Responsiveness Expressions of Bitter Taste Receptors Against Denatonium Benzoate and Genistein in the Heart, Spleen, Lung, Kidney, and Bursa Fabricius of Chinese Fast Yellow Chicken.
ABSTRACT: The present study was conducted to investigate the responsiveness expressions of ggTas2Rs against denatonium benzoate (DB) and genistein (GEN) in several organs of the Chinese Fast Yellow Chicken. A total of 300 one-day-old chicks that weighed an average of 32 g were randomly allocated into five groups with five replicates for 56 consecutive days. The dietary treatments consisted of basal diet, denatonium benzoate (5 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg, and 100 mg/kg), and genistein 25 mg/kg. The results of qRT-PCR indicated significantly (p < 0.05) high-level expressions in the heart, spleen, and lungs in the starter and grower stages except for in bursa Fabricius. The responsiveness expressions of ggTas2Rs against DB 100 mg/kg and GEN 25 mg/kg were highly dose-dependent in the heart, spleen, lungs, and kidneys in the starter and grower stages, but dose-independent in the bursa Fabricius in the finisher stage. The ggTas2Rs were highly expressed in lungs and the spleen, but lower in the bursa Fabricius among the organs. However, the organ growth performance significantly (p < 0.05) increased in the groups administered DB 5 mg/kg and GEN 25 mg/kg; meanwhile, the DB 20 mg/kg and DB 100 mg/kg treatments significantly reduced the growth of all the organs, respectively. These findings indicate that responsiveness expressions are dose-dependent, and bitterness sensitivity consequently decreases in aged chickens. Therefore, these findings may improve the production of new feedstuffs for chickens according to their growing stages.
Project description:Cordyceps militaris is a well-known Chinese medicinal fungus that has been used as a nutraceutical food in several Asian countries. Cordycepin (3'-deoxyadenosine), a secondary metabolite produced from Cordyceps militaris, has been demonstrated to exert a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities, such as anti-microbial and antitumor activities. However, the effect of cordycepin on immunomodulation in broilers is poorly investigated. In the current study, we investigated the effect of cordycepin (9.69, 19.38, and 38.76 mg) from Cordyceps militaris hot water extract (CMHW) on growth performance and immunocompetence in broilers. Results showed that CMHW significantly decreased inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA levels in the bursa of Fabricius after 4 weeks of feeding (P<0.05). CMHW treatment reduced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA levels in the spleen and bursa of Fabricius after 4 weeks of feeding (P<0.05). Supplementation of CMHW for 3 days after vaccination reduced iNOS mRNA level in the spleen of 14 and 28 day-old broilers (P<0.05). Prior to vaccination, CMHW pretreatment significantly down-regulated COX-2 mRNA levels in the spleen and bursa of Fabricius of 14-day-old broilers (P<0.05). Furthermore, CMHW significantly reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced iNOS and COX-2 mRNA levels in the spleen and bursa of Fabricius (P<0.05). CMHW treatment attenuated LPS-induced IFN-? expression in the spleen and bursa of Fabricius, whereas CMHW induced IL-4 expression in these organs in response to LPS challenge (P<0.05). Taken together, these observations demonstrate that CMHW exerts an immunomodulatory role in broilers. CMHW is a potential novel feed additive with applications in inflammation-related diseases and bacterial infection in broilers.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The current study investigates the anti-stress effects of clove (Eugenia caryophyllus) extracts (0, 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg) on serum antioxidant biomarkers, immune response, immunological organ growth index, and expression levels of acute phase proteins (APPs); ovotransferrin (OVT), ceruloplasmin (CP), ceruloplasmin (AGP), C-reactive protein (CRP), and serum amyloid-A (SAA) mRNA in the immunological organs of 63-d-old male black-meated Silkie fowls subjected to 21 d chronic heat stress at 35?±?2 °C. RESULTS:The results demonstrated that clove extract supplementation in the diet of Silkie fowls subjected to elevated temperature (ET) improve growth performance, immune responses, and suppressed the activities of glutathion peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and thioredoxin reductase (TXNRD); reduced serum malonaldehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) concentrations when compared with fowls raised under thermoneutral condition (TC). Upon chronic heat stress and supplementation of clove extracts, the Silkie fowls showed a linear increase in GSH-Px, SOD, CAT, and TXNRD activities (P?=?0.01) compared with fowls fed diets without clove extract. ET decreased (P?<?0.05) the growth index of the liver, spleen, bursa of Fabricius and thymus. However, the growth index of the liver, spleen, bursa of Fabricius and thymus increased significantly (P?<?0.05) which corresponded to an increase in clove supplemented levels. The expression of OVT, CP, AGP, CRP, and SAA mRNA in the liver, spleen, bursa of Fabricius and thymus were elevated (P?<?0.01) by ET compared with those maintained at TC. Nevertheless, clove mitigates heat stress-induced overexpression of OVT, CP, AGP, CRP and SAA mRNA in the immune organs of fowls fed 400 mg clove/kg compared to other groups. CONCLUSIONS:The results showed that clove extracts supplementation decreased oxidative stress in the heat-stressed black-meated fowls by alleviating negative effects of heat stress via improvement in growth performance, antioxidant defense mechanisms, immunity, and regulate the expression of acute phase genes in the liver and immunological organs.
