Association Between Antipsychotic Medication Use and Diabetes.
ABSTRACT: PURPOSE OF REVIEW:The prevalence of diabetes is 2-3-fold higher in people with severe mental illness than the general population. There are concerns that antipsychotics increase the risk of diabetes. This review will examine the latest epidemiological studies linking antipsychotics and diabetes, as well as the mechanisms underlying the association and the clinical implications to minimise the impact of antipsychotics on metabolic health. RECENT FINDINGS:Although there is an increased risk of diabetes in people with first-episode psychosis, the prevalence increases rapidly after antipsychotics are started. Antipsychotics likely increase the risk of diabetes through weight gain and directly by adversely affecting insulin sensitivity and secretion. It is important to implement measures to prevent diabetes, to screen for diabetes to ensure prompt diagnosis and to provide effective diabetes care. Further research is needed to understand how antipsychotics cause diabetes and to improve the clinical management of diabetes in people with severe mental illness.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:We aimed to investigate which clinical and metabolic tests offer optimal accuracy and acceptability to help diagnose diabetes among a large sample of people with serious mental illness in receipt of antipsychotic medication. METHODS:A prospective observational study design of biochemical and clinical factors was used. Biochemical measures were fasting glucose, insulin and lipids, oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT), hemoglobin A1c, and insulin resistance assessed with the homeostatic model (HOMA-IR) were determined in a consecutive cohort of 798 adult psychiatric inpatients receiving antipsychotics. Clinical variables were gender, age, global assessment of functioning (GAF), mental health clinicians' global impression (CGI), duration of severe mental illness, height, weight, BMI and waist/hip ratio. In addition, we calculated the risk using combined clinical predictors using the Leicester Practice Risk Score (LPRS) and the Topics Diabetes Risk Score (TDRS). Diabetes was defined by older criteria (impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or OGTT) as well as2010 criteria (IFG or OGTT or Glycated haemoglobin (HBA1c)) at conventional cut-offs. RESULTS:Using the older criteria, 7.8% had diabetes (men: 6.3%; women: 10.3%). Using the new criteria, 10.2% had diabetes (men: 8.2%, women: 13.2%), representing a 30.7% increase (p = 0.02) in the prevalence of diabetes. Regarding biochemical predictors, conventional OGTT, IFG, and HbA1c thresholds used to identify newly defined diabetes missed 25%, 50% and 75% of people with diabetes, respectively. The conventional HBA1c cut-point of ?6.5% (48 mmol/mol) missed 7 of 10 newly defined cases of diabetes while a cut-point of ?5.7% improved sensitivity from 44.4% to up to 85%. Specific algorithm approaches offered reasonable accuracy. Unfortunately no single clinical factor was able to accurately rule-in a diagnosis of diabetes. Three clinical factors were able to rule-out diabetes with good accuracy namely: BMI, waist/hip ratio and height. A BMI < 30 had a 92% negative predictive value in ruling-out diabetes. Of those not diabetic, 20% had a BMI ? 30. However, for complete diagnosis a specific biochemical protocol is still necessary. CONCLUSIONS:Patients with SMI maintained on antipsychotic medication cannot be reliably screened for diabetes using clinical variables alone. Accurate assessment requires a two-step algorithm consisting of HBA1c ?5.7% followed by both FG and OGTT which does not require all patients to have OGTT and FG.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The widely established treatment for psychosis is long-term antipsychotic medication. However, many people stop taking this treatment, and request other options. There are also growing concerns about adverse effects, but currently no professional guidelines to support reducing or stopping these drugs. The views and experiences of individual mental health professionals around reducing and stopping antipsychotics are therefore crucial in treatment decisions.<h4>Methods</h4>We conducted 7 focus groups with prescribing psychiatrists and other members of community-based statutory mental health services in London. Participants discussed their views about, experiences, and processes of antipsychotic reduction and discontinuation. Data were analysed using thematic analysis.<h4>Results</h4>Participants acknowledged that antipsychotics can have severe adverse effects. They were generally supportive of trying to reduce these drugs to the lowest effective dose, although stopping antipsychotics was less acceptable. Prior experiences of adverse events after reduction or discontinuation meant that both were approached with caution. Reduction was also reported to be hampered by organisational and knowledge barriers. Lack of resources, pressure to discharge, and poor continuity of care were seen as organisational barriers. Knowledge barriers included inadequate evidence about who might be best suited to reduction, and lack of guidance about how this could be done safely. This meant that reduction was often prompted by patients, and sometimes actively discouraged, and stability with maintenance treatment was often favoured.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Concerns about risk and other barriers means that clinicians are often reluctant to implement reduction or discontinuation of antipsychotic medication. In order to increase the treatment options available to service users, more research and guidance on how to minimise the risks of antipsychotic reduction and discontinuation is required to enable clinicians to engage more constructively with service users requests, offering people more choice and control in managing their mental health condition.
