binding to the 3'-untranslated region of Rheb. These findings provided a novel insight into the development of potential therapeutic targets for HSs.
Project description:Excessive repair after burn or trauma will lead to the formation of pathological scar. TGF-β1 is a powerful growth factor after wound healing. It is considered to be a key regulator of HS and various fibrotic diseases. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) can widely participate in the pathophysiological processes of various diseases by participating in post transcriptional gene regulation. At present, there is no research report on miR-361 and hypertrophic scar. This study found that miR-361 in HS is down-regulated. MiR-361 can inhibit the proliferation of HS fibroblasts and promote their apoptosis by inhibiting TGF-β1. Moreover, miR-361 can inhibit the formation of rabbit ear scar by inhibiting the expression of TGF-β1. Overall design: Three pairs of hypertrophic scar samples and the corresponding adjacent tissues were collected.
Project description:Rodent lungs undergo full histologic recovery within 1 week following unilateral lung contusion (LC). However, when LC is followed by hemorrhagic shock (HS), healing is impaired. We hypothesize that the intravenous administration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in animals undergoing combined LC followed by HS (LCHS) will improve wound healing.Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 5-6 per group) were subjected to LCHS with or without the injection of a single intravenous dose of 5 × 10 MSCs following return of shed blood after HS. Rats were sacrificed 7 days following injury. Flow cytometry was used to determine the T-regulatory cell (Treg) population in peripheral blood. Lung histology was graded using a well-established lung injury score (LIS). Components of the LIS include average inflammatory cells per high-power field over 30 fields, interstitial edema, pulmonary edema, and alveolar integrity, with total scores ranging from 0 to 11. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance followed by Tukey's multiple comparison test, expressed as mean (SD). p < 0.05 was considered significant.Seven days following isolated LC, animals demonstrated lung healing with an LIS unchanged from naive. The addition of HS resulted in a persistently elevated LIS score, whereas the addition of MSCs to LCHS decreased the LIS score back to naive levels. The change in LIS was driven by a significant decrease in edema scores. In rats undergoing LC alone, 10.5% (3.3%) of CD4 cells were Tregs. The addition of HS caused no significant change in Treg population (9.3% [0.7%]), whereas LCHS + MSC significantly increased the population to 18.2% (6.8%) in peripheral blood (p < 0.05 vs. LCHS).Impaired wound healing following trauma and HS is improved by a single dose of MSCs given immediately after injury. This enhanced healing is associated with an increase in the Treg population and a significant decrease in lung edema score as compared with animals undergoing LCHS. Further study into the role of Tregs in MSC-mediated wound healing is warranted.