An electrostatic switching mechanism to control the lipid transfer activity of Osh6p.
ABSTRACT: A central assumption is that lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) bind transiently to organelle membranes to distribute lipids in the eukaryotic cell. Osh6p and Osh7p are yeast LTPs that transfer phosphatidylserine (PS) from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the plasma membrane (PM) via PS/phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P) exchange cycles. It is unknown how, at each cycle, they escape from the electrostatic attraction of the PM, highly anionic, to return to the ER. Using cellular and in vitro approaches, we show that Osh6p reduces its avidity for anionic membranes once it captures PS or PI4P, due to a molecular lid closing its lipid-binding pocket. Thus, Osh6p maintains its transport activity between ER- and PM-like membranes. Further investigations reveal that the lid governs the membrane docking and activity of Osh6p because it is anionic. Our study unveils how an LTP self-limits its residency time on membranes, via an electrostatic switching mechanism, to transfer lipids efficiently.
Project description:Lipid transfer between cell membrane bilayers at contacts between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and other membranes help to maintain membrane lipid homeostasis. We found that two similar ER integral membrane proteins, oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP)-related protein 5 (ORP5) and ORP8, tethered the ER to the plasma membrane (PM) via the interaction of their pleckstrin homology domains with phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P) in this membrane. Their OSBP-related domains (ORDs) harbored either PI4P or phosphatidylserine (PS) and exchanged these lipids between bilayers. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments showed that ORP5 and ORP8 could mediate PI4P/PS countertransport between the ER and the PM, thus delivering PI4P to the ER-localized PI4P phosphatase Sac1 for degradation and PS from the ER to the PM. This exchange helps to control plasma membrane PI4P levels and selectively enrich PS in the PM.
Project description:Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) is a critically important regulatory lipid of the plasma membrane (PM); however, little is known about how cells regulate PM PI(4,5)P2 levels. Here, we show that the phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P)/phosphatidylserine (PS) transfer activity of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident ORP5 and ORP8 is regulated by both PM PI4P and PI(4,5)P2 Dynamic control of ORP5/8 recruitment to the PM occurs through interactions with the N-terminal Pleckstrin homology domains and adjacent basic residues of ORP5/8 with both PI4P and PI(4,5)P2 Although ORP5 activity requires normal levels of these inositides, ORP8 is called on only when PI(4,5)P2 levels are increased. Regulation of the ORP5/8 attachment to the PM by both phosphoinositides provides a powerful means to determine the relative flux of PI4P toward the ER for PS transport and Sac1-mediated dephosphorylation and PIP 5-kinase-mediated conversion to PI(4,5)P2 Using this rheostat, cells can maintain PI(4,5)P2 levels by adjusting the availability of PI4P in the PM.
Project description:Lenz-Majewski syndrome (LMS) is a rare disease characterized by complex craniofacial, dental, cutaneous, and limb abnormalities combined with intellectual disability. Mutations in thePTDSS1gene coding one of the phosphatidylserine (PS) synthase enzymes, PSS1, were described as causative in LMS patients. Such mutations render PSS1 insensitive to feedback inhibition by PS levels. Here we show that expression of mutant PSS1 enzymes decreased phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P) levels both in the Golgi and the plasma membrane (PM) by activating the Sac1 phosphatase and altered PI4P cycling at the PM. Conversely, inhibitors of PI4KA, the enzyme that makes PI4P in the PM, blocked PS synthesis and reduced PS levels by 50% in normal cells. However, mutant PSS1 enzymes alleviated the PI4P dependence of PS synthesis. Oxysterol-binding protein-related protein 8, which was recently identified as a PI4P-PS exchanger between the ER and PM, showed PI4P-dependent membrane association that was significantly decreased by expression of PSS1 mutant enzymes. Our studies reveal that PS synthesis is tightly coupled to PI4P-dependent PS transport from the ER. Consequently, PSS1 mutations not only affect cellular PS levels and distribution but also lead to a more complex imbalance in lipid homeostasis by disturbing PI4P metabolism.
