High-fat and high-cholesterol diet decreases phosphorylated inositol-requiring kinase-1 and inhibits autophagy process in rat liver.
ABSTRACT: Precise molecular pathways involved in the progression of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) remain to be elucidated. As Mallory-Denk bodies were occasionally observed in the enlarged hepatocytes in NASH model rat (SHRSP5/Dmcr) fed high-fat and high-cholesterol (HFC) diet, we aimed to clarify the roles of autophagy and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in NASH progression. Male SHRSP5/Dmcr were randomly divided into 4 groups. Two groups were fed a control diet; the other two groups were fed a HFC diet for 2 and 8 weeks, respectively. The HFC diet increased the autophagy-related proteins levels and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-II/I ratio after 2 and 8 weeks, respectively. However, regarding ER stress-related proteins, the HFC diet decreased the levels of phosphorylated (p-) inositol-requiring kinase-1 (p-IRE-1) and p-protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase after 2 weeks. Additionally, the HFC diet increased anti-ubiquitin-positive cells and the level of the autophagy substrate p62, suggesting that the HFC diet induced dysfunction in ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation pathways. In conclusion, the HFC diet arrested the autophagy process in the liver; this was particularly associated with decreases in p-IRE-1 expression.
Project description:High-fat and -cholesterol diet (HFC) induced fibrotic steatohepatitis in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHRSP) 5/Dmcr, the fifth substrain from SHRSP, by dysregulating bile acid (BA) kinetics. This study aimed to clarify the histopathological and BA kinetic differences in HFC-induced fibrosis between SHRSP5/Dmcr and SHRSP.Ten-week-old male SHRSP5/Dmcr and SHRSP were randomly allocated to groups and fed with either control diet or HFC for 2 and 8 weeks. The liver histopathology, biochemical features, and molecular signaling involved in BA kinetics were measured.HFC caused more severe hepatocyte ballooning, macrovesicular steatosis and fibrosis in SHRSP5/Dmcr than in SHRSP. It was noted that fibrosis was disproportionately formed in retroperitoneal side of both strains. As for BA kinetics, HFC greatly increased the level of Cyp7a1 and Cyp7b1 to the same degree in both strains at 8 weeks, while multidrug resistance-associated protein 3 was greater in SHRSP5/Dmcr than SHRSP. The diet decreased the level of bile salt export pump by the same degree in both strains, while constitutive androstane receptor, pregnane X receptor, and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity more prominent in SHRSP5/Dmcr than SHRSP at 8 weeks. In the fibrosis-related genes, only expression of collagen, type I, alpha 1 mRNA was greater in SHRSP5/Dmcr than SHRSP.The greater progression of fibrosis in SHRSP5/Dmcr induced by HFC may be due to greater suppression of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity detoxifying toxicants, such as hydrophobic BAs.
Project description:The aim of this study was to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying high-fat and high-cholesterol (HFC) diet-induced steatohepatitis and associated liver fibrosis progression in a novel stroke-prone, spontaneously hypertensive 5/Dmcr (SHRSP5/Dmcr) rat model.SHRSP5/Dmcr rats were given the control or HFC-diet for 2, 8, and 16 weeks. Plasma and hepatic gene expression of key molecules involved in fatty acid oxidation, inflammation, oxidative stress, and fibrosis were subsequently analyzed.Rats fed the HFC-diet showed increased plasma tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and hepatic p50/p65 signals, but reduced hepatic Cu(2+)/Zn(2+)-superoxide dismutase across the treatment period and reduced plasma total adiponectin at 8 weeks. In HFC-diet-fed rats, transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) was elevated prior to the appearance of obvious liver fibrosis pathology at 2 weeks, followed by elevations in platelet-derived growth factor-B (PDGF-B) and ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), corresponding to evident liver fibrosis, at 8 weeks and by ?(1) type I collagen production at 16 weeks. The HFC-diet increased hepatic total cholesterol accumulation, although hepatic triglyceride declined by 0.3-fold from 2 to 16 weeks due to reduced hepatic triglyceride synthesis, as suggested by the diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 and 2 measurements.TNF-? and p50/p65 molecular signals appeared to be major factors for HFC-diet-induced hepatic inflammation and oxidative stress facilitating liver disease progression. While the up-regulation of TGF-?1 prior to the appearance of any evident liver fibrosis could be an early signal for progressive liver fibrosis, elevated PDGF-B and ?-SMA levels signified evident liver fibrosis at 8 weeks, and subsequent increased ?(1) type I collagen production and reduced triglyceride synthesis indicated extensive liver fibrosis at 16 weeks in this novel SHRSP5/Dmcr model.