Project description:To investigate whether the association of severe mental illness with Type 2 diabetes varies by ethnicity and age.We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data from an ethnically diverse sample of 588 408 individuals aged ?18 years, registered to 98% of general practices (primary care) in London, UK. The outcome of interest was prevalent Type 2 diabetes.Relative to people without severe mental illness, the relative risk of Type 2 diabetes in people with severe mental illness was greatest in the youngest age groups. In the white British group the relative risks were 9.99 (95% CI 5.34, 18.69) in those aged 18-34 years, 2.89 (95% CI 2.43, 3.45) in those aged 35-54 years and 1.16 (95% CI 1.04, 1.30) in those aged ?55 years, with similar trends across all ethnic minority groups. Additional adjustment for anti-psychotic prescriptions only marginally attenuated the associations. Assessment of estimated prevalence of Type 2 diabetes in severe mental illness by ethnicity (absolute measures of effect) indicated that the association between severe mental illness and Type 2 diabetes was more marked in ethnic minorities than in the white British group with severe mental illness, especially for Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi individuals with severe mental illness.The relative risk of Type 2 diabetes is elevated in younger populations. Most associations persisted despite adjustment for anti-psychotic prescriptions. Ethnic minority groups had a higher prevalence of Type 2 diabetes in the presence of severe mental illness. Future research and policy, particularly with respect to screening and clinical care for Type 2 diabetes in populations with severe mental illness, should take these findings into account.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Many antipsychotics elevate prolactin, a hormone implicated in breast cancer aetiology however no studies have investigated antipsychotic use in patients with breast cancer. This study investigated if antipsychotic use is associated with an increased risk of cancer-specific mortality among breast cancer patients. METHODS:A cohort of 23,695 women newly diagnosed with a primary breast cancer between 1st January 1998 and 31st December 2012 was identified from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink linked to English cancer-registries and followed for until 30th September 2015. Time-dependent Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of breast cancer-specific mortality comparing use of antipsychotics with non-use, overall, and by prolactin elevating activitiy. Analyses were repeated restricting to patients with a history of severe mental illness to control for potential confounding by indication. RESULTS:In total 848 patients were prescribed an antipsychotic and of which 162 died due to their breast cancer. Compared with non-use, antipsychotic use was associated with an increased risk of breast-cancer specific mortality (HR 2.25, 95%CI 1.90-2.67), but this did not follow a dose response relation. Restricting the cohort to patients with severe mental illness attenuated the association between antipsychotic use and breast cancer-specific mortality (HR 1.11, 95%CI 0.58-2.14). CONCLUSIONS:In this population-based cohort of breast cancer patients, while the use of antipsychotics was associated with increased breast cancer-specific mortality, there was a lack of a dose response, and importantly null associations were observed in patients with severe mental illness, suggesting the observed association is likely a result of confounding by indication. This study provides an exemplar of confounding by indication, highlighting the importance of consideration of this important bias in studies of drug effects in cancer patients.