Project description:In the current study, we investigate changes in CD4+CD25+ cells in chickens during infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) infection. The percentage of CD4+CD25+ cells in lymph organs, e.g., the thymus, spleen, bursa of Fabricius and peripheral blood, during the first 1-5 days post infection (dpi) was assessed by flow cytometry. The data revealed a remarkable decrease in the percentage of CD4+CD25+ cells in the thymus from 1 to 5 dpi and in the spleen during early infection. An increase of the percentage of CD4+CD25+ cells among peripheral blood lymphocytes was observed during the first two days of IBDV infection. Additionally, CD4+CD25+ cells infiltrated the bursa along with CD4+ cells after IBDV infection. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to measure the mRNA levels of immune-related cytokines in IBDV-infected thymus and bursa of Fabricius tissues. The data revealed that IBDV caused a significant increase in interleukin (IL)-10 mRNA levels, with the Harbin-1 strain (vvIBDV) inducing higher IL-10 expression than the Ts strain. Taken together, our data suggest that chicken CD4+CD25+ cells may participate in IBDV pathogenicity by migrating from their sites of origin and storage, the thymus and spleen, to the virally targeted bursa of Fabricius during IBDV infection.
Project description:The sense of taste which tells us which prospective foods are nutritious, poisonous and harmful is essential for the life of the organisms. Denatonium benzoate (DB) is a bitter taste agonist known for its activation of bitter taste receptors in different cells. The aim of the current study was to investigate the mRNA expressions of bitter taste, downstream signaling effectors, apoptosis-, autophagy- and antioxidant-related genes and effector signaling pathways in the heart/kidney of chickens after DB dietary exposure. We randomly assigned 240, 1-day-old Chinese Fast Yellow chicks into four groups with five replicates of 12 chicks and studied them for 28 consecutive days. The dietary treatments consisted of basal diet and feed containing DB (5, 20 and 100 mg/kg). The results revealed that dietary DB impaired (p < 0.05) the growth performance of the chickens. Haemotoxylin and eosin staining and TUNEL assays confirmed that medium and high doses of DB damaged the epithelial cells of heart/kidney and induced apoptosis and autophagy. Remarkably, the results of RT-PCR and qRT-PCR indicated that different doses of DB gradually increased (p < 0.05) mRNA expressions of bitter taste, signaling effectors, apoptosis-, autophagy- and antioxidant- related genes on day 7 in a dose-response manner, while, these expressions were decreased (p < 0.05) subsequently by day-28 but exceptional higher (P < 0.05) expressions were observed in the high-dose DB groups of chickens. In conclusion, DB exerts adverse effects on the heart/kidney of chickens in a dose-response manner via damaging the epithelium of the heart/kidney by inducing apoptosis, autophagy associated with bitter taste and effector gene expressions. Correlation analyses for apoptosis/autophagy showed agonistic relationships. Our data provide a novel perspective for understanding the interaction of bitter taste, apoptosis, autophagy and antioxidative genes with bitter taste strong activators in the heart/kidney of chicken. These insights might help the feed industries and pave the way toward innovative directions in chicken husbandry.
Project description:Sexual hormones are essential for the process of spermatogenesis in the testis. However, the effect of maternal genistein (GEN) on the pups' testicular development remain-unclear. Our present study evaluated the effects of supplementing GEN for parental and offspring mice on the reproductive function and growth performance of the male pups. Mothers during gestation and lactation period were assigned to a control diet (CON group), low dose GEN (LGE group) diet (control diet +40 mg/kg GEN), and high dose of GEN (HGE group) diet (control diet +800 mg/kg GEN). Their male offspring underwent the same treatment of GEN after weaning. LGE treatment (40 mg/kg GEN) significantly increased body weights (p < 0.001), testes weights (p < 0.05), diameters of seminiferous tubule (p < 0.001) and heights of seminiferous epithelium (p < 0.05) of offspring mice. LGE treatment also increased serum testosterone (T) levels and spermatogenesis scoring (p < 0.05). However, HGE treatment (800mg/kg GEN) significantly decreased body weights (p < 0.001), testes weights (p < 0.05) and testis sizes (p < 0.001). Furthermore, mRNA expressions of ESR2 (p < 0.05), CYP19A1 (p < 0.001), SOX9 (p < 0.001) and BRD7 (p < 0.001) in testis of mice were increased in the LGE group. Similarly, HGE treatment increased mRNA expressions of ESR2 (p < 0.05) and CYP19A1 (p < 0.001). However, mRNA expressions of SOX9 and BRD7 were decreased significantly in the HGE group (p < 0.001). Meanwhile, higher ratio apoptotic germ cells and abnormal sperms were detected in the HGE group (p < 0.001). In conclusion, exposure to a low dose of GEN during fetal and neonatal life could improve testicular development of offspring mice, whereas, unfavorable adverse effects were induced by a high dose of GEN.
