Modern contraceptive use among sexually active women aged 15-19 years in North-Western Tanzania: results from the Adolescent 360 (A360) baseline survey.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:To describe differences in modern contraceptive use among adolescent women aged 15-19 years according to their marital status and to determine factors associated with modern contraceptive use among sexually active women in this population. DESIGN:Cross-sectional analysis of Adolescent 360 evaluation baseline survey. SETTING:The 15 urban and semiurban wards of Ilemela district, Mwanza region, North-Western Tanzania. PARTICIPANTS:Adolescent women aged 15-19 years who were living in the study site from August 2017 to February 2018 and who provided informed consent. Women were classified as married if they had a husband or were living as married. Unmarried women were classified as sexually active if they reported having sexual intercourse in the last 12 months. OUTCOME MEASURE:Prevalence of modern contraceptive among adolescent women aged 15-19 years. RESULTS:Data were available for 3511 women aged 15-19 years, of which 201 (5.7%) were married and 744 (22.5%) were unmarried-sexually active. We found strong evidence of differences in use of modern contraceptive methods according to marital status of adolescent women. Determinants of modern contraception use among unmarried-sexually active women were increasing age, increasing level of education, being in education, hearing of modern contraception from interpersonal sources or in the media in the last 12 months, perceiving partner and/or friends support for contraceptive use, as well as higher knowledge and self efficacy for contraception. CONCLUSIONS:Sexual and reproductive health programmes aiming to increase uptake of modern contraceptives in this population of adolescent women should consider the importance of girl's education and social support for contraceptive use particularly among unmarried-sexually active women.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Many unmarried young people in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) want to avoid pregnancy but do not use modern methods of contraception-as a result, half of teen births in these countries are unintended. Researchers have identified numerous barriers that prevent youth from using contraception. However, much of the research in West Africa is narrowly focused on married women, and relatively little research has been done to understand the needs, preferences, barriers, and solution set for sexually active unmarried young people who would like to avoid pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the behavioral barriers that prevent unmarried young people in eastern Senegal from using modern methods of contraception. METHODS:This qualitative study conducted in 2017 in the Tambacounda and Kedougou regions in Senegal explores attitudes and beliefs relating to sex and contraception among unmarried young women and men through 48 in-depth individual interviews with young people aged 15-24 and parents of youth and 5 sex-segregated focus groups with 6-9 young people per group. The research team conducted a thematic content analysis and synthesized the findings by major theme following the behavioral diagnosis methodology. RESULTS:Drawing insights from behavioral science, the analysis yields five key findings: (1) unmarried young people avoid making a decision about contraception because thinking about contraceptive use provokes uncomfortable associations with a negative identity (i.e., being sexually active before marriage); (2) unmarried young people see modern methods as inappropriate for people like them; (3) unmarried young people are overconfident in their ability to prevent pregnancy through traditional and folk methods; (4) unmarried young people overestimate the social and health risks of modern contraceptive methods; and (5) unmarried young people fail to plan ahead and are not prepared to use modern contraceptive methods before every sexual encounter. CONCLUSIONS:Interventions aimed at increasing uptake of contraceptives among unmarried young people in eastern Senegal must address several significant behavioral barriers in addition to structural, informational, and socio-cultural barriers in order to be successful.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Adolescent girls in humanitarian settings are especially vulnerable as their support systems are often disrupted. More than 20 years of violence in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has weakened the health system, resulting in poor sexual and reproductive health (SRH) outcomes for women. Little evidence on adolescent contraceptive use in humanitarian settings is available. CARE, International Rescue Committee (IRC), and Save the Children, in collaboration with the Reproductive Health Access, Information and Services in Emergencies (RAISE) Initiative, Columbia University, have supported the Ministry of Health (MOH) since 2011 to provide good quality contraceptive services in public health facilities in conflict-affected North and South Kivu. In this study, we analyzed contraceptive use among sexually active young women aged 15-24 in the health zones served by the partners' programs. METHODS AND FINDINGS:The partners conducted cross-sectional population-based surveys in program areas of North and South Kivu using two-stage cluster sampling in six health zones in July-August 2016 and 2017. Twenty-five clusters were selected in each health zone, 22 households in each cluster, and one woman of reproductive age (15-49 years) was randomly selected in each household. This manuscript presents results from a secondary data analysis for 1,022 women aged 15-24 who reported ever having sex: 326 adolescents (15-19 years) and 696 young women (20-24 years), 31.