Geographical variation in rates of surgical treatment for female stress urinary incontinence in England: a national cohort study.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:To examine geographic variation in use of surgery for female stress urinary incontinence (SUI), mainly midurethral mesh tape insertions, in the English National Health Service (NHS). DESIGN:National cohort study. SETTING:NHS hospitals. PARTICIPANTS:27?997 women aged 20 years or older who had a first SUI surgery in an English NHS Hospital between April 2013 and March 2016 and a diagnosis of SUI at the same time as the procedure. METHODS:Multilevel Poisson regression was used to adjust for geographic differences in age, ethnicity, prevalence of long-term illness and socioeconomic deprivation. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE:Rate of surgery for SUI per 100?000 women/year at two geographic levels: Clinical Commissioning Group (CCG; n=209) and Sustainability and Transformation Partnership (STP; n=44). RESULTS:The rate of surgery for SUI was 40 procedures per 100?000 women/year. Risk-adjusted rates ranged from 20 to 106 procedures per 100?000 women/year across CCGs and 24 to 69 procedures per 100?000 women/year across the STP areas. These regional differences were only partially explained by demographic characteristics as adjustment reduced variance of surgery rates by 16% among the CCGs and 35% among the STPs. CONCLUSIONS:Substantial geographic variation exists in the use of surgery for female SUI in the English NHS, suggesting that women in some areas are more likely to be treated compared with women with the same condition in other areas. The variation reflects differences in how national guidelines are being interpreted in the context of the ongoing debate about the safety of SUI surgery.
Project description:One of the key goals of the current reforms in the English National Health Service (NHS) under the Health and Social Care Act, 2012, is to increase the accountability of those responsible for commissioning care for patients (clinical commissioning groups (CCGs)), while at the same time allowing them a greater autonomy. This study was set out to explore CCG's developing accountability relationships.We carried out detailed case studies in eight CCGs, using interviews, observation and documentary analysis to explore their multiple accountabilities.We interviewed 91 people, including general practitioners, managers and governing body members in developing CCGs, and undertook 439 h of observation in a wide variety of meetings.CCGs are subject to a managerial, sanction-backed accountability to NHS England (the highest tier in the new organisational hierarchy), alongside a number of other external accountabilities to the public and to some of the other new organisations created by the reforms. In addition, unlike their predecessor commissioning organisations, they are subject to complex internal accountabilities to their members.The accountability regime to which CCGs are subject to is considerably more complex than that which applied their predecessor organisations. It remains to be seen whether the twin aspirations of increased autonomy and increased accountability can be realised in practice. However, this early study raises some important issues and concerns, including the risk that the different bodies to whom CCGs are accountable will have differing (or conflicting) agendas, and the lack of clarity over the operation of sanction regimes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Surgical interventions for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in women are commonly employed following the failure of minimally invasive therapies. Due to the limited information available on the relative cost-effectiveness of available surgeries for treating SUI, a de novo economic analysis was conducted to assess costs and effects of all relevant surgeries. To inform the economic analysis, the objective of this review was to identify and assess the quality of existing economic evaluation studies on different surgical interventions for the treatment of SUI in women. METHODS:The following databases were searched during the review process: Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE), MEDLINE In-Process, Excerpta Medica Database (Embase), National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED), and Health Management Information Consortium and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Registry (CEA registry). The key criteria for inclusion were that the study population included women with SUI and that the surgical interventions considered were utilised as either a primary or a follow-up surgery. The review included only full economic evaluations. Studies were quality assessed using the Drummond checklist for economic evaluations. No quantitative synthesis of the results by meta-analysis was conducted due to the high methodological heterogeneity. RESULTS:Twenty-six economic evaluations were included, of which 13 were model-based analyses. Surgical treatments assessed most frequently were mid-urethral slings and open and laparoscopic colposuspension. There were some differences in the methodological approaches taken, including differences in type of economic analysis, perspective, time horizon, types of resource use, and costs and outcomes that were included in the analysis. The majority of studies conducted a cost-utility analysis from a health system perspective and applied a time horizon of between 1 and 5 years. The cost-effectiveness results suggest that single-incision mini-sling and mid-urethral slings are among the most cost-effective options. CONCLUSIONS:The review has shown that methods used for the economic evaluation of surgical treatments for SUI vary widely in terms of study design, analysis type, compared alternatives, time horizon, costing methodologies and effect outcomes. Future economic evaluation studies on surgical treatments for SUI may be improved by the application of available guidelines. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION:Registered in PROSPERO in 2016, CRD42016049339.