Project description:The massive meat production of broiler chickens make them continuously exposed to potential stressors that stimulate releasing of stress-related hormones like corticosterone (CORT) which is responsible for specific pathways in biological mechanisms and physiological activities. Therefore, this research was conducted to evaluate a wide range of responses related to broiler performance, immune function, plasma biochemistry, related gene expressions and cell death morphology during and after a 7-day course of CORT injection. A total number of 200 one-day-old commercial Cobb broiler chicks were used in this study. From 21 to 28 d of age, broilers were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups with 5 replicates of 20 birds each; the first group received a daily intramuscular injection of 5 mg/kg BW corticosterone dissolved in 0.5 ml ethanol:saline solution (CORT group), while the second group received a daily intramuscular injection of 0.5 ml ethanol:saline only (CONT group). Growth performance, including body weight (BW), daily weight gain (DG), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FC), were calculated at 0, 3 and 7 d after the start of the CORT injections. At the same times, blood samples were collected in each group for hematological (TWBC's and H/L ratio), T- and B-lymphocytes proliferation and plasma biochemical assays (total protein, TP; free triiodothyronine hormone, fT3; aspartate amino transaminase, AST; and alanine amino transaminase, ALT). The liver, thymus, bursa of Fabricius and spleen were dissected and weighed, and the mRNA expression of insulin-like growth factor 1 gene (IGF-1) in liver and cell-death-program gene (caspase-9) in bursa were analyzed for each group and time; while the apoptotic/necrotic cells were morphologically detected in the spleen. From 28 to 35 d of age, broilers were kept for recovery period without CORT injection and the same sampling and parameters were repeated at the end (at 14 d after initiation of the CORT injection). In general, all parameters of broiler performance were negatively affected by the CORT injection. In addition, CORT treatment decreased the plasma concentration of fT3 and the mRNA expression of hepatic IGF-1. A significant increase in liver weight accompanied by an increase in plasma TP, AST and ALT was observed with CORT treatment, indicating an incidence of liver malfunction by CORT. Moreover, the relative weights of thymus, bursa and spleen decreased by the CORT treatment with low counts of TWBC's and low stimulation of T & B cells while the H/L ratio increased; indicating immunosuppressive effect for CORT treatment. Furthermore, high expression of caspase-9 gene occurred in the bursa of CORT-treated chickens, however, it was associated with a high necrotic vs. low apoptotic cell death pathway in the spleen. Seven days after termination of the CORT treatment in broilers, most of these aspects remained negatively affected by CORT and did not recover to its normal status. The current study provides a comprehensive view of different physiological modulations in broiler chickens by CORT treatment and may set the potential means to mount a successful defense against stress in broilers and other animals as well.
Project description:The Silky Fowl (SF) is known for its special phenotypes and atypical distribution of melanocytes among internal organs. Although the genes associated with melanocyte migration have been investigated substantially, there is little information on the postnatal distribution of melanocytes in inner organs and the effect of hyperpigmentation on the development of SF. Here, we analyzed melanocyte distribution in 26 tissues or organs on postnatal day 1 and weeks 2, 3, 4, 6, 10, and 23. Except for the liver, pancreas, pituitary gland, and adrenal gland, melanocytes were distributed throughout the body, primarily around blood vessels. Interaction between melanocytes and the tissue cells was observed, and melanin was transported by filopodia delivery through engulfed and internalized membrane-encapsulated melanosomes. SFs less than 10 weeks old have lower indices of spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius than White Leghorns (WLs). The expression levels of interferon-? and interlukin-4 genes in the spleen, and serum antibody levels against H5N1 and infectious bursal disease virus were lower in SF than in WL. We also found immune organ developmental difference between Black-boned and non-Black- boned chickens from SFs and WLs hybrid F2 population. However, degeneration of the thymus and bursa of Fabricius occurred later in SF than in WL after sexual maturity. Analysis of apoptotic cells and apoptosis-associated Bax and Bcl-2 proteins indicated that apoptosis is involved in degeneration of the thymus and bursa of Fabricius. Therefore, these results suggest that hyperpigmentation in SF may have a close relationship with immune development in SF, which can provide an important animal model to investigate the roles of melanocyte.
