Coreflooding data on nine sandstone cores to measure CO2 residual trapping.
ABSTRACT: This data article provides detailed explanation and data on CO2/water coreflooding experiments performed on nine sandstone rock cores. Refer to the research article "Predicting CO2 Residual Trapping Ability Based on Experimental Petrophysical Properties for Different Sandstone Types"  for data interpretation. The reader can expect to find experimental conditions including temperature, pressure, fluid pair types, as well as flow rates. Furthermore, the raw CT images and the processed three-dimensional (3D) voxel-level porosity, permeability, and CO2 saturation maps for each of the nine sandstone samples are also supplied.
Project description:To study the influence of cyclic stress on the nonlinear behavior of saturated sandstone, the residual strain properties and energy dissipation characteristics of the sandstone under tiered cyclic loading were experimentally investigated. The axial/radial residual deformation and energy dissipation characteristics of sandstone at different cyclic stress stages were analyzed in detail. By combining the mathematical statistics, fluctuation coefficients of the residual strain and energy dissipation, and correlation coefficients of axial/radial residual strain and energy dissipation were defined to describe the process. It was determined that these newly defined physical variables were closely related to the elastic-plastic state (or instability failure state) of the rock.
Project description:Formation of carbonate minerals by CO2 sequestration is a potential means to reduce atmospheric CO2 emissions. Vast amount of alkaline and alkali earth metals exist in silicate minerals that may be carbonated. Laboratory experiments carried out to study the dissolution rate in Pahang Sandstone, Malaysia, by CO2 injection at different flow rate in surficial condition. X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX), Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) and weight losses measurement were performed to analyze the solid and liquid phase before and after the reaction process. The weight changes and mineral dissolution caused by CO2 injection for two hours CO2 bubbling and one week' aging were 0.28% and 18.74%, respectively. The average variation of concentrations of alkaline earth metals in solution varied from 22.62% for Ca(2+) to 17.42% for Mg(2+), with in between 16.18% observed for the alkali earth metal, potassium. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) test is performed to determine significant differences of the element concentration, including Ca, Mg, and K, before and after the reaction experiment. Such changes show that the deposition of alkali and alkaline earth metals and the dissolution of required elements in sandstone samples are enhanced by CO2 injection.
Project description:Many habitat specialist species are originally composed of small, discontinuous populations because their habitats are naturally fragmented or patchy. They may have suffered the long-term effects of natural patchiness. Mediterranean heathlands, a representative habitat in the Strait of Gibraltar region, are associated with nutrient-poor, acidic sandstone soils. Sandstone soil patches in the African side of the Strait (Tangier) are, in general, smaller and more scattered than in the European side (Algeciras). In this study, we analyze the effect of this sandstone patchiness on the population genetic diversity and structure of two Erica species from these Mediterranean heathlands that differ in their edaphic specificity, E. australis, sandstone specialist, and E. arborea, generalist. Average levels of within-population genetic diversity and gene flow between populations were significantly lower in Tangier (high sandstone patchiness) than in Algeciras (low patchiness) for the sandstone specialist, whereas no differences between both sides of the Strait were detected in the edaphic generalist. Since most endemic species in Mediterranean heathlands of the Strait of Gibraltar are sandstone specialists, these results highlight an increased vulnerability to loss of genetic diversity and local extinction of the heathland endemic flora in the Tangier side of the Strait of Gibraltar.
Project description:The Cambrian-age Mt. Simon Sandstone, deeply buried within the Illinois Basin of the midcontinent of North America, contains quartz sand grains ubiquitously encrusted with iron-oxide cements and dissolved ferrous iron in pore-water. Although microbial iron reduction has previously been documented in the deep terrestrial subsurface, the potential for diagenetic mineral cementation to drive microbial activity has not been well studied. In this study, two subsurface formation water samples were collected at 1.72 and 2.02 km, respectively, from the Mt. Simon Sandstone in Decatur, Illinois. Low-diversity microbial communities were detected from both horizons and were dominated by Halanaerobiales of Phylum Firmicutes. Iron-reducing enrichment cultures fed with ferric citrate were successfully established using the formation water. Phylogenetic classification identified the enriched species to be related to Vulcanibacillus from the 1.72 km depth sample, while Orenia dominated the communities at 2.02 km of burial depth. Species-specific quantitative analyses of the enriched organisms in the microbial communities suggest that they are indigenous to the Mt. Simon Sandstone. Optimal iron reduction by the 1.72 km enrichment culture occurred at a temperature of 40°C (range 20-60°C) and a salinity of 25 parts per thousand (range 25-75 ppt). This culture also mediated fermentation and nitrate reduction. In contrast, the 2.02 km enrichment culture exclusively utilized hydrogen and pyruvate as the electron donors for iron reduction, tolerated a wider range of salinities (25-200 ppt), and exhibited only minimal nitrate- and sulfate-reduction. In addition, the 2.02 km depth community actively reduces the more crystalline ferric iron minerals goethite and hematite. The results suggest evolutionary adaptation of the autochthonous microbial communities to the Mt. Simon Sandstone and carries potentially important implications for future utilization of this reservoir for CO2 injection.