Project description:Severe mental illness is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The elevated risk of blood-borne viruses (BBVs) in people with severe mental illness is of concern, but the full extent of this problem is unclear. We aimed to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for BBVs in people with severe mental illness.In this nationwide, population-based, cross-sectional study, we estimated the point prevalence of HIV, hepatitis B (HBV), and hepatitis C (HCV) in people with severe mental illness, including the total adult (?18 years) Swedish population. We defined severe mental illness as a clinical diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder, or other psychotic illness according to the Swedish version of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases version 8, 9, or 10. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine the odds of BBVs in individuals with severe mental illness, relative to the general population, and to identify independent risk factors (age, sex, immigration status, socioeconomic status, education, and substance misuse) for BBV infection. We also did a sensitivity analysis excluding BBV diagnoses made before the introduction of the Register for Infection Disease Control (1997).Of 6?815?931 adults in Sweden, 97?797 (1·43%) individuals had a diagnosis of severe mental illness. Prevalence of BBVs was elevated in people with severe mental illness, of which 230 (0·24%) had HIV, 518 (0·53%) had HBV, and 4476 (4·58%) had HCV. After accounting for sociodemographic characteristics, the odds of HIV were 2·57 (95% CI 2·25-2·94, p<0·0001) times higher in people with severe mental illness than in the general population, whereas the odds of HBV were 2·29 (2·09-2·51, p<0·0001) times higher and the odds of HCV were 6·18 (5·98-6·39, p<0·0001) times higher. Substance misuse contributed most to the increased risk of BBV: after adjustment, odds ratios were 1·61 (1·40-1·85, p<0·0001) for HIV, 1·28 (1·16-1·41, p<0·0001) for HBV, and 1·72 (1·67-1·78, p<0·0001) for HCV.Our results highlight the need to address the issue of higher prevalence of BBVs in people with severe mental illness and identify interventions preventing infection. Targeting of comorbid substance misuse would have particular effect on reduction of BBV prevalence in this population.Medical Research Council and Swedish Research Council.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Severe mental illness (SMI) is associated with increased risk for type 2 diabetes, partly due to adverse metabolic effects of antipsychotic medications. In public health care settings, annual screening rates are 30%. We measured adherence to national diabetes screening guidelines for patients taking antipsychotic medications. OBJECTIVE:To estimate diabetes screening prevalence among patients with SMI within an integrated health care system, and to assess characteristics associated with lack of screening. DESIGN:Retrospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS:Antipsychotic-treated adults with SMI. We excluded participants with known diabetes. MAIN MEASURES:Primary outcome was screening via fasting glucose test or hemoglobin A1c during a 1-year period. KEY RESULTS:In 2014, 16,754 patients with SMI diagnoses were receiving antipsychotics. Seventy-four percent of these patients' providers ordered diabetes screening tests that year, but only 55% (9247/16,754) received screening. When the observation time frame was extended to 2 years, 73% (12,250/16,754) were screened. Adjusting for sex and race/ethnicity, young adults (aged 18-29 years) were less likely to receive screening than older age groups [adjusted RR (aRR) 1.23-1.57, p < 0.0001]. Compared to whites, screening was more common for Asians (aRR 1.141, 95% CI 1.089-1.195, p < 0.0001), less common for blacks (aRR 0.946, 95% CI 0.898-0.997, p < 0.0375), and no different for Hispanics (aRR 1.030, 95% CI 0.988-1.074, p = 0.165). Smokers were less likely to be screened than non-smokers (aRR 0.93, 95% CI 0.89-0.97, p < 0.0008). Utilization of either mental health or primary care services increased the likelihood of screening. CONCLUSIONS:While almost three-fourths of adults with SMI taking antipsychotic medications received a lab order for diabetes screening, only 55% received screening within a 12-month period. Young adults and smokers were less likely to be screened, despite their disproportionate metabolic risk. Future studies should assess the barriers and facilitators with regard to diabetes screening in this vulnerable population at the patient, provider, and system levels.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to evaluate attitudes of primary care providers toward barriers to metabolic monitoring and to characterize their beliefs about providers' responsibility for monitoring and reducing cardiovascular risk for people with severe mental illness.An anonymous survey was administered to 214 primary care providers working in 23 public community health clinics in San Francisco.The response rate was 77% (164 of 214). Nearly 40% of primary care providers were unaware of consensus guidelines for metabolic monitoring of people who take second-generation antipsychotic medications. Responses showed variation in providers' beliefs about who should monitor patients' metabolic risk. The major barriers to metabolic monitoring were severity of psychiatric illness, difficulty collaborating with psychiatrists, and difficulty arranging psychiatric follow-up.Primary care providers believed that better communication between primary care providers and psychiatrists would facilitate metabolic monitoring and promote better treatment for patients with severe mental illness who are taking antipsychotic medications.