Project description:During middle age, women are less susceptible to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) than men. Thus, we investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms behind these sexual differences using an established rat model of NASH. Mature female and male stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive 5/Dmcr rats were fed control or high-fat-cholesterol (HFC) diets for 2, 8, and 14 weeks. Although HFC-induced hepatic fibrosis was markedly less severe in females than in males, only minor gender differences were observed in expression levels of cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP)7A1, CYP8B1 CYP27A1, and CYP7B1, and multidrug resistance-associated protein 3, and bile salt export pump, which are involved in fibrosis-related bile acid (BA) kinetics. However, the BA detoxification-related enzymes UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) and sulfotransferase (SULT) 2A1, and the nuclear receptors constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR), were strongly suppressed in HFC-fed males, and were only slightly changed in HFC-diet fed females. Expression levels of the farnesoid X receptor and its small heterodimer partner were similarly regulated in a gender-dependent fashion following HFC feeding. Hence, the pronounced female resistance to HFC-induced liver damage likely reflects sustained expression of the nuclear receptors CAR and PXR and the BA detoxification enzymes UGT and SULT.
Project description:Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is related to lifestyle, particularly to dietary habits. We developed diet-induced fibrotic steatohepatitis model stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive 5/Dmcr (SHRSP5/Dmcr) rats showing steatosis, hepatic inflammation, and severe fibrosis induced by high-fat and -cholesterol (HFC) diet feeding. We aimed to clarify the efficacy of dietary intervention on the disease before and after the appearance of fibrosis. Male SHRSP5/Dmcr rats were divided into 9 groups; of these, 6 groups were fed control or HFC diet for several weeks and the remaining 3 groups represented the dietary intervention groups, which were fed the control diet after HFC diet feeding for 2 (before the appearance of fibrosis) or 8 (after the appearance of fibrosis) weeks. Dietary intervention before the appearance of fibrosis significantly improved the steatosis and reset the increased serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and serum total cholesterol (TC) levels. However, dietary intervention after the appearance of fibrosis was unable to reset the levels of hepatic TC, serum ALT, and fibrogenesis-related markers and had only a minor influence on hepatic fibrosis, although it reset the increased expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1 and ?-smooth muscle actin (SMA). It was noted that dietary intervention improved the increased AST levels; however, aggregated CD68-positive cells were still observed around the fibrosis area, which may be related to the findings of inflammatory cytokine mRNAs. Taken together, dietary intervention for fibrotic steatohepatitis improved steatosis, although it could not completely improve fibrosis.
