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Cellular and Network Mechanisms for Temporal Signal Propagation in a Cortical Network Model.

ABSTRACT: The mechanisms underlying an effective propagation of high intensity information over a background of irregular firing and response latency in cognitive processes remain unclear. Here we propose a SSCCPI circuit to address this issue. We hypothesize that when a high-intensity thalamic input triggers synchronous spike events (SSEs), dense spikes are scattered to many receiving neurons within a cortical column in layer IV, many sparse spike trains are propagated in parallel along minicolumns at a substantially high speed and finally integrated into an output spike train toward or in layer Va. We derive the sufficient conditions for an effective (fast, reliable, and precise) SSCCPI circuit: (i) SSEs are asynchronous (near synchronous); (ii) cortical columns prevent both repeatedly triggering SSEs and incorrectly synaptic connections between adjacent columns; and (iii) the propagator in interneurons is temporally complete fidelity and reliable. We encode the membrane potential responses to stimuli using the non-linear autoregressive integrated process derived by applying Newton's second law to stochastic resilience systems. We introduce a multithreshold decoder to correct encoding errors. Evidence supporting an effective SSCCPI circuit includes that for the condition, (i) time delay enhances SSEs, suggesting that response latency induces SSEs in high-intensity stimuli; irregular firing causes asynchronous SSEs; asynchronous SSEs relate to healthy neurons; and rigorous SSEs relate to brain disorders. For the condition (ii) neurons within a given minicolumn are stereotypically interconnected in the vertical dimension, which prevents repeated triggering SSEs and ensures signal parallel propagation; columnar segregation avoids incorrect synaptic connections between adjacent columns; and signal propagation across layers overwhelmingly prefers columnar direction. For the condition (iii), accumulating experimental evidence supports temporal transfer precision with millisecond fidelity and reliability in interneurons; homeostasis supports a stable fixed-point encoder by regulating changes to synaptic size, synaptic strength, and ion channel function in the membrane; together all-or-none modulation, active backpropagation, additive effects of graded potentials, and response variability functionally support the multithreshold decoder; our simulations demonstrate that the encoder-decoder is temporally complete fidelity and reliable in special intervals contained within the stable fixed-point range. Hence, the SSCCPI circuit provides a possible mechanism of effective signal propagation in cortical networks.

PROVIDER: S-EPMC6718730 | BioStudies |

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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