Pharmacological and genetic inhibition of fatty acid-binding protein 4 alleviated cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury.
ABSTRACT: Fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) has been confirmed to be involved in the pathogenesis of ischaemia/reperfusion- and rhabdomyolysis-induced acute kidney injury (AKI), and targeting inhibition of FABP4 might be a potential strategy for AKI. Cisplatin as a commonly used cancer chemotherapeutic drug possessed a dose-limited side effect of nephrotoxicity. However, whether FABP4 inhibition exerted a favourable renoprotection against cisplatin-induced AKI and the involved mechanisms remained unknown. In the study, cisplatin-injected mice developed severe AKI symptom as indicated by renal dysfunction and pathological changes, companied by the high expression of FABP4 in tubular epithelial cells. Selective inhibition of FABP4 by BMS309403 at 40 mg/kg/d for 3 days and genetic knockout of FABP4 significantly attenuated the serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen level and renal tubular damage. Mechanistically, cisplatin injection induced the increased apoptosis and regulated the corresponding protein expression of BCL-2, BCL-XL, BAX, cleaved caspase 3 and caspase 12 in the injured kidney tissues. Cisplatin also triggered multiple signal mediators of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress including double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase-like ER kinase, activating transcription factor-6 and inositol-requiring enzyme-1 pathway, as well as CHOP, GRP78 and p-JNK proteins in the kidneys. Oral administration of BMS309403 significantly reduced the number of renal TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells. Knockout of FABP4 and BMS309403 notably improved ER stress-related apoptotic responses. In summary, pharmacological and genetic inhibition of FABP4 modulated apoptosis via the inactivation of ER stress in the tubular epithelial cells of cisplatin-induced AKI.
Project description:Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and potentially life-threatening complication. Studies confirmed that circulating FABP4 depended on renal function of AKI patients. In our previous study, FABP4 was involved in the pathogenesis of I/R-induced AKI. However, the function of FABP4 in rhabdomyolysis-induced AKI remained poorly understood. In the study, we further investigated the effect of FABP4 in a murine model of glycerol injection-induced rhabdomyolysis. Following glycerol injection, the mice developed severe AKI as indicated by acute renal dysfunction and histologic changes, companied by the increased FABP4 expression in the cytoplasm of tubular epithelial cells. Pharmacological inhibition of FABP4 by a highly selective inhibitor BMS309403 significantly reduced serum creatinine level, proinflammatory cytokine mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 as well as attenuated renal tubular damage in glycerol-injured kidneys. Oral administration of FABP4 inhibitor also resulted in a significant attenuation of ER stress indicated by transmission electron microscope analysis and its maker proteins expression of GRP78, CHOP, p-perk, and ATF4 in kidneys of AKI. Furthermore, BMS309403 could attenuate myoglobin-induced ER stress and inflammation in renal proximal tubular epithelial cell line (HK-2). Overall, these data highlighted that renal protection of selective FABP4 inhibitor was substantiated by the reduction of ER stress and inflammation in tubular epithelial cells of rhabdomyolysis-induced injured kidneys and suggested that the inhibition of FABP4 might be a promising therapeutic strategy for AKI treatment.
Project description:Kidney fibrosis is a hallmark of chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression that is caused by tubular injury and dysregulated lipid metabolism. Genetic abolition fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4), a key lipid transporter, has been reported to suppress kidney interstitial fibrosis. However, the role and underlying mechanism of chemical inhibition of FABP4 in fibrotic kidney have not been well-documented. Here, we examined preemptive the effect of a FABP4 inhibitor, BMS309403, on lipid metabolism of tubular epithelial cells (TECs) and progression of kidney fibrosis. The expression of FABP4 was significantly elevated, concomitated with the accumulation of lipid droplets in TECs during kidney fibrosis. Treatment with BMS309403 alleviated lipid deposition of TECs, as well as interstitial fibrotic responses both in unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO)-engaged mice and TGF-β-induced TECs. Moreover, BMS309403 administration enhanced fatty acid oxidation (FAO) in TECs by regulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and restoring FAO-related enzyme activities; In addition, BMS309403 markedly reduced cell lipotoxicity, such as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and apoptosis in fibrotic kidney. Taken together, our results suggest that preemptive pharmacological inhibition of FABP4 by BMS309403 rebalances abnormal lipid metabolism in TECs and attenuates the progression of kidney fibrosis, thus may hold therapeutic potential for the treatment of fibrotic kidney diseases.
