Cultural adaptation and psychometric adequacy of the Persian version of the physical activity scale for the elderly (P-PASE).
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:This cross sectional study was conducted to investigate cultural adaption and validation of the Persian version of the PASE among the elderly community dwellers in Iran. Out of 278 elderly people, 65% of them were female. After translation and cultural adaption, the PASE was evaluated with respect to the validity and reliability. Regarding the construct validity, the concurrent validity was assessed between the PASE and ADL, IADL, self-rated health, and TUG test. RESULTS:The mean score of P-PASE was equal to 153.73 ± 48.47. P-PASE scores were significantly and negatively correlated with TUG (r = - 0.691, P < 0.001) and age (r = - 791, P > 0.001), and were also significantly correlated with ADL (r = 0.775, P < 0.001), and IADL (r = 0.161, P < 0.001). The ICC was obtained as 0.92 (95% CI 0.90-0.94), 0.86 (95% CI 0.82-0.87), and 0.91 (95% CI 0.90-0.94) for the leisure time activity, household activity, and work-related activity scores, respectively. The Cronbachs̓ alpha coefficient was equal to 0.74, 0.74, and 0.79, respectively for leisure time activity, household activity, and work-related activity domains.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Maintenance of instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and social role (SR) is crucial to keep independent life because the decline in SR and IADL was a significant predictor of dependence in basic ADL in later. The independent effect of physical and cultural leisure activities and their effect modification on the IADL remains unknown. METHODS:We prospectively observed 3241 elderly with intact IADL at baseline for 5 years. Higher level functional capacity such as IADL and SR was assessed using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of competence (TMIG index). RESULTS:The mean age of the participants was 72.3?years (standard deviation 5.1), and 46.9% were male, and 90.9% of them received a follow-up assessment. Of the participants, 10.4% developed an IADL decline. Engagement in leisure physical activity was associated with a significantly lower risk of IADL decline (adjusted risk ratio, 0.73; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.60 to 0.89), and cultural leisure activity was also associated with lower risk of IADL decline (adjusted risk ratio, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.63 to 0.95) independent of potential confounders. We also found significant and positive interaction between physical and cultural leisure activities at risk for IADL decline (P = 0.024) and SR decline (P = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS:We found an independent association of physical and cultural leisure activities with a lower risk for functional decline in IADL and SR with positive interaction. Combined engagement in physical and cultural activities may effectively prevent from IADL decline and SR decline.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:To investigate the independent and joint effects of leisure activities on disability in activities of daily living (ADL) among the oldest-old Chinese population (aged ? 80 years). RESULTS:A total of 3696 participants with ADL disability were identified during the median follow-up period of 3.1 years. Compared to the participants who "never" watched TV or listened to the radio and who "never" kept domestic animals or pets, those who engaged in these activities "almost every day" had a significantly lower ADL disability risk (adjusted hazard ratios were 0.74 and 0.66, respectively; both P < 0.001). Furthermore, participants engaging in multiple leisure activities showed a reduced risk of ADL disability (P for trend < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Frequently watching TV or listening to the radio and keeping domestic animals or pets was associated with a lower risk of ADL disability among the oldest-old Chinese population. METHODS:We included 12,331 participants (aged ? 80 years) (mean [SD] age: 89.5 [7.0] years) who managed to perform ADL independently at baseline in the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey 1998-2014 waves. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine whether leisure activities were associated with ADL disability.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Everyday functioning can be assessed using measures of basic activities of daily living (BADL) or instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). The aim of this review was to provide an overview of the scope and specific content of BADL and/or IADL covered by currently used questionnaires in adult brain tumor patient studies. METHODS:Electronic databases were searched up to April 2017 to identify all eligible questionnaires with items regarding BADL/IADL in studies with adult brain tumor patients. Articles were selected using predetermined in- and exclusion criteria. Items with similar content were clustered into domains based on type of activity. RESULTS:Thirty-one unique questionnaires containing at least one BADL and/or IADL item were identified; 21 and 29 questionnaires containing???1 BADL or IADL item, respectively. The percentage of ADL items in these questionnaires ranged from 4 to 100%. Only two questionnaires were specifically developed to measure BADL (Barthel Index and Katz-ADL) and two specifically for IADL (Lawton-Brody IADL and preliminary IADL-BN). Content clustering revealed that IADL had a larger variation in content (31 domains, e.g. work or leisure time activities) compared to BADL (15 domains, e.g. mobility or bathing/washing). CONCLUSION:Thirty-one questionnaires previously used in brain tumor studies contained items on BADL and/or IADL and covered a wide range of content, in particular for IADL. It is currently unclear which BADL/IADL are most relevant for brain tumor patients, and this should therefore be evaluated. Next, existing questionnaires could be adapted or validated, or new measures can be developed to meet these needs.
