Functional Antagonism of Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Receptor 1 Prevents Harmaline-Induced Ultrastructural Alterations and Caspase-3 Mediated Apoptosis.
ABSTRACT: Background:There is a meaningful necessity for a targeted therapy of essential tremor (ET), as medications have not been developed specifically for ET. For nearly a century, many drugs have been applied in the treatment of tremor but the drug treatment of ET remains still unknown. Some potential therapeutic factors such fingolimod (FTY720) can be effectively used to treat ET in animals. In the present research, the effect of FTY720, the immunomodulatory sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) analog, on degeneration of cerebellar and olivary neurons induced by harmaline in male rats was investigated. Methods:The animals were allotted into control dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), saline + harmaline [30 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, (i.p.)], harmaline + FTY720 (1 mg/kg, i.p, 1 h and 24 h before harmaline injection) groups (n = 10). The cerebellum and inferior olive nucleus (ION) were studied for neuronal degeneration using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and ultrastructural study by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Results:Harmaline caused neuronal cell loss, caspase-3 mediated apoptosis, astrocytosis and ultrastructural changes in cerebellar Purkinje cells and inferior olive neurons. FTY720 exhibited neuroprotective effects on cerebellar Purkinje cells and inferior olivary neurons. Conclusion:These results suggest that FTY720 has potential efficacy for prevention of ET neurodegeneration and astrocytosis induced by harmaline in male rats.
Project description:Harmaline-induced tremor is one of the most commonly utilized disease models for essential tremor (ET). However, the underlying neural networks involved in harmaline-induced tremor and the degree to which these are a representative model of the pathophysiologic mechanism of ET are incompletely understood. In this study, we evaluated the functional brain network effects induced by systemic injection of harmaline using pharmacological functional magnetic resonance imaging (ph-fMRI) in the swine model. With harmaline administration, we observed significant activation changes in cerebellum, thalamus, and inferior olivary nucleus (ION). In addition, inter-regional correlations in activity between cerebellum and deep cerebellar nuclei and between cerebellum and thalamus were significantly enhanced. These harmaline-induced effects gradually decreased with repeated administration of drug, replicating the previously demonstrated 'tolerance' effect. This study demonstrates that harmaline-induced tremor is associated with activity changes in brain regions previously implicated in humans with ET. Thus, harmaline-induction of tremor in the swine may be a useful model to explore the neurological effects of novel therapeutic agents and/or neuromodulation techniques for ET.
Project description:Although essential tremor (ET) is the most common tremor disorder, its pathogenesis is not fully understood. The traditional model of ET, proposed in the early 1970s, posited that the inferior olivary nucleus (ION) was the prime generator of tremor in ET and that ET is a disorder of electrophysiological derangement, much like epilepsy. This article comprehensively reviews the origin and basis of this model, its merits and problems, and discusses whether it is time to lay this model to rest.A PubMed search was performed in March 2017 to identify articles for this review.The olivary model gains support from the recognition of neurons with pacemaker property in the ION and the harmaline-induced tremor models (as the ION is the prime target of harmaline). However, the olivary model is problematic, as neurons with pacemaker property are not specific to the ION and the harmaline model does not completely represent the human disease ET. In addition, a large number of neuroimaging studies in ET have not detected structural or functional changes in the ION; rather, abnormalities have been reported in structures related to the cerebello-thalamo-cortical network. Moreover, a post-mortem study of microscopic changes in the ION did not detect any differences between ET cases and controls.The olivary model largely remains a physiological construct. Numerous observations have cast considerable doubt as to the validity of this model in ET. Given the limitations of the model, we conclude that it is time now to lay this model to rest.
Project description:The rhythmic motor pathway activation by pacemaker neurons or circuits in the brain has been proposed as the mechanism for the timing of motor coordination, and the abnormal potentiation of this mechanism may lead to a pathological tremor. Here, we show that the potentiation of Ca(V)3.1 T-type Ca(2+) channels in the inferior olive contributes to the onset of the tremor in a pharmacological model of essential tremor. After administration of harmaline, 4- to 10-Hz synchronous neuronal activities arose from the IO and then propagated to cerebellar motor circuits in wild-type mice, but those rhythmic activities were absent in mice lacking Ca(V)3.1 gene. Intracellular recordings in brain-stem slices revealed that the Ca(V)3.1-deficient inferior olive neurons lacked the subthreshold oscillation of membrane potentials and failed to trigger 4- to 10-Hz rhythmic burst discharges in the presence of harmaline. In addition, the selective knockdown of Ca(V)3.1 gene in the inferior olive by shRNA efficiently suppressed the harmaline-induced tremor in wild-type mice. A mathematical model constructed based on data obtained from patch-clamping experiments indicated that harmaline could efficiently potentiate Ca(V)3.1 channels by changing voltage-dependent responsiveness in the hyperpolarizing direction. Thus, Ca(V)3.1 is a molecular pacemaker substrate for intrinsic neuronal oscillations of inferior olive neurons, and the potentiation of this mechanism can be considered as a pathological cause of essential tremor.