Project description:Histone deacetylases 6 (HDAC6) has been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). Selective inhibition of HDAC6 might be a potential treatment for AKI. In our previous study, a highly selective HDAC6 inhibitor (HDAC6i) 23BB effectively protected against rhabdomyolysis-induced AKI with good safety. However, whether 23BB possessed favorable renoprotection against cisplatin-induced AKI and the involved mechanisms remained unknown. In the study, cisplatin-injected mice developed severe AKI symptom as indicated by acute kidney dysfunction and pathological changes, companied by the overexpression of HDAC6 in tubular epithelial cells. Pharmacological inhibition of HDAC6 by the treatment of 23BB significantly attenuated sCr, BUN and renal tubular damage. Mechanistically, 23BB enhanced the acetylation of histone H3 to reduce the HDAC6 activity. Cisplatin-induced AKI triggered multiple signal mediators of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress including PERK, ATF6 and IRE1 pathway, as well as CHOP, GRP78, p-JNK and caspase 12 proteins. Oral administration of our HDAC6i 23BB at a dose of 40 mg/kg/d for 3 days notably improved above-mentioned responses in the injured kidney tissues. HDAC6 inhibition also reduced the number of TUNEL-positive tubular cells and regulated apoptosis-related protein expression. Overall, these data highlighted that HDAC6 inhibitor 23BB modulated apoptosis via the inhibition of ER stress in the tubular epithelial cells of cisplatin-induced AKI.
Project description:Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) contributed to the pathogenesis of rhabdomyolysis-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) and selective inhibition of HDAC6 activity may be a promising strategy for the treatment of AKI. Compound 23BB as a highly selective HDAC6 inhibitor was designed, synthesized by our lab and exhibited therapeutic potential in various cancer models with good safety. However, it remained unknown whether 23BB as a drug candidate could offer renal protective effect against rhabdomyolysis-induced AKI. In the present study, we investigated the effect of 23BB in a murine model of glycerol (GL) injection-induced rhabdomyolysis. Following GL injection, the mice developed severe AKI as indicated by acute renal dysfunction and histologic changes, accompanied by increased HDAC6 expression in the cytoplasm of tubular epithelial cells. Pharmacological inhibition of HDAC6 by 23BB pretreatment significantly reduced serum creatinine and serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels as well as attenuated renal tubular damage in GL-injured kidneys. HDAC6 inhibition also resulted in reduced TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL)-positive tubular cells, suppressed BAX, BAK, cleaved caspase-3 levels, and preserved Bcl-2 expression, indicating that 23BB exerted potent renoprotective effects by the regulation of tubular cell apoptosis. Moreover, GL-induced kidney injury triggered multiple signal mediators of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress including GRP78, CHOP, IRE1?, p-eIF2?, ATF4, XBP1, p-JNK, and caspase-12. Oral administration of 23BB improved above-mentioned responses in injured kidney tissues and suggested that 23BB modulated tubular cell apoptosis via the inactivation of ER stress. Overall, these data highlighted that renal protection of novel HDAC6 inhibitor 23BB is substantiated by the reduction of ER stress-mediated apoptosis in tubular epithelial cells of rhabdomyolysis-induced AKI.
Project description:Acute kidney injury (AKI) is the main obstacle that limits the use of cisplatin in cancer treatment. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), the most commonly used class of medications for gastrointestinal complications in cancer patients, have been reported to cause adverse renal events. However, the effect of PPIs on cisplatin-induced AKI remains unclear. Herein, the effect and mechanism of lansoprazole (LPZ), one of the most frequently prescribed PPIs, on cisplatin-induced AKI were investigated in vivo and in vitro. C57BL/6 mice received a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of cisplatin (18 mg/kg) to induce AKI, and LPZ (12.5 or 25 mg/kg) was administered 2 hours prior to cisplatin administration and then once daily for another 2 days via i.p. injection. The results showed that LPZ significantly aggravated the tubular damage and further increased the elevated levels of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen induced by cisplatin. However, LPZ did not enhance cisplatin-induced tubular apoptosis, as evidenced by a lack of significant change in mRNA and protein expression of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and TUNEL staining. Notably, LPZ increased the number of necrotic renal tubular cells compared to that by cisplatin treatment alone, which was further confirmed by the elevated necroptosis-associated protein expression of RIPK1, p-RIPK3 and p-MLKL. Furthermore, LPZ deteriorated cisplatin-induced inflammation, as revealed by the increased mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory factors including, NLRP3, IL-1?, TNF-? and caspase 1, as well as neutrophil infiltration. Consistently, in in vitro study, LPZ increased HK-2 cell death and enhanced inflammation, compared with cisplatin treatment alone. Collectively, our results demonstrate that LPZ aggravates cisplatin-induced AKI, and necroptosis may be involved in the exacerbation of kidney damage.
Project description:Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) have therapeutic effects in models of various renal diseases including acute kidney injury (AKI); however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that two widely tested HDACi (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) and trichostatin A (TSA)) protect the kidneys in cisplatin-induced AKI by enhancing autophagy. In cultured renal proximal tubular cells, SAHA and TSA enhanced autophagy during cisplatin treatment. We further verified the protective effect of TSA against cisplatin-induced apoptosis in these cells. Notably, inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine or by autophagy gene 7 (Atg7) ablation diminished the protective effect of TSA. In mice, TSA increased autophagy in renal proximal tubules and protected against cisplatin-induced AKI. The in vivo effect of TSA was also abolished by chloroquine and by Atg7 knockout specifically from renal proximal tubules. Mechanistically, TSA stimulated AMPK and inactivated mTOR during cisplatin treatment of proximal tubule cells and kidneys in mice. Together, these results suggest that HDACi may protect kidneys by activating autophagy in proximal tubular cells.
