Influence of Slow-Paced Breathing on Inhibition After Physical Exertion.
ABSTRACT: This research aims to investigate whether slow-paced breathing (SPB) improves adaptation to psychological stress, and specifically inhibition, when it is performed before or after physical exertion (PE). According to the resonance model, SPB is expected to increase cardiac vagal activity (CVA). Further, according to the neurovisceral integration model, CVA is positively linked to executive cognitive performance, and would thus play a role in the adaptation to psychological stress. We hypothesized that SPB, in comparison to a control condition, will induce a better adaptation to psychological stress, measured via better inhibitory performance. Two within-subject experiments were conducted with athletes: in the first experiment (N = 60) SPB (or control - neutral TV documentary) was realized before PE ("relax before PE"), and in the second experiment (N = 60) SPB (or the watching TV control) was realized after PE ("relax after PE"). PE consisted of 5 min Burpees, a physical exercise involving the whole body. In both experiments the adaptation to psychological stress was investigated with a Stroop task, a measure of inhibition, which followed PE. Perceived stress increased during PE (partial ?2 = 0.63) and during the Stroop task (partial ?2 = 0.08), and decreased during relaxation (partial ?2 = 0.15), however, no effect of condition was found. At the physiological level PE significantly increased HR, RF, and decreased CVA [operationalized in this research via the root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD)] in both experiments. Further, the number of errors in the incongruent category (Stroop interference accuracy) was found to be lower in the SPB condition in comparison to the control condition, however, these results were not mediated by RMSSD. Additionally, the Stroop interference [reaction times (RTs)] was found to be lower overall in "relax before PE," however, no effect was found regarding SPB and Stroop interference (RTs). Overall, our results suggest that SPB realized before or after PE has a positive effect regarding adaptation to psychological stress and specifically inhibition, however, the underlying mechanisms require further investigation.
Project description:Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic syndrome characterized by widespread pain and other physical and psychological features. In this study, we aimed to analyze the effect of a low-intensity physical exercise (PE) program, combining endurance training and coordination, on psychological aspects (i.e., pain catastrophizing, anxiety, depression, stress), pain perception (i.e., pain acceptance, pressure pain threshold (PPT), and quality of life and physical conditioning (i.e., self-perceived functional capacity, endurance and functional capacity, power and velocity) in women with FM. For this purpose, a randomized controlled trial was carried out. Thirty-two women with FM were randomly allocated to a PE group (PEG, n = 16), performing an eight-week low-intensity PE program and a control group (CG, n = 16). Pain catastrophizing, anxiety, depression, stress, pain acceptance, PPT, quality of life, self-perceived functional capacity, endurance and functional capacity, power, and velocity were assessed before and after the intervention. We observed a significant improvement in all studied variables in the PEG after the intervention (p < 0.05). In contrast, the CG showed no improvements in any variable, which further displayed poorer values for PPT (p < 0.05). In conclusion, a low-intensity combined PE program, including endurance training and coordination, improves psychological variables, pain perception, quality of life, and physical conditioning in women with FM.
Project description:PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine how laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) affects quality of life (QOL) and to identify factors that may affect satisfaction after LASIK. METHODS: A total of 104 patients with a mean age of 29±6, treated with LASIK for myopia and astigmatism, were enrolled in a prospective study. High (90%) and low (10%) contrast visual acuity (CVA) were measured under photopic and scotopic conditions before surgery and at 3 months later. A multidimensional QOL scale (Institute for Eye Research multidimensional QOL scale), which assesses psychological characteristics, personality traits, cosmesis, frequency, and tolerance to disturbing visual and ocular symptoms, and overall satisfaction with vision correction, was also used. Paired rank tests were used to compare preoperative and postoperative vision and QOL scores. Correlations and a multiple linear regression were used to describe the relationship between CVA, QOL, and satisfaction after LASIK. RESULTS: Significant postoperative changes included increased satisfaction following LASIK (P<0.001), reduced frequency of visual and ocular symptoms (P<0.001), and change in psychological characteristics (P=0.033). The change in satisfaction with LASIK can be predicted by a combination of preoperative satisfaction, postoperative frequency of disturbing visual and ocular symptoms, postoperative mean spherical equivalent, and postoperative scotopic high CVA (R (2)=0.725, P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Satisfaction with LASIK is related to visual function, preoperative expectations, psychological characteristics, and uncorrected CVA achieved. An increased sense of subjective well-being, adaptability, and self-efficacy was evident after LASIK. Patients reported a more optimistic attitude to life and increase perceived QOL after surgery.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Preeclampsia (PE) is a heterogeneous, hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, with no robust biomarkers or effective treatments. PE increases the risk of poor outcomes for both the mother and the baby. Methylation-mediated transcriptional dysregulation motifs (methTDMs) could contribute the PE development. However, precise functional roles of methTDMs in PE have not been globally described. METHODS:Here, we develop a comprehensive and computational pipeline to identify PE-specific methTDMs following TF, gene, methylation expression profile, and experimentally verified TF-gene interactions. RESULTS:The regulation patterns of methTDMs are multiple and complex in PE and contain relax inhibition, intensify inhibition, relax activation, intensify activation, reverse activation, and reverse inhibition. A core module is extracted from global methTDM network to further depict the mechanism of methTDMs in PE. The common and specific features of any two kinds of regulation pattern are also analyzed in PE. Some key methylation sites, TFs, and genes such as IL2RG are identified in PE. Functional analysis shows that methTDMs are associated with immune-, insulin-, and NK cell-related functions. Drug-related network identifies some key drug repurposing candidates such as NADH. CONCLUSION:Collectively, the study highlighted the effect of methylation on the transcription process in PE. MethTDMs could contribute to identify specific biomarkers and drug repurposing candidates for PE.