Project description:Hypertrophic degeneration of the inferior olive is mainly observed in patients developing palatal tremor (PT) or oculopalatal tremor (OPT). This syndrome manifests as a synchronous tremor of the palate (PT) and/or eyes (OPT) that may also involve other muscles from the branchial arches. It is associated with hypertrophic inferior olivary degeneration that is characterized by enlarged and vacuolated neurons, increased number and size of astrocytes, severe fibrillary gliosis, and demyelination. It appears on MRI as an increased T2/FLAIR signal intensity and enlargement of the inferior olive. There are two main conditions in which hypertrophic degeneration of the inferior olive occurs. The most frequent, studied, and reported condition is the development of PT/OPT and hypertrophic degeneration of the inferior olive in the weeks or months following a structural brainstem or cerebellar lesion. This "symptomatic" condition requires a destructive lesion in the Guillain-Mollaret pathway, which spans from the contralateral dentate nucleus via the brachium conjunctivum and the ipsilateral central tegmental tract innervating the inferior olive. The most frequent etiologies of destructive lesion are stroke (hemorrhagic more often than ischemic), brain trauma, brainstem tumors, and surgical or gamma knife treatment of brainstem cavernoma. The most accepted explanation for this symptomatic PT/OPT is that denervated olivary neurons released from inhibitory inputs enlarge and develop sustained synchronized oscillations. The cerebellum then modulates/accentuates this signal resulting in abnormal motor output in the branchial arches. In a second condition, PT/OPT and progressive cerebellar ataxia occurs in patients without structural brainstem or cerebellar lesion, other than cerebellar atrophy. This syndrome of progressive ataxia and palatal tremor may be sporadic or familial. In the familial form, where hypertrophic degeneration of the inferior olive may not occur (or not reported), the main reported etiologies are Alexander disease, polymerase gamma mutation, and spinocerebellar ataxia type 20. Whether or not these are associated with specific degeneration of the dentato-olivary pathway remain to be determined. The most symptomatic consequence of OPT is eye oscillations. Therapeutic trials suggest gabapentin or memantine as valuable drugs to treat eye oscillations in OPT.
Project description:The inferior olivary nuclei clearly play a role in creating oculopalatal tremor, but the exact mechanism is unknown. Oculopalatal tremor develops some time after a lesion in the brain that interrupts inhibition of the inferior olive by the deep cerebellar nuclei. Over time the inferior olive gradually becomes hypertrophic and its neurons enlarge developing abnormal soma-somatic gap junctions. However, results from several experimental studies have confounded the issue because they seem inconsistent with a role for the inferior olive in oculopalatal tremor, or because they ascribe the tremor to other brain areas. Here we look at 3D binocular eye movements in 15 oculopalatal tremor patients and compare their behaviour to the output of our recent mathematical model of oculopalatal tremor. This model has two mechanisms that interact to create oculopalatal tremor: an oscillator in the inferior olive and a modulator in the cerebellum. Here we show that this dual mechanism model can reproduce the basic features of oculopalatal tremor and plausibly refute the confounding experimental results. Oscillations in all patients and simulations were aperiodic, with a complicated frequency spectrum showing dominant components from 1 to 3 Hz. The model's synchronized inferior olive output was too small to induce noticeable ocular oscillations, requiring amplification by the cerebellar cortex. Simulations show that reducing the influence of the cerebellar cortex on the oculomotor pathway reduces the amplitude of ocular tremor, makes it more periodic and pulse-like, but leaves its frequency unchanged. Reducing the coupling among cells in the inferior olive decreases the oscillation's amplitude until they stop (at approximately 20% of full coupling strength), but does not change their frequency. The dual-mechanism model accounts for many of the properties of oculopalatal tremor. Simulations suggest that drug therapies designed to reduce electrotonic coupling within the inferior olive or reduce the disinhibition of the cerebellar cortex on the deep cerebellar nuclei could treat oculopalatal tremor. We conclude that oculopalatal tremor oscillations originate in the hypertrophic inferior olive and are amplified by learning in the cerebellum.
Project description:Climbing fibers, the projections from the inferior olive to the cerebellar cortex, carry sensorimotor error and clock signals that trigger motor learning by controlling cerebellar Purkinje cell synaptic plasticity and discharge. Purkinje cells target the deep cerebellar nuclei, which are the output of the cerebellum and include an inhibitory GABAergic projection to the inferior olive. This pathway identifies a potential closed loop in the olivo-cortico-nuclear network. Therefore, sets of Purkinje cells may phasically control their own climbing fiber afferents. Here, using in vitro and in vivo recordings, we describe a genetically modified mouse model that allows the specific optogenetic control of Purkinje cell discharge. Tetrode recordings in the cerebellar nuclei demonstrate that focal stimulations of Purkinje cells strongly inhibit spatially restricted sets of cerebellar nuclear neurons. Strikingly, such stimulations trigger delayed climbing-fiber input signals in the stimulated Purkinje cells. Therefore, our results demonstrate that Purkinje cells phasically control the discharge of their own olivary afferents and thus might participate in the regulation of cerebellar motor learning.