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 29.5-34.1), of whom were displaced at least once in the previous five years. Contraceptive knowledge was high, with over 90% of both groups able to name at least one modern contraceptive method. Despite this high knowledge, unmet need for contraception was also high: 31.7% (95%CI 27.9-35.7) among 15-19-year-olds and 40.1% (95% CI 37.1-43.1, p = 0.001) among 20-24-year-olds. Current modern contraceptive use (16.5%, 95% CI 14.7-18.4) was similar in both age groups, the majority of whom received their method from a supported health facility. Among current users, more than half of 15-19-year-olds were using a long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC; 51.7%, 95% CI 41.1-61.9) compared to 36.5% of 20-24-year-olds (95% CI 29.6-43.9, p = 0.02). Age, younger age of sexual debut, having some secondary education, being unmarried, and having begun childbearing were associated with modern contraceptive use. The main limitations of our study are related to insecurity in three health zones that prevented access to some villages, reducing the representativeness of our data, and our defining sexually active women as those who have ever had sex. CONCLUSIONS:In this study, to our knowledge one of the first to measure contraceptive prevalence among adolescents in a humanitarian setting, we observed that adolescent and young women will use modern contraception, including long-acting methods. Meaningful engagement of adolescent and young women would likely contribute to even better outcomes. Creating an enabling environment by addressing gender and social norms, however, is key to reducing stigma and meeting the demand for contraception of young women. As we continue to build such supportive environments, we can see that they will use effective contraception when contraceptive services, including short- and long-acting methods, are available, even in protracted crisis settings.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Nigeria, Ethiopia and Tanzania have some of the highest teenage pregnancy rates and lowest rates of modern contraceptive use among adolescents. The transdisciplinary Adolescents 360 (A360) initiative being rolled out across these three countries uses human-centred design to create context-specific multicomponent interventions with the aim of increasing voluntary modern contraceptive use among girls aged 15-19 years. METHODS:The primary objective of the outcome evaluation is to assess the impact of A360 on the modern contraceptive prevalence rate (mCPR) among sexually active girls aged 15-19 years. A360 targets different subpopulations of adolescent girls in the three countries. In Northern Nigeria and Ethiopia, the study population is married girls aged 15-19 years. In Southern Nigeria, the study population is unmarried girls aged 15-19 years. In Tanzania, both married and unmarried girls aged 15-19 years will be included in the study. In all settings, we will use a prepopulation and postpopulation-based cross-sectional survey design. In Nigeria, the study design will also include a comparison group. A one-stage sampling design will be used in Nigeria and Ethiopia. A two-stage sampling design will be used in Tanzania. Questionnaires will be administered face-to-face by female interviewers aged between 18 and 26 years. Study outcomes will be assessed before the start of A360 implementation in late 2017 and approximately 24 months after implementation in late 2019. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:Findings of this study will be widely disseminated through workshops, conference presentations, reports, briefings, factsheets and academic publications.
Project description:BACKGROUND:There is still a large gap in relation to effectively meet the contraceptive needs and family planning goals of adolescents. Our aim was to describe how having a partner and children impact on contraceptive behavior of sexually active female adolescents from low and middle-income countries (LMICs). METHODS:Analyses were based on the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Surveys carried out since 2005 in 73 LMICs with available data for sexually active women aged 15-19 years. Modern contraceptive prevalence and demand for family planning satisfied with modern methods of contraception (mDFPS) were estimated among three subgroups of adolescents considering their parity and marital status- not married, married without children, and married with children - at national and regional levels. RESULTS:Female adolescents who were married with no children presented the lowest median modern contraceptive prevalence in all world regions, ranging from 2.9% in West & Central Africa to 29.0% in Latin America & Caribbean. Regarding mDFPS, the lowest coverage for married adolescents without children was found in West & Central Africa (12.6%), whereas Latin America & Caribbean presented the highest (50.4%). In East Asia & Pacific, not married adolescents were the group with the lowest mDFPS (17.1%). In 12 countries, mDFPS was below 10% among married adolescents without children: Angola, Chad, Congo, Congo DR, Guinea, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, and Senegal in Africa, Philippines and Timor-Leste in Asia and Guyana in Latin America & Caribbean. CONCLUSIONS:In most countries, modern contraceptive prevalence and mDFPS were particularly low among married female adolescents without children, which should be considered a priority group for intervention. The findings suggest that social norms regarding marriage and fertility expectations and other cultural barriers have a role at least as relevant as contraceptive availability. All these aspects need to be considered in the design of family planning strategies to effectively increase modern contraceptive use among adolescents everywhere, particularly in conservative contexts.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Contraception can help to meet family planning goals for women living with HIV (WLHIV) as well as to support the prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). However, there is little research into the contraceptive practice among sexually active WLHIV in Ethiopia. Therefore, we aimed to examine contraceptive practice among sexually active WLHIV in western Ethiopia and identify the factors that influenced such practice using the Health Belief Model (HBM). METHODS:A facility-based cross-sectional survey of 360 sexually active WLHIV was conducted from 19th March to 22nd June 2018 in western Ethiopia. The eligible participants were WLHIV aged between 18 and 49 years who reported being fecund and sexually active within the previous six months but were not pregnant and not wanting to have another child within two years. Modified Poisson regression analyses were conducted to identify factors that influenced contraceptive practice among sexually active WLHIV in western Ethiopia. RESULTS:Among sexually active WLHIV (n = 360), 75% used contraception with 25% having unmet needs. Of the contraceptive users, 44.8% used injectables, 37.4% used condoms and 28.5% used implants. Among 152 recorded births in the last five years, 17.8% were reported as mistimed and 25.7% as unwanted. Compared to WLHIV having no child after HIV diagnosis, having two or more children after HIV diagnosis (Adjusted Prevalence Ratio [APR] = 1.31; 95%CI 1.09-1.58) was associated with increased risk of contraceptive practice. However, sexually active unmarried WLHIV (APR = 0.69; 95%CI 0.50-0.95) were less likely to use any contraception compared to their sexually active married counterparts. Importantly, high perceived susceptibility (APR = 1.49; 95%CI 1.20-1.86) and medium perceived susceptibility (APR = 1.55; 95%CI 1.28-1.87) towards unintended pregnancy were associated with higher risk of contraceptive use than WLHIV with low perceived susceptibility. CONCLUSIONS:Although contraceptive use amongst sexually active WLHIV was found to be high, our findings highlight the need for strengthening family planning services given the high rate of unintended pregnancies, the high rate of unmet needs for contraception, as well as the lower efficacy with some of the methods. Our findings also suggest that the HBM would be a valuable framework for healthcare providers, programme planners and policymakers to develop guidelines and policies for contraceptive counselling and choices.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Early marriage and early childbearing are highly prevalent in Niger with 75% of girls married before age 18?years and 42% of girls giving birth between ages 15 and 18?years. In 2012, only 7% of all 15-19-year-old married adolescents (male and female) reported use of a modern contraceptive method with barriers including misinformation, and social norms unsupportive of contraception. To meet the needs of married adolescents and their husbands in Niger, the Reaching Married Adolescents (RMA) program was developed with the goal of improving modern contraceptive method uptake in the Dosso region of Niger. METHODS:Using a four-arm cluster randomized control design, the RMA study seeks to assess whether household visits only (Arm 1), small group discussions only (Arm 2), or a combination of both (Arm 3), as compared to controls (no intervention - Arm 4), improve modern contraceptive method use among married adolescent girls and young women (AGYW), age 13-19?years-old, in three districts of the Dosso region. Intervention conditions were randomly assigned across the three districts, Dosso, Doutchi, and Loga. Within each district, eligible villages were assigned to either that intervention