Project description:To examine whether rate of reoperation after breast conserving surgery is associated with patients' characteristics and investigate whether reoperation rates vary among English NHS trusts.Cohort study using patient level data from hospital episode statistics.English NHS trusts.Adult women who had breast conserving surgery between 1 April 2005 and 31 March 2008.Reoperation rates after primary breast conserving surgery within 3 months, adjusted using logistic regression for tumour type, age, comorbidity, and socioeconomic deprivation. Tumours were grouped by whether a carcinoma in situ component was coded at the time of the primary breast conserving surgery.55,297 women had primary breast conserving surgery in 156 NHS trusts during the three year period. 11,032 (20.0%, 95% confidence interval 19.6% to 20.3%) women had at least one reoperation. 10,212 (18.5%, 18.2% to 18.8%) had one reoperation only; of these, 5943 (10.7%, 10.5% to 11.0%) had another breast conserving procedure and 4269 (7.7%, 7.5% to 7.9%) had a mastectomy. Of the 45,793 women with isolated invasive disease, 8229 (18.0%) had at least one reoperation. In comparison, 2803 (29.5%) of the 9504 women with carcinoma in situ had at least one reoperation (adjusted odds ratio 1.9, 95% confidence interval 1.8 to 2.0). Substantial differences were found in the adjusted reoperation rates among the NHS trusts (10th and 90th centiles 12.2% and 30.2%).One in five women who had breast conserving surgery in England had a reoperation. Reoperation was nearly twice as likely when the tumour had a carcinoma in situ component coded. Women should be informed of this reoperation risk when deciding on the type of surgical treatment of their breast cancer.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:The aim of this study was to determine how recommendations of gynaecologists on surgical treatment for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) were influenced by patient characteristics. METHODS:Two hundred forty-five gynaecologists in the UK fully responded to an online questionnaire including 18 vignettes describing 7 clinical characteristics of women with SUI (age, body mass index, SUI type, previous SUI surgery, frequency of leakage, bother, physical status). The gynaecologists scored recommendations for surgery ranging from 1 'certainly not' to 5 'certainly yes'. Mean scores were used to calculate the relative impact ('weight') of each clinical characteristic. Latent class analysis was used to distinguish groups of gynaecologists with a particular practice style because they responded to the patient characteristics captured in the case vignettes in a similar way. RESULTS:The gynaecologists' overall average recommendation score was 2.9 (interquartile range 2 to 4). All patient characteristics significantly influenced the recommendation scores (p always < 0.001) but their impact was relatively small. SUI type was most important (weight 23%), followed by previous SUI surgery (weight 21%). Latent class analysis identified five groups of gynaecologists with practice styles that differed mainly with respect to their mean recommendation score, ranging from 1.3 to 4.0. CONCLUSIONS:Surgical treatment advice in response to case vignettes was only minimally influenced by patient characteristics. There were five groups of gynaecologists whose inclination to recommend surgical treatment varied. This suggests that there is lack of consensus on the role of surgery as a treatment for SUI. A considerable number of gynaecologists were reluctant to recommend surgery.