Project description:<b>Background:</b> The infectious disease Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbroke in 2019 spread to multiple countries. The quick spread of the virus and isolation strategies may trigger psychological problems. Our aim was to explore the dynamic network structure of the psychological state before and during the epidemic. <b>Methods:</b> A web-based survey was conducted in two stages: the T1 stage (1 January 2019 to 31 December 2019) and the T2 stage (1 February 2020 to 8 March 2020). In both stages, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, General Anxiety Disorder-7, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index were used to assess depression, anxiety, and sleep, respectively. <b>Results:</b> We matched the data based on IP addresses. We included 1,978, 1,547, and 2,061 individuals who completed the depression, anxiety, and sleep assessments, respectively, at both stages. During epidemics, psychomotor agitation/retardation, inability to relax, restless behavior, and the frequency of using medicine had high centrality. Meanwhile, the network structure of psychological symptoms becomes stronger than before the epidemic. <b>Conclusion:</b> Symptoms of psychomotor agitation/retardation, inability to relax, and restless behavior should be treated preferentially. It is necessary to provide mental health services, including timely and effective early psychological intervention. In addition, we should also pay attention to the way patients use medicines to promote sleep quality.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To explore the effects of the autonomous sensory meridian response (ASMR) on the psychological cravings and anxiety of women compulsorily isolated for detoxification.<h4>Method</h4>Around 122 women were recruited in a female drug detoxification center. Except for the 12-week training of ASMR, the experimental conditions of the experimental group (n = 60) were the same as those of the control group (n = 62). The addiction Stroop task was used to assess the level of psychological cravings and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was used to assess the level of anxiety.<h4>Results</h4>After the training, the decrease in state anxiety of the experimental group was larger than that of the control group, and the reaction time of the experimental group in the Stroop was also significantly lower than before the training.<h4>Conclusions</h4>ASMR could thus reduce to a certain extent the state anxiety and attentional bias for drug-related clues under signaling psychological cravings among women compulsorily isolated for detoxification.<h4>Highlights</h4>Intervention effects on psychological cravings and anxiety of women isolated for detoxification Basis for role of ASMR in regulating psychological cravings and anxiety in forced abstainers ASMR intervention reduced forced abstainers' attentional bias to drug-related clues.
Project description:Background:High psychosocial stress can impair executive function in adolescents, whereas acute exercise has been reported to benefit this cognitive domain. The aim of this study was to investigate whether an acute bout of aerobic exercise improves the inhibitory aspect of executive function and the associated dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) oxygenation when under stress. Methods:Sixty male high school students aged 16-20 years performed a Stroop task (baseline condition) and were randomly assigned to an exercise group (30 min on ergometer at 70% of maximum heart rate) and a control group (30 min of reading). Subsequently, all participants underwent a modified Trier Social Stress Test, which included a Stroop task under enhanced stress. The Stroop tasks in both conditions were combined with functional near-infrared spectroscopy to record changes in DLPFC oxygenation in response to the tasks. Stress reactivity was measured with saliva samples (cortisol, alpha-amylase), heart rate monitoring, and anxiety scores. Results:All stress parameters indicated increases in response to the stressor (p < 0.001), with higher alpha-amylase [t(58) = -3.45, p = 0.001, d = 1.93] and anxiety [t(58) = -2.04, p = 0.046, d = 0.53] reactions in the control compared to the exercise group. Controlling for these two parameters, repeated measures analyses of covariance targeting changes in Stroop interference scores showed no main effect of stress [F(1,58) = 3.80, p = 0.056, ?p2 = 0.063] and no stress × group interaction [F(1,58) = 0.43, p = 0.517, ?p2 = 0.008]. Similarly, there was no main effect of stress [F(1,58) = 2.38, p = 0.128, ?p2 = 0.040] and no stress × group interaction [F(1,58) = 2.80, p = 0.100, ?p2 = 0.047] for DLPFC oxygenation. Conclusion:Our study confirms potentially health-enhancing effects of acute exercise on some of the physiological and psychological stress reactivity indicators. However, our data do not support the notion of an effect on interference control and DLPFC activation under stress.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The classic view of blood pressure (BP) reactivity to psychological stress in relation to cardiovascular risks assumes that excess reactivity is worse and lower reactivity is better. Evidence addressing how stress-induced BP reactivity in young adults is associated with midlife cognitive function is sparse.<h4>Methods and results</h4>We assessed BP reactivity during a star tracing task and a video game in adults aged 20 to 32 years. Twenty-three years later, cognitive function was assessed with use of the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (a psychomotor speed test), the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (a verbal memory test), and the modified Stroop test (an executive function test). At the time of follow-up, participants (n=3021) had a mean age of 50.2 years; 56% were women, and 44% were black. In linear regression models adjusted for demographic and clinical characteristics including baseline and follow-up resting BP, lower systolic BP (SBP) reactivity during the star tracing and video game was associated with worse Digit Symbol Substitution Test scores (? [SE]: 0.11 [0.02] and 0.05 [0.02], respectively) and worse performance on the Stroop test (? [SE]: -0.06 [0.02] and -0.05 [0.02]; all P<0.01). SBP reactivity was more consistently associated than diastolic BP reactivity with cognitive function scores. The associations between SBP reactivity and cognitive function were mostly similar between blacks and whites.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Lower psychological stress-induced SBP reactivity in younger adults was associated with lower cognitive function in midlife. BP reactivity to psychological stressors may have different associations with target organs in hypertension.