Project description:Complex movements require accurate temporal coordination between their components. The temporal acuity of such coordination has been attributed to an internal clock signal provided by inferior olivary oscillations. However, a clock signal can produce only time intervals that are multiples of the cycle duration. Because olivary oscillations are in the range of 5-10 Hz, they can support intervals of approximately 100-200 ms, significantly longer than intervals suggested by behavioral studies. Here, we provide evidence that by generating nonzero-phase differences, olivary oscillations can support intervals shorter than the cycle period. Chronically implanted multielectrode arrays were used to monitor the activity of the cerebellar cortex in freely moving rats. Harmaline was administered to accentuate the oscillatory properties of the inferior olive. Olivary-induced oscillations were observed on most electrodes with a similar frequency. Most importantly, oscillations in different recording sites retained a constant phase difference that assumed a variety of values in the range of 0-180 degrees, and were maintained across large global changes in the oscillation frequency. The inferior olive may thus underlie not only rhythmic activity and synchronization, but also temporal patterns that require intervals shorter than the cycle duration. The maintenance of phase differences across frequency changes enables the olivo-cerebellar system to replay temporal patterns at different rates without distortion, allowing the execution of tasks at different speeds.
Project description:Symptomatic palatal tremor is potentially the result of a lesion in the triangle of Guillain-Mollaret (1931) and is associated with hypertrophic olivary degeneration (HOD) which has characteristic MR findings. The triangle is defined by dentate efferents ascending through the superior cerebellar peduncle and crossing in the decussation of the brachium conjunctivum inferior to the red nucleus, to finaliy reach the inferior olivary nucleus (ION) via the central tegmental tract. The triangle is completed by ION decussating efferents terminating on the original dentate nucleus via the inferior cerebellar peduncle. We can demonstrate the anatomy of this anatomical triangle using a clinical case of palatal tremor presenting with bilateral subjective pulsatile tinnitus along with the pathognomonic MR findings previously described. The hyperintense T2 signal in these patients may be permanent, but the hypertrophied olive normally regresses after 4 years. The temporal relationship between the evolution of the histopathology and the development of the palatal tremor remains unknown as does the natural history of the tremor. Botox injection at the level of tensor and levator veli palatini insertion have been used to treat patients with disabling tremor synchronous tinnitus. A lesion involving the triangle can have a quite varied clinical expression.
Project description:Tremor is currently ranked as the most common movement disorder. The brain regions and neural signals that initiate the debilitating shakiness of different body parts remain unclear. Here, we found that genetically silencing cerebellar Purkinje cell output blocked tremor in mice that were given the tremorgenic drug harmaline. We show in awake behaving mice that the onset of tremor is coincident with rhythmic Purkinje cell firing, which alters the activity of their target cerebellar nuclei cells. We mimic the tremorgenic action of the drug with optogenetics and present evidence that highly patterned Purkinje cell activity drives a powerful tremor in otherwise normal mice. Modulating the altered activity with deep brain stimulation directed to the Purkinje cell output in the cerebellar nuclei reduced tremor in freely moving mice. Together, the data implicate Purkinje cell connectivity as a neural substrate for tremor and a gateway for signals that mediate the disease.
Project description:AIM:The aim of this study was to examine the role of adenosine A1 receptors in the harmaline-induced tremor in rats using 5'-chloro-5'-deoxy-(±)-ENBA (5'Cl5'd-(±)-ENBA), a brain-penetrant, potent, and selective adenosine A1 receptor agonist. METHODS:Harmaline was injected at a dose of 15 mg/kg ip and tremor was measured automatically in force-plate actimeters by an increased averaged power in the frequency band of 9-15 Hz (AP2) and by tremor index (a difference in power between AP2 and averaged power in the frequency band of 0-8 Hz). The zif-268 mRNA expression was additionally analyzed by in situ hybridization in several brain structures. RESULTS:5'Cl5'd-(±)-ENBA (0.05-0.5 mg/kg ip) dose dependently reduced the harmaline-induced tremor and this effect was reversed by 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX), a selective antagonist of adenosine A1 receptors (1 mg/kg ip). Harmaline increased the zif-268 mRNA expression in the inferior olive, cerebellar cortex, ventroanterior/ventrolateral thalamic nuclei, and motor cortex. 5'Cl5'd-(±)-ENBA reversed these increases in all the above structures. DPCPX reduced the effect of 5'Cl5'd-(±)-ENBA on zif-268 mRNA in the motor cortex. CONCLUSION:This study suggests that adenosine A1 receptors may be a potential target for the treatment of essential tremor.