condition or to the control condition (12 intervention and 4 control per district). Across the three intervention conditions, community dialogues regarding modern contraceptive use were also implemented. Data for the study was collected at baseline (April - June 2016), at 24?months post-intervention (April - June 2018), and a final round of data collection will occur at 40?months post-intervention (October - December 2019). DISCUSSION:The RMA intervention is a gender-synchronized and community-based program implemented among married adolescent girls and their husbands in the context of rural Niger. The intervention is designed to provide education about modern contraception and to promote gender equity in order to increase uptake of modern contraceptive methods. Results from this cluster randomized control study will contribute to the knowledge base regarding the utility of male engagement as a strategy within community-level approaches to promote modern contraceptive method use in the high need context of West Africa. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Registered October 2017 - ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03226730.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The rise in contraceptive use has largely been driven by short-acting methods of contraception, despite the high effectiveness of long-acting reversible contraceptives. Several countries in Latin America and the Caribbean have made important progress increasing the use of modern contraceptives, but important inequalities remain. We assessed the prevalence and demand for modern contraceptive use in Latin America and the Caribbean with data from national health surveys. METHODS:Our data sources included demographic and health surveys, multiple indicator cluster surveys, and reproductive health surveys carried out since 2004 in 23 countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. Analyses were based on sexually active women aged 15-49 years irrespective of marital status, except in Argentina and Brazil, where analyses were restricted to women who were married or in a union. We calculated contraceptive prevalence and demand for family planning satisfied. Contraceptive prevalence was defined as the percentage of sexually active women aged 15-49 years who (or whose partners) were using a contraceptive method at the time of the survey. Demand for family planning satisfied was defined as the proportion of women in need of contraception who were using a contraceptive method at the time of the survey. We separated survey data for modern contraceptive use by type of contraception used (long-acting, short-acting, or permanent). We also stratified survey data by wealth, area of residence, education, ethnicity, age, and a combination of wealth and area of residence. Wealth-related absolute and relative inequalities were estimated both for contraceptive prevalence and demand for family planning satisfied. FINDINGS:We report on surveys from 23 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean, analysing a sample of 212?573 women. The lowest modern contraceptive prevalence was observed in Haiti (31·3%) and Bolivia (34·6%); inequalities were wide in Bolivia, but almost non-existent in Haiti. Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, and Paraguay had over 70% of modern contraceptive prevalence with low absolute inequalities. Use of long-acting reversible contraceptives was below 10% in 17 of the 23 countries. Only Cuba, Colombia, Mexico, Ecuador, Paraguay, and Trinidad and Tobago had more than 10% of women adopting long-acting contraceptive methods. Mexico was the only country in which long-acting contraceptive methods were more frequently used than short-acting methods. Young women aged 15-17 years, indigenous women, those in lower wealth quintiles, those living in rural areas, and those without education showed particularly low use of long-acting reversible contraceptives. INTERPRETATION:Long-acting reversible contraceptives are seldom used in Latin America and the Caribbean. Because of their high effectiveness, convenience, and ease of continuation, availability of long-acting reversible contraceptives should be expanded and their use promoted, including among young and nulliparous women. In addition to suitable family planning services, information and counselling should be provided to women on a personal basis. FUNDING:Wellcome Trust, Pan American Health Organization.