Project description:Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), in which there is steatosis and fibrosis in the liver, is linked to metabolic syndrome and progresses to hepatic cirrhosis. In this study, a novel hamster NASH model derived from metabolic syndrome was made using hamsters. Hamsters were fed a normal or a high-fat and high-cholesterol (HFC) diet for 12 weeks. Body weight and the ratio of liver weight to body weight were significantly greater in HFC diet-fed hamsters than in normal diet-fed hamsters. Triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and glucose levels in blood were significantly increased in HFC diet-fed hamsters, and blood pressure also tended to be high, suggesting that the HFC diet-fed hamsters developed metabolic syndrome. Hepatic steatosis and fibrosis were observed in liver sections of HFC diet-fed hamsters, as in patients with NASH, but they were not seen in normal diet-fed hamsters. Chymase generates angiotensin II and transforming growth factor (TGF)-?, both of which are related to hepatic steatosis and fibrosis, and a significant augmentation of chymase activity was observed in livers from HFC diet-fed hamsters. Both angiotensin II and TGF-? were also significantly increased in livers of HFC diet-fed hamsters. Thus, HFC diet-fed hamsters might develop metabolic syndrome-derived NASH that clinically resembles that in NASH patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cholesterol over-intake is involved in the onset of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and hepatocellular bile acid (BA) accumulation correlates with liver injuries. However, how dietary cholesterol influences cholesterol and BA kinetics in NASH liver remains ambiguous and needs to be clarified. METHODS: Molecular markers involved in cholesterol and BA kinetics were investigated at protein and mRNA levels in an already-established stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive 5/Dmcr rat model with fibrotic steatohepatitis, by feeding a high fat-cholesterol (HFC) diet. RESULTS: Unlike the control diet, the HFC diet deposited cholesterol greatly in rat livers, where 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor and LDL receptor-related protein-1 were expectedly downregulated, especially at 8 and 14 weeks, suggesting that cholesterol synthesis and uptake in response to cholesterol accumulation may not be disorganized. The HFC diet did not upregulate liver X receptor-?, conversely, it enhanced classic BA synthesis by upregulating cholesterol 7?-hydroxylase but downregulating sterol 12?-hydroxylase, and influenced alternative synthesis by downregulating sterol 27-hydroxylase but upregulating oxysterol 7?-hydroxylase, mainly at 8 and 14 weeks, indicating that there were different productions of primary BA species. Unexpectedly, no feedback inhibition of BA synthesis by farnesoid X receptor occurred. Additionally, the HFC diet impaired BA detoxification by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase and sulfotransferase 2A1, and decreased excretion by bile salt export pump at 8 and 14 weeks, although it induced compensatory export by multidrug resistance-associated protein-3. The disturbed BA detoxification may correlate with suppressed pregnane X receptor and constitutive androstane receptor. CONCLUSIONS: The HFC diet may accumulate BA in rat livers, which influences fibrotic steatohepatitis progression.
Project description:Hypertension is an important risk factor for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. We have previously demonstrated that hypertensive rats fed a high fat and cholesterol (HFC) diet incurred a more severe hepatic inflammatory response and fibrosis. Here we investigated the role of hypertension in NASH by comparing HFC-induced hepatic fibrogenesis between spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and their normotensive Wistar Kyoto counterpart. Compared to the counterpart, the HFC diet led to stronger aggregation of CD68-positive macrophages in SHRs. HFC feeding also resulted in significantly higher upregulation of the fibrosis-related gene alpha-smooth muscle actin in SHR. The HFC diet induced higher overexpression of serum tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP1) and greater suppression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2):TIMP1, MMP8:TIMP1, and MMP9:TIMP1 ratios, as a proxy of the activities of these MMPs in SHR. Administration of the antihypertensive agent hydralazine to SHRs significantly ameliorated HFC-induced liver fibrosis; it suppressed the aggregation of CD68-positive macrophages and the upregulation of platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta, and collagen, type 1, alpha-1 chain. In conclusion, a hypertensive environment exacerbated the hepatic fibrogenetic effects of the HFC diet; while the effects were partially reversed by the antihypertensive agent hydralazine. Our data suggest that antihypertensive drugs hold promise for treating NASH exacerbated by hypertension.
Project description:<h4>Background and aims</h4>Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), the potentially progressive form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), is the pandemic liver disease of our time. Although there are several animal models of NASH, consensus regarding the optimal model is lacking. We aimed to compare features of NASH in the two most widely-used mouse models: methionine-choline deficient (MCD) diet and Western diet.<h4>Methods</h4>Mice were fed standard chow, MCD diet for 8 weeks, or Western diet (45% energy from fat, predominantly saturated fat, with 0.2% cholesterol, plus drinking water supplemented with fructose and glucose) for 16 weeks. Liver pathology and metabolic profile were compared.<h4>Results</h4>The metabolic profile associated with human NASH was better mimicked by Western diet. Although hepatic steatosis (i.e., triglyceride accumulation) was also more severe, liver non-esterified fatty acid content was lower than in the MCD diet group. NASH was also less severe and less reproducible in the Western diet model, as evidenced by less liver cell death/apoptosis, inflammation, ductular reaction, and fibrosis. Various mechanisms implicated in human NASH pathogenesis/progression were also less robust in the Western diet model, including oxidative stress, ER stress, autophagy deregulation, and hedgehog pathway activation.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Feeding mice a Western diet models metabolic perturbations that are common in humans with mild NASH, whereas administration of a MCD diet better models the pathobiological mechanisms that cause human NAFLD to progress to advanced NASH.