Project description:People with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (SSD) often have high levels of obesity and poor cardiometabolic health. Certain types of antipsychotics have been shown to contribute towards weight gain and there is some equivocal evidence that obesity is related to poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in people with SSD. It is also still uncertain if antipsychotic polypharmacy/higher doses of antipsychotics are linked with HRQoL and/or increased risk of obesity/Cardiovascular Disease (CVD). Therefore, this study aimed to examine potential relationships between prescribed antipsychotic medication regimens, cardiometabolic health risks and HRQoL in community-based Chinese people with SSD.This cross-sectional study reports the results of baseline measurements of a random sample of patients in an ongoing controlled trial of physical health intervention for people with severe mental illness. Data from these randomly-selected participants (n = 82) were analysed to calculate 10-year CVD relative-risk (using QRISK®2 score), estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and contextualize patients' prescribed antipsychotics (types, combinations and Daily Defined Dose equivalent). Patients self-reported their HRQoL (SF12v2) and their obesity condition was assessed by waist-circumference and Body Mass Index (BMI).Two-thirds of patients had a BMI ≥23 kg/m2, almost half were centrally obese and 29% met the criteria for metabolic syndrome. The individual relative-risk of CVD ranged from 0.62 to 15, and 13% had a moderate-to-high 10-year CVD risk score. Regression models showed that lower physical HRQoL was predicted by higher BMI and lower mental HRQoL. Higher Defined Daily Dose, clozapine, younger age and male gender were found to explain 40% of the variance in CVD relative risk.The findings indicate that cardiometabolic health risks in people with SSD may be more common than those reported in the general Hong Kong population. The results also provide further support for the need to consider antipsychotic polypharmacy and higher doses of antipsychotics as factors that may contribute towards cardiometabolic risk in Chinese patients with SSD. Clinicians in Hong Kong should consider using routine CVD risk screening, and be aware that younger male patients who are taking clozapine and prescribed higher Defined Daily Dose seem to have the highest relative-risk of CVD.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02453217 . Prospectively registered on 19th May 2015.
Project description:To describe the incidence of recorded mental illness and challenging behaviour in people with intellectual disability in UK primary care and to explore the prescription of psychotropic drugs in this group.Cohort study.571 general practices contributing data to The Health Improvement Network clinical database.33,016 adults (58% male) with intellectual disability who contributed 211,793 person years' data.Existing and new records of mental illness, challenging behaviour, and psychotropic drug prescription.21% (7065) of the cohort had a record of mental illness at study entry, 25% (8300) had a record of challenging behaviour, and 49% (16,242) had a record of prescription of psychotropic drugs. During follow-up, the rate of new cases of mental illness in people without a history at cohort entry was 262 (95% confidence interval 254 to 271) per 10,000 person years and the rate of challenging behaviour was 239 (231 to 247) per 10,000 person years. The rate of new psychotropic drug prescription in those without a previous history of psychotropic drug treatment was 518 (503 to 533) per 10,000 person years. Rates of new recording of severe mental illness declined by 5% (95% confidence interval 3% to 7%) per year (P<0.001), and new prescriptions of antipsychotics declined by 4% (3% to 5%) per year P<0.001) between 1999 and 2013. New prescriptions of mood stabilisers also decreased significantly. The rate of new antipsychotic prescribing was significantly higher in people with challenging behaviour (incidence rate ratio 2.08, 95% confidence interval 1.90 to 2.27; P<0.001), autism (1.79, 1.56 to 2.04; P<0.001), and dementia (1.42, 1.12 to 1.81; P<0.003) and in those of older age, after control for other sociodemographic factors and comorbidity.The proportion of people with intellectual disability who have been treated with psychotropic drugs far exceeds the proportion with recorded mental illness. Antipsychotics are often prescribed to people without recorded severe mental illness but who have a record of challenging behaviour. The findings suggest that changes are needed in the prescribing of psychotropics for people with intellectual disability. More evidence is needed of the efficacy and safety of psychotropic drugs in this group, particularly when they are used for challenging behaviour.
Project description:Diabetes and obesity among patients with serious mental illness are common. Use of second-generation antipsychotics compounds risk, and widely prevalent unhealthy behaviors further contribute to negative outcomes. This column describes Targeted Training in Illness Management, a group-based psychosocial treatment that blends psychoeducation, problem identification, goal setting, and behavioral modeling and reinforcement. The intervention has been adapted to the primary care setting and is targeted at individuals with serious mental illness and diabetes. A key feature of the intervention is the use of peer educators with serious mental illness and diabetes to teach and model self-management. Promising results from a 16-week trial are reported.