Project description:Silica nanoparticles were dispersed in an aqueous emulsion of alkoxy silanes and organic fluoropolymer. The dispersion was sprayed onto white marble and sandstone. The deposited composite coatings exhibited (i) superhydrophobicity and superoleophobicity, as evidenced by the high (>150°) static contact angles of water and oil drops as well as (ii) water and oil repellency according to the low (<7°) corresponding tilt contact angles. Apart from marble and sandstone, the coatings with extreme wetting properties were deposited onto concrete, silk, and paper, thus demonstrating the versatility of the method. The siloxane/fluoropolymer product was characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy equipped with an Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer (SEM-EDX). Moreover, SEM and FT-IR were used to reveal the surface structures of the composite coatings and their transition from superhydrophobicity to superhydrophilicity which occurred after severe thermal treatment. The composite coatings slightly reduced the breathability of marble and sandstone and had practically no optical effect on the colour of the two stones. Moreover, the coatings offered good protection against water penetration by capillarity.
Project description:The temples of Angkor monuments including Angkor Thom and Bayon in Cambodia and surrounding countries were exclusively constructed using sandstone. They are severely threatened by biodeterioration caused by active growth of different microorganisms on the sandstone surfaces, but knowledge on the microbial community and composition of the biofilms on the sandstone is not available from this region. This study investigated the microbial community diversity by examining the fresh and old biofilms of the biodeteriorated bas-relief wall surfaces of the Bayon Temple by analysis of 16S and 18S rRNA gene sequences. The results showed that the retrieved sequences were clustered in 11 bacterial, 11 eukaryotic and two archaeal divisions with disparate communities (Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria; Alveolata, Fungi, Metazoa, Viridiplantae; Crenarchaeote, and Euyarchaeota). A comparison of the microbial communities between the fresh and old biofilms revealed that the bacterial community of old biofilm was very similar to the newly formed fresh biofilm in terms of bacterial composition, but the eukaryotic communities were distinctly different between these two. This information has important implications for understanding the formation process and development of the microbial diversity on the sandstone surfaces, and furthermore to the relationship between the extent of biodeterioration and succession of microbial communities on sandstone in tropic region.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Exposures to respirable crystalline silica causes silicosis, pulmonary tuberculosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, autoimmune disorders and chronic renal disease. The aim of this study was to find out the prevalence of silico-tuberculosis, silicosis and other respiratory morbidities in sandstone mine workers in Jodhpur district of Rajasthan. METHODS:It was a cross-sectional study done in sandstone mines in Jodhpur. A total of 15 mines were selected. The sample size was calculated and fixed to 174 mine workers. Chi-square and t-test were applied to draw inferences. RESULTS:The mean age of the mine workers was 39.13 ± 11.09 years. Three fourth (75.3%) of the workers were working for more than ten years in mines. Around 30.0% had a history of tuberculosis. Abnormal spirometry was found in 89.2% of workers. Around 42% of mine workers were found with abnormal chest x-rays. Prevalence of silicosis was 37.3%, silico-tuberculosis was 7.4%, tuberculosis was 10.0%, and other respiratory diseases like emphysema and pleural effusion were diagnosed among 4.3% workers. CONCLUSION:Prevalence of silico-tuberculosis, silicosis and other respiratory morbidities are high among sandstone mine workers.
Project description:The Bayon temple in Angkor Thom, Cambodia has shown serious deterioration and is subject to the formation of various pigmented biofilms. Because biofilms are damaging the bas-reliefs, low reliefs engraved on the surface of sandstone, information about the microbial community within them is indispensable to control biofilm colonization. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of biofilm samples from the pigmented sandstone surfaces showed that the bacterial community members in the biofilms differed clearly from those in the air and had low sequence similarity to database sequences. Non-destructive sampling of biofilm revealed novel bacterial groups of predominantly Rubrobacter in salmon pink biofilm, Cyanobacteria in chrome green biofilm, Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi in signal violet biofilm, Chloroflexi in black gray biofilm, and Deinococcus-Thermus, Cyanobacteria, and Rubrobacter in blue green biofilm. Serial peeling-off of a thick biofilm by layers with adhesive sheets revealed a stratified structure: the blue-green biofilm, around which there was serious deterioration, was very rich in Cyanobacteria near the surface and Chloroflexi in deep layer below. Nitrate ion concentrations were high in the blue-green biofilm. The characteristic distribution of bacteria at different biofilm depths provides valuable information on not only the biofilm formation process but also the sandstone weathering process in the tropics.