The ubiquitin-editing enzyme A20 controls NK cell homeostasis through regulation of mTOR activity and TNF.
ABSTRACT: The ubiquitin-editing enzyme A20 is a well-known regulator of immune cell function and homeostasis. In addition, A20 protects cells from death in an ill-defined manner. While most studies focus on its role in the TNF-receptor complex, we here identify a novel component in the A20-mediated decision between life and death. Loss of A20 in NK cells led to spontaneous NK cell death and severe NK cell lymphopenia. The few remaining NK cells showed an immature, hyperactivated phenotype, hallmarked by the basal release of cytokines and cytotoxic molecules. NK-A20-/- cells were hypersensitive to TNF-induced cell death and could be rescued, at least partially, by a combined deficiency with TNF. Unexpectedly, rapamycin, a well-established inhibitor of mTOR, also strongly protected NK-A20-/- cells from death, and further studies revealed that A20 restricts mTOR activation in NK cells. This study therefore maps A20 as a crucial regulator of mTOR signaling and underscores the need for a tightly balanced mTOR pathway in NK cell homeostasis.
Project description:A20 is a ubiquitin modifying enzyme that restricts NF-kappaB signals and protects cells against tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced programmed cell death. Given recent data linking A20 (TNFAIP3) with human B cell lymphomas and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), we have generated mice bearing a floxed allele of Tnfaip3 to interrogate A20's roles in regulating B cell functions. A20-deficient B cells are hyperresponsive to multiple stimuli and display exaggerated NF-kappaB responses to CD40-induced signals. Mice expressing absent or hypomorphic amounts of A20 in B cells possess elevated numbers of germinal center B cells, autoantibodies, and glomerular immunoglobulin deposits. A20-deficient B cells are resistant to Fas-mediated cell death, probably due to increased expression of NF-kappaB-dependent antiapoptotic proteins such as Bcl-x. These findings show that A20 can restrict B cell survival, whereas A20 protects other cells from TNF-induced cell death. Our studies demonstrate how reduced A20 expression predisposes to autoimmunity.
Project description:TNF? is a pleiotropic cytokine which fuels tumor cell growth, invasion, and metastasis in some malignancies, while in others it induces cytotoxic cell death. However, the molecular mechanism by which TNF? exerts its diverse effects on breast cancer subtypes remains elusive. Using in vitro assays and mouse xenografts, we show here that TNF? contributes to the aggressive properties of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines via upregulation of TNFAIP3(A20). In a striking contrast, TNF? induces a potent cytotoxic cell death in luminal (ER+) breast cancer cell lines which fail to upregulate A20 expression. Overexpression of A20 not only protects luminal breast cancer cell lines from TNF?-induced cell death via inducing HSP70-mediated anti-apoptotic pathway but also promotes a robust EMT/CSC phenotype by activating the pStat3-mediated inflammatory signaling. Furthermore, A20 overexpression in luminal breast cancer cells induces aggressive metastatic properties in mouse xenografts via generating a permissive inflammatory microenvironment constituted by granulocytic-MDSCs. Collectively, our results reveal a mechanism by which A20 mediates pleiotropic effects of TNF? playing role in aggressive behaviors of TNBC subtype while its deficiency results in TNF?-induced apoptotic cell death in luminal breast cancer subtype.
Project description:ROS (reactive oxygen species) play important roles in the progression of a number of human pathologies. ROS promote cell death, but can also induce gene transcription. The transcription factor NF-kappaB (nuclear factor kappaB) plays a critical role in oxidative stress responses. One of the proteins regulated by NF-kappaB is the zinc-finger protein A20. In TNF (tumour necrosis factor)-alpha signalling, NF-kappaB induction of A20 leads to increased cell survival. In the present paper, we show that in response to oxidative stress, A20 actually enhances cell death by necrosis, but not by apoptosis. Exposure of cells to ROS leads to the up-regulation of A20 which acts via a negative-feedback loop to block NF-kappaB activation and cellular survival. Silencing of A20 by RNAi (RNA interference) increases both the induction of NF-kappaB and the subsequent survival of cells exposed to high doses of oxidative stress, which, in untreated cells, promotes death by necrosis. Cells which express high basal levels of A20 are less protected from oxidative-stress-induced cell death when compared with cells with lower A20 expression. We also show that A20 regulates NF-kappaB by blocking the degradation of IkappaB (inhibitory protein kappaB) alpha. These data highlight a novel role for A20 in oxidative stress responses by terminating NF-kappaB-dependent survival signalling and thus sensitizing cells to death by necrosis.