Project description:Selenium (Se) is necessary for the immune system in chicken and mediates its physiological functions through selenoproteins. Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are indispensable for maintaining normal cell function and for directing the immune response. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Se deficiency on the messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression levels of selenoproteins and Hsps as well as immune functions in the chicken bursa of Fabricius. Two groups of chickens, namely the control and Se-deficient (L group) groups, were reared for 55 days. The chickens were offered a basal diet, which contained 0.15 mg Se/kg in the diet fed to the control group and 0.033 mg Se/kg in the diet fed to the L group. We performed real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction to detect the mRNA expression levels of selenoproteins and Hsps on days 15, 25, 35, 45 and 55. Western blotting was used to determine the protein expression levels of Hsps on days 35, 45 and 55, and immune functions were assessed through an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay on days 15, 35, and 55. The data showed that the mRNA expression levels of selenoproteins, such as Txnrd1, Txnrd2, Txnrd3, Dio1, Dio2, Dio3, GPx1, GPx2, GPx3 GPx4, Sepp1, Selo, Sel-15, Sepx1, Sels, Seli, Selu, Selh, and SPS2, were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in the L group compared with the control group. Additionally, the mRNA and protein expression levels of Hsps (Hsp27, Hsp40, Hsp60, Hsp70, and Hsp90) were also significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the L group. The expression levels of IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17, IL-1?, IFN-?, IFN-?, and IFN-? were significantly lower (P < 0.05) and TNF-? was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the L group compared with the control group. Our results show that immunosuppression was accompanied by a downregulation of mRNA expression levels of selenoproteins and an upregulation of the Hsp mRNA expression levels. Thus, Se deficiency causes defects in the chicken bursa of Fabricius, and selenoproteins and Hsps play important roles in immunosuppression in the bursa of Fabricius of chickens with Se deficiency.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The molecular mechanisms underlying stress-influenced immune function of chicken (Gallus Gallus) are not clear. The stress models can be established effectively by feeding chickens corticosterone (CORT) hormone. The bursa of Fabricius is a unique central immune organ of birds. RNA-Seq technology was used to investigate differences in the expression profiles of immune-related genes and associated pathways in the bursa of Fabricius to clarify molecular mechanisms. The aim of this study was to broaden the understanding of the stress-influenced immune function in chickens. RESULTS:Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the bursa of Fabricius between experimental group (basal diet with added CORT 30?mg/kg; C_B group) and control group (basal diet; B_B group) were identified by using RNA-seq technology. In total, we found 1434 significant DEGs (SDEGs), which included 199 upregulated and 1235 downregulated genes in the C_B group compared with the B_B group. The immune system process GO term was the top significantly GO term, including MYD88, TLR4, IL15, VEGFA gene and so on. The cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction pathway and the Toll-like receptor signaling pathway were the key pathways affected by stress. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) analysis of the SDEGs showed that VEGFA, MyD88 and IL15 were hub genes and module analysis showed that MYD88, TLR4 and VEGFA play important roles in response to stress. CONCLUSION:This study showed that the VEGFA and ILs (such as IL15) via the cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction pathway, MYD88 and TLR4 via the Toll-like receptor signaling pathway may play important roles in the regulation of immune function under stress condition with CORT administration. The results of this study provide a reference for further studies of the molecular mechanisms of stress-influenced immune function.
Project description:Little information has been available about the influence of dietary genistein (GEN) on hepatic transcriptome of laying broiler breeder (LBB) hens. The study is aimed at broadening the understanding of RNA expression profiles and alternative splicing (AS) signatures of GEN-treated breeder hens and thereby improving laying performance and immune function of hens during the late egg-laying period. 720 LBB hens were randomly allocated into three groups with supplemental dietary GEN doses (0, 40?mg/kg, and 400?mg/kg). Each treatment has 8 replicates of 30 birds. Dietary GEN enhanced the antioxidative capability of livers, along with the increased activities of glutathione peroxidase and catalase. Furthermore, it improved lipid metabolic status and apoptotic process in the liver of hens. 40?mg/kg dietary GEN had the better effects on improving immune function and laying performance. However, transcriptome data indicated that 400?mg/kg dietary GEN did negative regulation of hormone biosynthetic process. Also, it upregulated the expressions of EDA2R and CYR61 by the Cis regulation of neighbouring genes (lncRNA_XLOC_018890 and XLOC_024242), which might activate NF-?B and immune-related signaling pathway. Furthermore, dietary GEN induced AS events in the liver, which also enriched into immune and metabolic process. Therefore, the application of 40?mg/kg GEN in the diet of breeder hens during the late egg-laying period can improve lipid metabolism and immune function. We need to pay attention to the side-effects of high-dose GEN on the immune function.