Project description:Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) is a multicomponent complex with methyltransferase activity that catalyzes trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27me3). Interaction of the epigenetic reader protein EED with EZH2, a catalytic unit of PRC, allosterically stimulates PRC2 activity. In this study, we investigated the role and underlying mechanism of the PRC2 in acute kidney injury (AKI) by using EED226, a highly selective PRC2 inhibitor, to target EED. Administration of EED226 improved renal function, attenuated renal pathological changes, and reduced renal tubular cell apoptosis in a murine model of cisplatin-induced AKI. In cultured renal epithelial cells, treatment with either EED226 or EED siRNA also ameliorated cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Mechanistically, EED226 treatment inhibited cisplatin-induced phosphorylation of p53 and FOXO3a, two transcriptional factors contributing to apoptosis, and preserved expression of Sirtuin 3 and PGC1α, two proteins associated with mitochondrial protection in vivo and in vitro. EED226 was also effective in enhancing renal tubular cell proliferation, suppressing expression of multiple inflammatory cytokines, and reducing infiltration of macrophages to the injured kidney. These data suggest that inhibition of the PRC2 activity by targeting EED can protect against cisplatin-induced AKI by promoting the survival and proliferation of renal tubular cells and inhibiting inflammatory response.
Project description:Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) has been linked to several clinical manifestations including chronic kidney disease. However, it is not known whether HHcy has a role in the development of acute kidney injury (AKI). In the present study, we reported that HHcy mice developed more severe renal injury after cisplatin injection and ischemia-reperfusion injury shown as more severe renal tubular damage and higher serum creatinine. In response to cisplatin, HHcy mice showed more prevalent tubular cell apoptosis and decreased tubular cell proliferation. Mechanistically, a heightened ER stress and a reduced Akt activity were observed in kidney tissues of HHcy mice after cisplatin injection. Stimulating cultured NRK-52E cells with Hcy significantly increased the fraction of cells in G2/M phase and cell apoptosis together with decreased Akt kinase activity. Akt agonist IGF-1 rescued HHcy-induced cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis. In conclusion, the present study provides evidence that HHcy increases the sensitivity and severity of AKI.
Project description:Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a severe and frequently observed condition associated with high morbidity and mortality. The molecular mechanisms underlying AKI have not been elucidated due to the complexity of the pathophysiological processes. Thus, we investigated the key biological molecules contributing to AKI based on the transcriptome profile. We analyzed the RNA sequencing data from 39 native human renal biopsy samples and 9 reference nephrectomies from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and Gene Ontology (GO) analysis revealed that various GO terms were dysregulated in AKI. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) highlighted dysregulated pathways, including "DNA replication," "chemokine signaling pathway," and "metabolic pathways." Furthermore, the protein-to-protein interaction (PPI) networks of the DEGs were constructed, and the hub genes were identified using Cytoscape. Moreover, weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was performed to validate the DEGs in AKI-related modules. Subsequently, the upregulated hub genes STUB1, SOCS1, and VHL were validated as upregulated in human AKI and a mouse cisplatin-induced AKI model. Moreover, the biological functions of STUB1 were investigated in renal tubular epithelial cells. Cisplatin treatment increased STUB1 expression in a dose-dependent manner at both the mRNA and protein levels. Knockdown of STUB1 by siRNA increased the expression of proapoptotic Bax and cleaved caspase-3 while decreasing antiapoptotic Bcl-2. In addition, silencing STUB1 increased the apoptosis of HK-2 cells and the proinflammatory cytokine production of <i>IL6</i>, <i>TNFα</i>, and <i>IL1β</i> induced by cisplatin. These results indicated that STUB1 may contribute to the initiation and progression of AKI by inducing renal tubular epithelial cell apoptosis and renal inflammation.
Project description:Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a potentially fatal syndrome characterized by a rapid decline in kidney function caused by ischemic or toxic injury to renal tubular cells. The widely used chemotherapy drug cisplatin accumulates preferentially in the renal tubular cells and is a frequent cause of drug-induced AKI. During the development of AKI the quiescent tubular cells reenter the cell cycle. Strategies that block cell-cycle progression ameliorate kidney injury, possibly by averting cell division in the presence of extensive DNA damage. However, the early signaling events that lead to cell-cycle activation during AKI are not known. In the current study, using mouse models of cisplatin nephrotoxicity, we show that the G1/S-regulating cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 (CDK4/6) pathway is activated in parallel with renal cell-cycle entry but before the development of AKI. Targeted inhibition of CDK4/6 pathway by small-molecule inhibitors palbociclib (PD-0332991) and ribociclib (LEE011) resulted in inhibition of cell-cycle progression, amelioration of kidney injury, and improved overall survival. Of additional significance, these compounds were found to be potent inhibitors of organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2), which contributes to the cellular accumulation of cisplatin and subsequent kidney injury. The unique cell-cycle and OCT2-targeting activities of palbociclib and LEE011, combined with their potential for clinical translation, support their further exploration as therapeutic candidates for prevention of AKI.