Project description:The cytokine TNF promotes inflammation either directly by activating the MAPK and NF-?B signaling pathways, or indirectly by triggering cell death. A20 is a potent anti-inflammatory molecule, and mutations in the gene encoding A20 are associated with a wide panel of inflammatory pathologies, both in human and in the mouse. Binding of TNF to TNFR1 triggers the NF-?B-dependent expression of A20 as part of a negative feedback mechanism preventing sustained NF-?B activation. Apart from acting as an NF-?B inhibitor, A20 is also well-known for its ability to counteract the cytotoxic potential of TNF. However, the mechanism by which A20 mediates this function and the exact cell death modality that it represses have remained incompletely understood. In the present study, we provide in vitro and in vivo evidences that deletion of A20 induces RIPK1 kinase-dependent and -independent apoptosis upon single TNF stimulation. We show that constitutively expressed A20 is recruited to TNFR1 signaling complex (Complex I) via its seventh zinc finger (ZF7) domain, in a cIAP1/2-dependent manner, within minutes after TNF sensing. We demonstrate that Complex I-recruited A20 protects cells from apoptosis by stabilizing the linear (M1) ubiquitin network associated to Complex I, a process independent of its E3 ubiquitin ligase and deubiquitylase (DUB) activities and which is counteracted by the DUB CYLD, both in vitro and in vivo. In absence of linear ubiquitylation, A20 is still recruited to Complex I via its ZF4 and ZF7 domains, but this time protects the cells from death by deploying its DUB activity. Together, our results therefore demonstrate two distinct molecular mechanisms by which constitutively expressed A20 protect cells from TNF-induced apoptosis.
Project description:The pathophysiology of periodontal disease involves a perturbed immune system to a dysbiotic microflora leading to unrestrained inflammation, collateral tissue damage, and various systemic complications. Gingival epithelial cells function as an important part of immunity to restrict microbial invasion and orchestrate the subsequent innate responses. A20 (TNFAIP3), an ubiquitin-editing enzyme, is one of the key regulators of inflammation and cell death in numerous tissues including gastrointestinal tract, skin, and lungs. Emerging evidence indicates A20 as an essential molecule in the oral mucosa as well. In this study, we characterized the role of A20 in human telomerase immortalized gingival keratinocytes (TIGKs) through loss and gain of function assays in preclinical models of periodontitis. Depletion of A20 through gene editing in TIGKs significantly increased IL-6 and IL-8 secretion in response to Porphyromonas gingivalis infection while A20 over-expression dampened the cytokine production compared to A20 competent cells through modulating NF-?B signaling pathway. In the subsequent experiments which assessed apoptosis, A20 depleted TIGKs displayed increased levels of cleaved caspase 3 and DNA fragmentation following P. gingivalis infection and TNF/CHX challenge compared to A20 competent cells. Consistently, there was reduced apoptosis in the cells overexpressing A20 compared to the control cells expressing GFP further substantiating the role of A20 in regulating gingival epithelial cell fate in response to exogenous insult. Collectively, our findings reveal first systematic evidence and demonstrate that A20 acts as a regulator of inflammatory response in gingival keratinocytes through its effect on NF-?B signaling and desensitizes cells to bacteria and cytokine induced apoptosis in the oral mucosa. As altered A20 levels can have profound effect on different cellular responses, future studies will determine whether A20-targeted therapies can be exploited to restrain periodontal inflammation and maintain oral mucosa tissue homeostasis.
Project description:A20 (TNFAIP3) and ABIN-1 (TNIP1) are candidate susceptibility genes for inflammatory bowel disease and other autoimmune or inflammatory diseases, but it is unclear how these proteins interact in vivo to prevent disease. Here we show that intestinal epithelial cell (IEC)-specific deletion of either A20 or ABIN-1 alone leads to negligible IEC loss, whereas simultaneous deletion of both A20 and ABIN-1 leads to rapid IEC death and mouse lethality. Deletion of both A20 and ABIN-1 from enteroids causes spontaneous cell death in the absence of microbes or hematopoietic cells. Studies with enteroids reveal that A20 and ABIN-1 synergistically restrict death by inhibiting TNF-induced caspase 8 activation and RIPK1 kinase activity. Inhibition of RIPK1 kinase activity alone, or caspase inhibition combined with RIPK3 deletion, abrogates IEC death by blocking both apoptosis and necroptosis in A20 and ABIN-1 double-deficient cells. These data show that the disease susceptibility proteins A20 and ABIN-1 synergistically prevent intestinal inflammation by restricting IEC death and preserving tissue integrity.