Project description:Lipid-transfer proteins (LTPs) were initially discovered as cytosolic factors that facilitate lipid transport between membrane bilayers in vitro. Since then, many LTPs have been isolated from bacteria, plants, yeast, and mammals, and extensively studied in cell-free systems and intact cells. A major advance in the LTP field was associated with the discovery of intracellular membrane contact sites (MCSs), small cytosolic gaps between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and other cellular membranes, which accelerate lipid transfer by LTPs. As LTPs modulate the distribution of lipids within cellular membranes, and many lipid species function as second messengers in key signaling pathways that control cell survival, proliferation, and migration, LTPs have been implicated in cancer-associated signal transduction cascades. Increasing evidence suggests that LTPs play an important role in cancer progression and metastasis. This review describes how different LTPs as well as MCSs can contribute to cell transformation and malignant phenotype, and discusses how "aberrant" MCSs are associated with tumorigenesis in human.
Project description:Tether proteins attach the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to other cellular membranes, thereby creating contact sites that are proposed to form platforms for regulating lipid homeostasis and facilitating non-vesicular lipid exchange. Sterols are synthesized in the ER and transported by non-vesicular mechanisms to the plasma membrane (PM), where they represent almost half of all PM lipids and contribute critically to the barrier function of the PM. To determine whether contact sites are important for both sterol exchange between the ER and PM and intermembrane regulation of lipid metabolism, we generated ?-super-tether (?-s-tether) yeast cells that lack six previously identified tethering proteins (yeast extended synatotagmin [E-Syt], vesicle-associated membrane protein [VAMP]-associated protein [VAP], and TMEM16-anoctamin homologues) as well as the presumptive tether Ice2. Despite the lack of ER-PM contacts in these cells, ER-PM sterol exchange is robust, indicating that the sterol transport machinery is either absent from or not uniquely located at contact sites. Unexpectedly, we found that the transport of exogenously supplied sterol to the ER occurs more slowly in ?-s-tether cells than in wild-type (WT) cells. We pinpointed this defect to changes in sterol organization and transbilayer movement within the PM bilayer caused by phospholipid dysregulation, evinced by changes in the abundance and organization of PM lipids. Indeed, deletion of either OSH4, which encodes a sterol/phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P) exchange protein, or SAC1, which encodes a PI4P phosphatase, caused synthetic lethality in ?-s-tether cells due to disruptions in redundant PI4P and phospholipid regulatory pathways. The growth defect of ?-s-tether cells was rescued with an artificial "ER-PM staple," a tether assembled from unrelated non-yeast protein domains, indicating that endogenous tether proteins have nonspecific bridging functions. Finally, we discovered that sterols play a role in regulating ER-PM contact site formation. In sterol-depleted cells, levels of the yeast E-Syt tether Tcb3 were induced and ER-PM contact increased dramatically. These results support a model in which ER-PM contact sites provide a nexus for coordinating the complex interrelationship between sterols, sphingolipids, and phospholipids that maintain PM composition and integrity.
Project description:Lipid transport between intracellular organelles is mediated by vesicular and nonvesicular transport mechanisms and is critical for maintaining the identities of different cellular membranes. Nonvesicular lipid transport between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi complex has been proposed to affect the lipid composition of the Golgi membranes. Here, we show that the integral ER-membrane proteins VAP-A and VAP-B affect the structural and functional integrity of the Golgi complex. Depletion of VAPs by RNA interference reduces the levels of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P), diacylglycerol, and sphingomyelin in the Golgi membranes, and it leads to substantial inhibition of Golgi-mediated transport events. These effects are coordinately mediated by the lipid-transfer/binding proteins Nir2, oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP), and ceramide-transfer protein (CERT), which interact with VAPs via their FFAT motif. The effect of VAPs on PI4P levels is mediated by the phosphatidylinositol/phosphatidylcholine transfer protein Nir2, which is required for Golgi targeting of OSBP and CERT and the subsequent production of diacylglycerol and sphingomyelin. We propose that Nir2, OSBP, and CERT function coordinately at the ER-Golgi membrane contact sites, thereby affecting the lipid composition of the Golgi membranes and consequently their structural and functional identities.