Project description:The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of different types of acute exercise on cognitive function and cerebral oxygenation. A within-subject design was adopted. In total, 20 healthy older adults were enrolled in the study. They came to the laboratory individually on four separate days and completed four conditions of activity. Four conditions were sedentary reading control (RC), cognitive exercise (CE), physical exercise (PE) and cognitive + physical exercise (CE + PE). During these visits, participants completed the Stroop task before and immediately after the experimental condition, which consisted of 15 min of aerobic exercise, verbal fluency task (VFT), and dual task. The Stroop task included the following two conditions: a naming condition and an executive condition. The fNIRS is an optical method using near-infrared light to measure relative changes of oxygenated (O2Hb) and deoxygenated (HHb) hemoglobin in the cortex. The results indicate that acute exercise facilitates performance for executive tasks, not only combined cognition, but also the different results between combined exercise and single exercise. The fNIRS findings showed that acute single exercise influences oxygenation for executive tasks but not for naming tasks. Greater improvement was observed in the post-exercise session of combined exercise during the modified Stroop. These findings demonstrate that acute single exercise, single cognition exercise, and combined exercise enhanced the performance of the inhibition control task. Only acute combined exercise has a general facilitative effect on inhibition control. Combined exercise was shown to be superior to single exercise for task-efficient cerebral oxygenation and improved oxygen utilization during cortical activation in older individuals. Also, to maximize the performance of cognition it may be important for older adults to take part in more cognitive demand exercise or take more kinds of exercise.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To assess the cardiovascular disease (CVD) and venous thromboembolism (VTE) risks among patients with newly diagnosed antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV). PATIENTS AND METHODS:A population-based incident AAV cohort of 58 patients diagnosed between 1996 and 2015 in Olmsted County, MN, was identified by medical record review. For each patient, 3 age- and sex-matched non-AAV comparators were randomly selected from the same population and assigned an index date corresponding to the AAV incidence date. Medical records of cases and comparators were reviewed for CVD events, which included cardiac events (coronary artery disease, heart failure, and atrial fibrillation), cerebrovascular accidents (CVA), peripheral vascular disease (PVD), and VTE, which included deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). RESULTS:Baseline total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, and current smoking rate were lower in AAV than in comparators (P=.03, P=.01, and P=.04, respectively), whereas other CVD risk factors and Framingham risk score were not significantly different between the 2 groups. The CVD events developed in 13 patients and 17 comparators, corresponding to a more than 3-fold increased risk (hazard ratio [HR], 3.15; 95% CI, 1.51-6.57). By subtypes, risks were increased for cardiac events (HR, 2.96; 95% CI, 1.42-6.15) and CVA (HR, 8.16; 95% CI, 2.45-27.15), but not for PVD. The HR for VTE was 3.26 (95% CI, 0.84-12.60), significantly increased for DVT (HR, 6.25; 95% CI, 1.16-33.60), but not for PE (HR, 1.33; 95% CI, 0.23-7.54). CONCLUSION:Despite a similar prevalence of CVD risk factors at baseline, the risk of CVD is more than 3-fold higher and for CVA 8-fold higher in patients with incident AAV than in matched comparator subjects.
Project description:Over the last two decades, the congruency sequence effect (CSE) -the finding of a reduced congruency effect following incongruent trials in conflict tasks- has played a central role in advancing research on cognitive control. According to the influential conflict-monitoring account, the CSE reflects adjustments in selective attention that enhance task focus when needed, often termed conflict adaptation. However, this dominant interpretation of the CSE has been called into question by several alternative accounts that stress the role of episodic memory processes: feature binding and (stimulus-response) contingency learning. To evaluate the notion of conflict adaptation in accounting for the CSE, we construed versions of three widely used experimental paradigms (the colour-word Stroop, picture-word Stroop and flanker task) that effectively control for feature binding and contingency learning. Results revealed that a CSE can emerge in all three tasks. This strongly suggests a contribution of attentional control to the CSE and highlights the potential of these unprecedentedly clean paradigms for further examining cognitive control.