Project description:Background: Dependence is a significant health-related condition for older adults (OA) and implies that self-care is transferred to other people, the community or institutions. Recent studies have analyzed the relationship between out-of-pocket (OOP) healthcare expenditures and dependence. Nonetheless, these studies were not specifically designed to estimate the economic impact of dependence. Our aim was to estimate the total adjusted annual OOP healthcare expenditures in dependent older adults compared to independent ones. Additionally, we explore the potential combined effect of basic activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) dependence on OOP healthcare expenditures. Methods: Data comes from the cross-sectional study "Economic impact of physical dependence in older adults and the burden of informal care" conducted in 2018 with a sample of 735 community-dwelling older Mexican adults ages 60 and older. We used direct (medical and non-medical) and indirect costs to estimate the OOP healthcare expenditures associated with dependence. We applied the Katz scale to assess dependence in ADL and the Lawton scale to assess dependence in IADL. Two-Part regression models were used to analyze the relationship between dependence and OOP health expenditures. Results: Presence of ADL dependence represented a higher level of expenditure, 107% compared to non-dependent OA (? = 1.07, CI95%: 0.43-1.71), and 97% for IADL dependence (? = 0.97, CI95%: 0.49-1.45). The combined effect of ADL and IADL dependence (132%) was greater (? = 1.32, CI95%: 0.74-1.90) than the effect of ADL or IADL dependence alone. In monetary terms, OA with ADL dependence had a total annualized mean OOP healthcare expenditure of $31,865 (Mexican pesos), OA with IADL $26,912, and combined ADL and IADL $39,520. Conclusions: ADL and IADL dependence are associated with the total annualized OOP healthcare expenditures. This association is even higher when both conditions are present together. These findings highlight the economic implications of the dependence for individuals, their families, and the health system. Given that current evidence on effective interventions to prevent dependence in OA is insufficient, future studies should be conducted to estimate their costs and determine what interventions work, as well as their effectiveness and cost-effectiveness in different sub-groups of the population, and how these might be appropriately implemented.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Impairment in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) may occur in the earliest stages of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, there are few reliable measures of IADL in MCI or that have a sufficient range of scores in clinically normal (CN) elderly. The objective of this pilot study was to examine the convergent validity of a phone performance-based IADL instrument, the Harvard Automated Phone Task (APT), designed to measure the earliest IADL changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD), with other sensitive performance-based and subjective measures of everyday functional capacity among CN and MCI participants. METHODS:Twenty-nine CN and 17 MCI participants were administered the Harvard APT, the computer performance-based Czaja Functional Assessment Battery (CFAB), and the AD Cooperative Study ADL prevention instrument (ADCS ADL-PI) participant and study partner versions; in addition, 52 different CN and 7 MCI participants were administered the Harvard APT and the Subjective Study Partner and Participant-reported (SSPP) IADL scale. The Harvard APT was compared with the three other IADL assessments. RESULTS:In both CN and MCI, better performance on the Harvard APT was associated with better performance on the CFAB. In CN, better performance on the Harvard APT was associated with better ADCS ADL-PI participant-reported IADL, while in MCI better performance on the Harvard APT was associated with better ADCS ADL-PI study partner-reported IADL. Furthermore, in CN better performance on the Harvard APT was associated with better SSPP-IADL participant and study partner-reported IADL. CONCLUSIONS:In this small pilot study, the Harvard APT, a brief, self-administered, objective measure of IADL performance, appears to correlate well with other sensitive measures of everyday functioning, providing good preliminary convergent validity for this new measure. Moreover, it appears to perform well across both CN and MCI participants, which suggests that it is a promising measure of early, clinically meaningful functional change. This may not be the case as suggested in our small sample for subjective IADL scales that may perform differentially depending on the reporter (self vs. study partner) across the clinical spectrum possibly due to diminishing awareness of IADL difficulties in individuals who become cognitively impaired. Secondary prevention trials in AD have a great need for such ecologically valid and reliable measures of early IADL changes.