Project description:The Dot/Icm system of the intracellular pathogen Legionella pneumophila has the capacity to deliver over 270 effector proteins into host cells during infection. Important questions remain as to spatial and temporal mechanisms used to regulate such a large array of virulence determinants after they have been delivered into host cells. Here we investigated several L. pneumophila effector proteins that contain a conserved phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P)-binding domain first described in the effector DrrA (SidM). This PI4P binding domain was essential for the localization of effectors to the early L. pneumophila-containing vacuole (LCV), and DrrA-mediated recruitment of Rab1 to the LCV required PI4P-binding activity. It was found that the host cell machinery that regulates sites of contact between the plasma membrane (PM) and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) modulates PI4P dynamics on the LCV to control localization of these effectors. Specifically, phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase III? (PI4KIII?) was important for generating a PI4P signature that enabled L. pneumophila effectors to localize to the PM-derived vacuole, and the ER-associated phosphatase Sac1 was involved in metabolizing the PI4P on the vacuole to promote the dissociation of effectors. A defect in L. pneumophila replication in macrophages deficient in PI4KIII? was observed, highlighting that a PM-derived PI4P signature is critical for biogenesis of a vacuole that supports intracellular multiplication of L. pneumophila. These data indicate that PI4P metabolism by enzymes controlling PM-ER contact sites regulate the association of L. pneumophila effectors to coordinate early stages of vacuole biogenesis.
Project description:Animal cells acquire cholesterol from receptor-mediated uptake of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), which releases cholesterol in lysosomes. The cholesterol moves to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where it inhibits production of LDL receptors, completing a feedback loop. Here we performed a CRISPR-Cas9 screen in human SV589 cells for genes required for LDL-derived cholesterol to reach the ER. We identified the gene encoding PTDSS1, an enzyme that synthesizes phosphatidylserine (PS), a phospholipid constituent of the inner layer of the plasma membrane (PM). In PTDSS1-deficient cells where PS is low, LDL cholesterol leaves lysosomes but fails to reach the ER, instead accumulating in the PM. The addition of PS restores cholesterol transport to the ER. We conclude that LDL cholesterol normally moves from lysosomes to the PM. When the PM cholesterol exceeds a threshold, excess cholesterol moves to the ER in a process requiring PS. In the ER, excess cholesterol acts to reduce cholesterol uptake, preventing toxic cholesterol accumulation. These studies reveal that one lipid-PS-controls the movement of another lipid-cholesterol-between cell membranes. We relate these findings to recent evidence indicating that PM-to-ER cholesterol transport is mediated by GRAMD1/Aster proteins that bind PS and cholesterol.
Project description:The plasma membrane (PM) is composed of a complex lipid mixture that forms heterogeneous membrane environments. Yet, how small-scale lipid organization controls physiological events at the PM remains largely unknown. Here, we show that ORP-related Osh lipid exchange proteins are critical for the synthesis of phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P<sub>2</sub>], a key regulator of dynamic events at the PM. In real-time assays, we find that unsaturated phosphatidylserine (PS) and sterols, both Osh protein ligands, synergistically stimulate phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase (PIP5K) activity. Biophysical FRET analyses suggest an unconventional co-distribution of unsaturated PS and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P) species in sterol-containing membrane bilayers. Moreover, using in vivo imaging approaches and molecular dynamics simulations, we show that Osh protein-mediated unsaturated PI4P and PS membrane lipid organization is sensed by the PIP5K specificity loop. Thus, ORP family members create a nanoscale membrane lipid environment that drives PIP5K activity and PI(4,5)P<sub>2</sub> synthesis that ultimately controls global PM organization and dynamics.
Project description:The oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP)-related proteins ORP5 and ORP8 have been shown recently to transport phosphatidylserine (PS) from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the plasma membrane (PM) at ER-PM contact sites. PS is also transferred from the ER to mitochondria where it acts as precursor for mitochondrial PE synthesis. Here, we show that, in addition to ER-PM contact sites, ORP5 and ORP8 are also localized to ER-mitochondria contacts and interact with the outer mitochondrial membrane protein PTPIP51. A functional lipid transfer (ORD) domain was required for this localization. Interestingly, ORP5 and ORP8 depletion leads to defects in mitochondria morphology and respiratory function.