Project description:Intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) death is a common feature of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that triggers inflammation by compromising barrier integrity. In many patients with IBD, epithelial damage and inflammation are TNF-dependent. Elevated TNF production in IBD is accompanied by increased expression of the TNFAIP3 gene, which encodes A20, a negative feedback regulator of NF-κB. A20 in intestinal epithelium from patients with IBD coincided with the presence of cleaved caspase-3, and A20 transgenic (Tg) mice, in which A20 is expressed from an IEC-specific promoter, were highly susceptible to TNF-induced IEC death, intestinal damage, and shock. A20-expressing intestinal organoids were also susceptible to TNF-induced death, demonstrating that enhanced TNF-induced apoptosis was a cell-autonomous property of A20. This effect was dependent on Receptor Interacting Protein Kinase 1 (RIPK1) activity, and A20 was found to associate with the Ripoptosome complex, potentiating its ability to activate caspase-8. A20-potentiated RIPK1-dependent apoptosis did not require the A20 deubiquitinase (DUB) domain and zinc finger 4 (ZnF4), which mediate NF-κB inhibition in fibroblasts, but was strictly dependent on ZnF7 and A20 dimerization. We suggest that A20 dimers bind linear ubiquitin to stabilize the Ripoptosome and potentiate its apoptosis-inducing activity.
Project description:A20 is known key regulator of NF-κB activity and inflammatory response, but its role in the control of cell death receptor signaling is not completely understood. Although A20 is widely accepted anti-apoptotic protein, we demonstrate that elevated expression of A20 in both, human and murine keratinocytes results in sensitisation to TNF-induced cell death. We prove that the Ripoptosome formation in A20 overexpressing cells is prerequisite for the TNF-induced cell death execution. We demonstrate that both canonical and non-canonical NF-κB signaling pathways are regulated upon increase of A20 expression. A20 dependent alteration of cIAPs and TRAF1 expressions are involved in the multiple level control of cell death in keratinocytes with elevated A20 expression. Overall design: The effects of A20 overexpression in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced signalling were investigated in human and murine immortalized keratinocytes. This entry contains the results for the human keratinocytes.
Project description:A20 is known key regulator of NF-κB activity and inflammatory response, but its role in the control of cell death receptor signaling is not completely understood. Although A20 is widely accepted anti-apoptotic protein, we demonstrate that elevated expression of A20 in both, human and murine keratinocytes results in sensitisation to TNF-induced cell death. We prove that the Ripoptosome formation in A20 overexpressing cells is prerequisite for the TNF-induced cell death execution. We demonstrate that both canonical and non-canonical NF-κB signaling pathways are regulated upon increase of A20 expression. A20 dependent alteration of cIAPs and TRAF1 expressions are involved in the multiple level control of cell death in keratinocytes with elevated A20 expression. Overall design: The effects of A20 overexpression in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced signalling were investigated in human and murine immortalized keratinocytes. This entry contains the results for the spontaneously immortalized murine keratinocytes.
Project description:Ubiquitination and deubiquitination are crucial for assembly and disassembly of signaling complexes. LUBAC-generated linear (M1) ubiquitin is important for signaling via various immune receptors. We show here that the deubiquitinases CYLD and A20, but not OTULIN, are recruited to the TNFR1- and NOD2-associated signaling complexes (TNF-RSC and NOD2-SC), at which they cooperate to limit gene activation. Whereas CYLD recruitment depends on its interaction with LUBAC, but not on LUBAC's M1-chain-forming capacity, A20 recruitment requires this activity. Intriguingly, CYLD and A20 exert opposing effects on M1 chain stability in the TNF-RSC and NOD2-SC. While CYLD cleaves M1 chains, and thereby sensitizes cells to TNF-induced death, A20 binding to them prevents their removal and, consequently, inhibits cell death. Thus, CYLD and A20 cooperatively restrict gene activation and regulate cell death via their respective activities on M1 chains. Hence, the interplay between LUBAC, M1-ubiquitin, CYLD, and A20 is central for physiological signaling through innate immune receptors.