Project description:Background:Multimorbidity (multiple co-occurring chronic conditions) may be an important contributor to disability and poor health-related quality of life. The functional consequences of specific combinations of somatic and mental health conditions are unclear. Methods:Nationally representative prospective cohort study using the National Health and Aging Trends Study data of Medicare beneficiaries. We included 4,017 participants aged 65 years or older interviewed in 2013 and 2014. The primary outcome was prospective activities of daily living (ADL)-instrumental ADL (IADL) index (range = 0-11) assessed in 2014. All other measures were assessed in 2013. Chronic conditions included heart disease, hypertension, stroke, diabetes, arthritis, lung disease, osteoporosis, cancer, depression, and cognitive impairment. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, education, race/ethnicity, body mass index, and baseline ADL-IADL. Results:Thirty-four percent of multimorbidity combinations included depression, cognitive impairment, or both. Relative to multimorbidity combinations of exclusively somatic conditions, combinations that included both depression and cognitive impairment were associated with 1.34 times greater ADL-IADL in adjusted models (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09, 1.64). Relative to combinations of both depression and cognitive impairment, combinations of cognitive impairment and somatic conditions were associated with 0.84 times lower ADL-IADL in adjusted models (95% CI: 0.74, 0.96); combinations of depression and somatic conditions were associated with 0.72 times lower ADL-IADL in adjusted models (95% CI: 0.62, 0.85). Conclusions:Depression and/or cognitive impairment was identified in one-third of older adults with multimorbidity, and these combinations were associated with substantially greater prospective disability than combinations comprised exclusively of somatic conditions. This argues for identifying and managing mental health conditions that co-occur with somatic conditions.
Project description:We examined the predictive validity of a newly developed scale-the National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology Activities of Daily Living (NCGG-ADL)-to measure instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) ability. We tested the scale for detecting new incidences of functional disability among community-dwelling older Japanese adults. Participants were 2708 older adults (mean age = 79.0 years, 51.6% women) living in the community who had no functional decline at baseline. We assessed IADL ability using the NCGG-ADL scale, comprising 13 self-report questions. Next, we assessed their functional disability monthly for 24 months, based on the national long-term care insurance (LTCI) system. Among all participants, 430 (15.9%) had an IADL limitation at baseline, and 289 (10.7%) were newly certified as functionally disabled. Participants scoring ? 12 of 13 points in the NCGG-ADL showed a significantly higher risk of functional disability than did those scoring 13 points, even after adjusting for covariates (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval] = 1.58 [1.19-2.09]). We thus validated the NCGG-ADL as a screening tool for assessing the risk of functional disability among community-dwelling older Japanese adults. We conclude that IADL limitations, as measured by the NCGG-ADL, could be useful predictors of functional disability.
Project description:the identification of modifiable risk factors for preventing disability in older individuals is essential for planning preventive strategies.to identify cross-sectional correlates of disability and risk factors for the development activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental ADL (IADL) disability in community-dwelling older adults.the study population consisted of 897 subjects aged 65-102 years from the InCHIANTI study, a population-based cohort in Tuscany (Italy). Factors potentially associated with high risk of disability were measured at baseline (1998-2000), and disability in ADLs and IADLs were assessed both at baseline and at the 3-year follow-up (2001-03).the baseline prevalence of ADL disability and IADL disability were, respectively, 5.5% (49/897) and 22.2% (199/897). Of 848 participants free of ADL disability at baseline, 72 developed ADL disability and 25 of the 49 who were already disabled had a worsening in ADL disability over a 3-year follow-up. Of 698 participants without IADL disability at baseline, 100 developed IADL disability and 104 of the 199 who already had IADL disability had a worsening disability in IADL over 3 years. In a fully adjusted model, high level of physical activity compared to sedentary state was significantly associated with lower incidence rates of both ADL and IADL disability at the 3-year follow-up visit (odds ratio (OR): 0.30; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.12-0.76 for ADL disability and OR: 0.18; 95% CI 0.09-0.36 for IADL disability). After adjusting for multiple confounders, higher energy intake (OR for difference in 100 kcal/day: 1.09; 95% CI 1.02-1.15) and hypertension (OR: 1.91; 95% CI 1.06-3.43) were significant risk factors for incident or worsening ADL disability.higher level of physical activity and lower energy intake may be protective against the development in ADL and IADL disability in older persons.