Project description:The Activities Assessment Scale (AAS) is a 13-item postoperative functional activity scale validated in men who underwent hernia surgery. We evaluated the psychometric characteristics of the AAS in women who underwent vaginal surgery for pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and stress urinary incontinence (SUI).Participants included 163 women with POP and SUI enrolled in a randomized trial comparing sacrospinous ligament fixation to uterosacral vault suspension with and without perioperative pelvic floor muscle training. Participants completed the AAS and SF-36 at baseline and 2 weeks and 6 months postoperatively. Internal reliability of the AAS was evaluated using Cronbach α. Construct validity and responsiveness were examined in cross-sectional and longitudinal data using Pearson correlation coefficient and analysis of variance. The AAS is scored from zero to 100 (higher scores=better function).Mean (SD) baseline AAS score was 87 (17.3) (range, 25-100). Functional activity declined from baseline to 2 weeks postoperatively (mean change, -4.5; 95% confidence interval, -7.6 to -1.42) but improved above baseline at 6 months (mean change, +10.9; 95% confidence interval, 7.8-14.0). Internal reliability of the AAS was excellent (Cronbach α=0.93). Construct validity was demonstrated by a correlation of 0.59 to 0.60 between the AAS and SF-36 physical functioning scale (P<0.0001) and lower correlations between the AAS and other SF-36 scales. Patients who improved in physical functioning based on the SF-36 between 2 weeks and 6 months postoperatively showed an effect size of 0.86 for change in the AAS over the same period.The AAS is a valid, reliable, and responsive measure for evaluation of physical function in women after pelvic reconstructive surgery.
Project description:Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is a frequent adverse effect for men undergoing prostate surgery. A large proportion (around 8% after radical prostatectomy and 2% after transurethral resection of prostate (TURP)) are left with severe disabling incontinence which adversely effects their quality of life and many are reliant on containment measures such as pads (27% and 6% respectively). Surgery is currently the only option for active management of the problem. The overwhelming majority of surgeries for persistent bothersome SUI involve artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) insertion. However, this is expensive, and necessitates manipulation of a pump to enable voiding. More recently, an alternative to AUS has been developed - a synthetic sling for men which elevates the urethra, thus treating SUI. This is thought, by some, to be less invasive, more acceptable and less expensive than AUS but clear evidence for this is lacking. The MASTER trial aims to determine whether the male synthetic sling is non-inferior to implantation of the AUS for men who have SUI after prostate surgery (for cancer or benign disease), judged primarily on clinical effectiveness but also considering relative harms and cost-effectiveness.Men with urodynamic stress incontinence (USI) after prostate surgery, for whom surgery is judged appropriate, are the target population. We aim to recruit men from secondary care urological centres in the UK NHS who carry out surgery for post-prostatectomy incontinence. Outcomes will be assessed by participant-completed questionnaires and 3-day urinary bladder diaries at baseline, 6, 12 and 24 months. The 24-h urinary pad test will be used at baseline as an objective assessment of urine loss. Clinical data will be completed at the time of surgery to provide details of the operative procedures, complications and resource use in hospital. At 12 months, men will also have a clinical review to evaluate the results of surgery (including another 24-h pad test) and to identify problems or need for further treatment.A robust examination of the comparative effectiveness of the male synthetic sling will provide high-quality evidence to determine whether or not it should be adopted widely in the NHS.International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Registry: Number ISRCTN49212975 . Registered on 22 July 2013. First patient randomised on 29 January 2014.