Project description:Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a common liver disease characterized by hepatic lipid accumulation (steatosis) and inflammation. Currently, therapeutic options are poor and the long-term burden to society is constantly increasing. Previously, macrophage stimulating protein (MSP)-a serum protein mainly secreted by liver-was shown to inhibit oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL)/lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced inflammation in mouse macrophages. Additionally, MSP could reduce palmitic acid (PA)-induced lipid accumulation and lipogenesis in the HepG2 cell line. Altogether, these data suggest MSP as a suppressor for metabolic inflammation. However, so far the potential of MSP to be used as a treatment for NASH was not investigated. We hypothesized that MSP reduces lipid accumulation and hepatic inflammation. To investigate the effects of MSP in the early stage of NASH, low-density lipoprotein receptor (Ldlr-/-) mice were fed either a regular chow or a high fat, high cholesterol (HFC) diet for 7 days. Recombinant MSP or saline (control) was administrated to the mice by utilizing subcutaneously-implanted osmotic mini-pumps for the last 4 days. As expected, mice fed an HFC diet showed increased plasma and hepatic lipid accumulation, as well as enhanced hepatic inflammation, compared with chow-fed controls. Upon MSP administration, the rise in cholesterol and triglyceride levels after an HFC diet remained unaltered. Surprisingly, while hepatic macrophage and neutrophil infiltration was similar between the groups, MSP-treated mice showed increased gene expression of pro-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic mediators in the liver, compared with saline-treated controls. Contrary to our expectations, MSP did not ameliorate NASH. Observed changes in inflammatory gene expression suggest that further research is needed to clarify the long-term effects of MSP.
Project description:Acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) is activated in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). However, the contribution of ASMase to NASH is poorly understood and limited to hepatic steatosis and glucose metabolism. Here we examined the role of ASMase in high fat diet (HFD)-induced NASH.Autophagy, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) were determined in ASMase(-/-) mice fed a HFD. The impact of pharmacological ASMase inhibition on NASH was analyzed in wild type mice fed a HFD.ASMase deficiency determined resistance to hepatic steatosis mediated by a HFD or methionine-choline deficient diet. ASMase(-/-) mice were resistant to HFD-induced hepatic ER stress, but sensitive to tunicamycin-mediated ER stress, indicating selectivity in the resistance of ASMase(-/-) mice to ER stress and steatosis. Autophagic flux, determined in the presence of rapamycin and/or chloroquine, was lower in primary mouse hepatocytes (PMH) from ASMase(-/-) mice and accompanied by increased p62 levels, suggesting autophagic impairment. Moreover, autophagy suppression by chloroquine and brefeldin A caused ER stress in PMH from ASMase(+/+) mice but not in ASMase(-/-) mice. ASMase(-/-) PMH exhibited increased lysosomal cholesterol loading, decreased LMP and apoptosis resistance induced by O-methyl-serine dodecylamide hydrochloride or palmitic acid, effects that were reversed by decreasing cholesterol levels by oxysterol 25-hydroxycholesterol. In vivo pharmacological ASMase inhibition by amitriptyline, a widely used tricyclic antidepressant, protected wild type mice against HFD-induced hepatic steatosis, fibrosis, and liver damage, effects indicative of early-stage NASH.These findings underscore a critical role for ASMase in diet-induced NASH and suggest the potential of amitriptyline as a treatment for patients with NASH.