Project description:Population aging is escalating in numerous countries worldwide; among them is Taiwan, which will soon become an aged society. Thus, aging successfully is an increasing concern. One of the factors for achieving successful aging (SA) is maintaining high physical function. The purpose of this study was to determine the physical fitness factors associated with SA in Taiwanese older adults (OAs), because these factors are intervenable. Community-dwelling OAs aged more than 65 years and residing in Northern Taiwan were recruited in this study. They received a comprehensive geriatric assessment, which includes sociodemographic data, health conditions and behaviors, activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental ADL (IADL) function, cognitive and depressive status, and quality of life. Physical fitness tests included the grip strength (GS), 30-second sit-to-stand (30s STS), timed up-and-go (TUG), functional reach (FR), one-leg standing, chair sit-and-reach, and reaction time (drop ruler) tests as well as the 6-minute walk test (6MWT). SA status was defined as follows: complete independence in performing ADL and IADL, satisfactory cognitive status (Mini-Mental State Examination ≥ 24), no depression (Geriatric Depression Scale < 5), and favorable social function (SF subscale ≥ 80 in SF-36). Adjusted multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. Among the total recruited OAs (n = 378), 100 (26.5%) met the aforementioned SA criteria. After adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and health condition and behaviors, some physical fitness tests, namely GS, 30s STS, 6MWT, TUG, and FR tests, were significantly associated with SA individually, but not in the multivariate model. Among the physical fitness variables tested, cardiopulmonary endurance, mobility, muscle strength, and balance were significantly associated with SA in Taiwanese OAs. Early detection of deterioration in the identified functions and corresponding intervention is essential to ensuring SA.
Project description:BACKGROUND:There is still controversy about the relationship between aging and changes in functional ability. This study aims to describe the level of basic activities of daily living (ADL) and higher-level instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) in different age groups and explore the factors associated with functional disability in Chinese older inpatients. METHODS:This cross-sectional study surveyed 9996 older inpatients aged 65?years and older from six tertiary hospitals in China from October 2018 to February 2019. The levels of ADL and IADL were measured by scores of the Barthel index and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale. A mixed-effect generalized linear model was used to examine the association between functional disability and covariates. RESULTS:The average ADL score was 89.51?±?19.29 and the mean IADL score 6.76?±?2.01 for all participants. There was a trend of decreasing scores along with aging, and significant differences between age groups were also observed (P?<?0.001). The most affected ADL and IADL was stair climbing and shopping, respectively. Sociodemographic characteristics (such as age), physical health variables (frailty, emaciation, hearing dysfunction, urinary dysfunction, defecation dysfunction, falling accidents in the past 12?months), and mental health variables (cognitive dysfunction, depression) were associated with functional disability. Patients from the emergency department or transferred from other hospitals and former alcohol drinkers are at risk of ADL disability. Former smoking is a risk factor for IADL disability, whereas current drinking, higher-level education, and residing in a building without elevators were likely to maintain a better IADL performance. CONCLUSIONS:Functional ability declines with aging, older inpatients are low dependency upon ADL and IADL. There are several associated factors among the participants derived from this investigation of a large-scale, multicenter, nationally representative Chinese older inpatient population. These findings potentially have major importance for the planning of hospital services, discharge planning, and post-discharge care. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR1800017682 , registered August 9, 2018.