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:This study aims to examine associations between spousal communication about contraception and ever use of modern contraception, overt modern contraceptive use (with husband's knowledge), and covert modern contraceptive use (without husband's knowledge) among adolescent wives and their husbands in Niger. STUDY DESIGN:Cross-sectional data, from the Reaching Married Adolescents Study, were collected from randomly selected adolescent wives (ages 13-19 years) and their husbands from 48 randomly selected villages in rural Niger (N = 1,020 couples). Logistic regression models assessed associations of couples' reports of spousal communication about contraception with wives' reports of contraception (overall, overt, and covert). RESULTS:About one-fourth of adolescent wives and one-fifth of husbands reported spousal communication about contraception. Results showed couples' reports of spousal communication about contraception were positively associated with ever use of modern contraception. Couples' reports of spousal communication about contraception were negatively associated with covert modern contraceptive use compared to overt use. Wives' reports of spousal communication were marginally associated with covert use compared to no use but husbands' reports were not. CONCLUSION:Among a sample of couples in Niger, spousal communication about contraception was positively associated with modern contraceptive use (compared to no use) and negatively with covert use (compared to overt use) but wives' and husbands' reports showed differential associations with covert use compared to no use. Since there is little understanding of couple communication surrounding covert contraceptive use decisions, research should focus on characterizing content and context of couple communication particularly in cases of disagreement over fertility decisions.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Nonuse of contraceptive methods by women in need of contraception may impact their sexual and reproductive health. The aim of this study was to describe the reasons for nonuse of contraception among women with demand for contraception not satisfied in low and middle-income countries (considering both overall countries and various subgroups of women). METHODS:We used the latest Demographic and Health Survey data from 47 countries. A descriptive analysis of the reasons for nonuse of contraceptive methods was performed among sexually active women with demand for contraception not satisfied. The prevalence of each reported reason was also evaluated according to marital status, woman's age and schooling, area of residence, wealth index, and parity. Wealth-related absolute inequality for each reason was also evaluated using the Slope Index of Inequality. A pro-rich inequality pattern means that the reason is more prevalent among the richest women while a pro-poor means the reason is more common among the poorest ones. RESULTS:On average, 40.9% of women in need of contraception were not using any contraceptive methods to avoid pregnancy. Overall, the most prevalent reasons for nonuse of contraceptives were "health concerns" and "infrequent sex," but the prevalence of each reason varied substantially across countries. Nonuse due to "opposition from others" was higher among married than unmarried women; in turn, the prevalence of nonuse due to "lack of access" or "lack of knowledge" was about two times higher in rural areas than in urban areas. Women with less schooling more often reported nonuse due to "lack of access." Pro-rich inequality was detected for reasons "health concerns," "infrequent sex," and "method-related", while the reasons "other opposed," "fatalistic," "lack of access," and "lack of knowledge" were linked to patterns of pro-poor inequality. CONCLUSIONS:Family planning promotion policies must take into account the different reasons for the nonuse of contraceptive methods identified in each country as well as the contextual differences regarding women of reproductive age (such as social norms and barriers that prevent women from accessing and using contraceptives).
Project description:According to the 2014 World Population Data Sheet, Nigeria has one of the highest fertility and lowest contraceptive prevalence rates around the world. However, research suggests that national contraceptive prevalence rate overshadows enormous spatial variations in reproductive behavior in the country.I examined the variations in women's socioeconomic status and modern contraceptive use across states in Nigeria.Using the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey data (n = 18,910), I estimated the odds of modern contraceptive use among sexually active married and cohabiting women in a series of multilevel logistic regression models.The share of sexually active, married and cohabiting women using modern contraceptives widely varied, from less than one percent in Kano, Yobe, and Jigawa states, to 40 percent in Osun state. Most of the states with low contraceptive prevalence rates also ranked low on women's socioeconomic attributes. Results of multilevel logistic regression analyses showed that women residing in states with greater shares of women with secondary or higher education, higher female labor force participation rates, and more women with health care decision-making power, had significantly higher odds of using modern contraceptives. Differences in women's participation in health care decisions across states remained significantly associated with modern contraceptive use, net of individual-level socioeconomic status and other covariates of modern contraceptive use.Understanding of state variations in contraceptive use is crucial to the design and implementation of family planning programs. The findings reinforce the need for state-specific family planning programs in Nigeria.