Project description:Background: Guidelines in England recommend that hyperacute stroke units (HASUs) should have a minimum of 600 confirmed stroke admissions per year in order to sustain expert consultant-led services, and that travel time for patients should ideally be 30 min or less. Currently, 61% of stroke patients attend a unit with at least 600 admissions per year and 56% attend such a unit and have a travel time of no more than 30 min. Objective: We have sought to understand how varying the planning and provision footprint in England affects access to care whilst achieving the recommended admission numbers for hyper-acute stroke care. We have compared two different planning footprints to national-level planning: planning using five NHS Regions in England, and planning using 44 Sustainability and Transformation Partnerships (STPs) in England. Methods: Computer modeling and optimization using a multi-objective genetic algorithm. Results: The number of stroke admissions between STPs varies by seven-fold, while the number of stroke admissions between NHS Regions varies by 2.5-fold. In order to meet stroke admission guidelines (600/year) for all units the maximum possible proportion of patients within 30 min would be 82, 78, and 72% with no boundaries to planning/provision, NHS Region boundaries, and STP boundaries (in these scenarios patients cannot move outside of their own STP or NHS Region). If STP or NHS Region boundaries are removed for provision of service (after planning is performed at these local levels), travel time is improved, but number of admissions to individual hospitals become significantly changed, especially at STP planning level where admission numbers per unit changed by an average of 204 (19%), and not all units maintained 600 admissions after removal of boundaries. Conclusion: Planning and providing services at STP level could lead to sub-optimal service provision compared with using larger and more consistently populated planning areas.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To validate a symptom-based fistula screening questionnaire and estimate obstetric fistula (OF) prevalence in rural Nepal. DESIGN:Cross-sectional and nested case-control study. SETTING:Sarlahi District, Nepal. POPULATION:Parous, reproductive age women. METHODS:The questionnaire assessed symptoms of vesicovaginal and rectovaginal fistula (VVF and RVF, respectively), stress and urge urinary incontinence (SUI and UUI, respectively), fecal incontinence (FI), and included interviewer observations on the smell and presence of urine and/or stool. All women who screened positive for OF and a randomly selected group of women who screened negative for OF were included in a nested case-control study (one case, four normal controls, and four incontinent controls) and underwent confirmatory clinical examinations. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Clinically confirmed OF, and questionnaire sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp). RESULTS:Of the 16 893 women who completed cross-sectional screening, 68 were screened-positive cases. Fifty-five (82%) screened-positive cases, 203 screened-negative normal controls, and 203 screened-incontinent controls participated in the case-control study, which confirmed one case of VVF and one case of both VVF and RVF without any false-negative cases. For VVF, the screening tool demonstrated Se 100% (95% CI 34.2-100.0%), Sp 86.9% (95% CI 83.3-89.9%), and estimated VVF prevalence as 12 per 100 000 (95% CI 3-43); for RVF, it demonstrated Se 100% (95% CI 20.7-100.0), Sp 99.8% (95% CI 98.6-100.0), and estimated RVF prevalence as 6 per 100 000 (95% CI 1-34). CONCLUSIONS:The OF screening questionnaire demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity in this low-prevalence setting. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT:Community-based obstetric fistula screening tool validation study, Nepal, n = 16 893: High Se, Sp & feasibility.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Since April 2015, Clinical Commissioning Groups (CCGs) have taken on the responsibility to commission primary care services. The aim of this paper is to analyse how CCGs have responded to this new responsibility and to identify challenges and factors that facilitated or inhibited achievement of integrated care systems. DESIGN:We undertook an exploratory approach, combining data from interviews and national telephone surveys, with analysis of policy documents and case studies in four CCGs. Data were analysed using thematic content analysis. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS:We reviewed 147 CCG application documents and conducted two national telephone surveys with CCGs (n=49 and n=21). We interviewed 6 senior policymakers and 42 CCG staff who were involved in primary care co-commissioning (general practitioners and managers). We observed 74 primary care commissioning committee meetings and their subgroups (approx. 111 hours). RESULTS:CCGs in our case studies focused their primary care commissioning activities on developing strategic plans, 'new' primary care initiatives, and dealing with legacy work. Many plans focused on incentivising and supporting practices to work together and provide a broad range of services. There was a clear focus on ensuring the sustainability of general practice. Our respondents expressed mixed views as to what new collaborative service models, such as the new models of care and sustainability and transformation partnerships (STPs), would mean for the future of primary care and the impact they could have on CCGs and their members. CONCLUSIONS:There is a disconnect between locally based primary care and the wider system. One of the major challenges we identified is the lack of knowledge and expertise in the field of primary care at STP level. While primary care commissioning by CCGs seems to be supporting local collaborations between practices, there is some way to go before this is translated into broader integration initiatives across wider footprints.