Genome mining in Trichoderma viride J1-030: discovery and identification of novel sesquiterpene synthase and its products.
ABSTRACT: Sesquiterpene synthases in Trichoderma viride have been seldom studied, despite the efficiency of filamentous fungi for terpenoid production. Using the farnesyl diphosphate-overexpressing Saccharomyces cerevisiae platform to produce diverse terpenoids, we herein identified an unknown sesquiterpene synthase from T. viride by genome mining and determined the structure of its corresponding products. One new 5/6 bicyclic sesquiterpene and its esterified derivative were characterised by GC-MS and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first well-identified sesquiterpene synthase from T. viride to date.
Project description:Terpene synthases catalyse the first step in the conversion of prenyl diphosphates to terpenoids. They act as templates for their substrates to generate a reactive conformation, from which a Mg2+ -dependent reaction creates a carbocation-PPi ion pair that undergoes a series of rearrangements and (de)protonations to give the final terpene product. This tight conformational control was exploited for the (R)-germacrene?A synthase- and germacradien-4-ol synthase-catalysed formation of a medium-sized cyclic terpenoid ether from substrates containing nucleophilic functional groups. Farnesyl diphosphate analogues with a 10,11-epoxide or an allylic alcohol were efficiently converted to a 11-membered cyclic terpenoid ether that was characterised by HRMS and NMR spectroscopic analyses. Further experiments showed that other sesquiterpene synthases, including aristolochene synthase, ?-cadinene synthase and amorphadiene synthase, yielded this novel terpenoid from the same substrate analogues. This work illustrates the potential of terpene synthases for the efficient generation of structurally and functionally novel medium-sized terpene ethers.
Project description:Most terpenoids have been isolated from plants and fungi and only a few from bacteria. However, an increasing number of genome sequences indicate that bacteria possess a variety of terpenoid cyclase genes. We characterized a sesquiterpene cyclase gene (SGR2079, named gcoA) found in Streptomyces griseus. When expressed in Streptomyces lividans, gcoA directed production of a sesquiterpene, isolated and determined to be (+)-caryolan-1-ol using spectroscopic analyses. (+)-Caryolan-1-ol was also detected in the crude cell lysate of wild-type S. griseus but not in a gcoA knockout mutant, indicating that GcoA is a genuine (+)-caryolan-1-ol synthase. Enzymatic properties were characterized using N-terminally histidine-tagged GcoA, produced in Escherichia coli. As expected, incubation of the recombinant GcoA protein with farnesyl diphosphate yielded (+)-caryolan-1-ol. However, a small amount of another sesquiterpene was also detected. This was identified as the bicyclic sesquiterpene hydrocarbon (+)-?-caryophyllene by comparison with an authentic sample using GC-MS. Incorporation of a deuterium atom into the C-9 methylene of (+)-caryolan-1-ol in an in vitro GcoA reaction in deuterium oxide indicated that (+)-caryolan-1-ol was synthesized by a proton attack on the C-8/C-9 double bond of (+)-?-caryophyllene. Several ?-caryophyllene synthases have been identified from plants, but these cannot synthesize caryolan-1-ol. Although caryolan-1-ol has been isolated previously from several plants, the enzyme responsible for its biosynthesis has not been identified previously. GcoA is thus the first known caryolan-1-ol synthase. Isolation of caryolan-1-ol from microorganisms is unprecedented.
Project description:Terpenoids, the largest class of plant secondary metabolites, play essential roles in both plant and human life. In higher plants, the five-carbon building blocks of all terpenoids, isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate, are derived from two independent pathways localized in different cellular compartments. The methylerythritol phosphate (MEP or nonmevalonate) pathway, localized in the plastids, is thought to provide IPP and dimethylallyl diphosphate for hemiterpene, monoterpene, and diterpene biosynthesis, whereas the cytosol-localized mevalonate pathway provides C5 units for sesquiterpene biosynthesis. Stable isotope-labeled, pathway-specific precursors (1-deoxy-[5,5-2H2]-D-xylulose and [2,2-2H2]-mevalolactone) were supplied to cut snapdragon flowers, which emit both monoterpenes and the sesquiterpene, nerolidol. We show that only one of the two pathways, the plastid-localized MEP pathway, is active in the formation of volatile terpenes. The MEP pathway provides IPP precursors for both plastidial monoterpene and cytosolic sesquiterpene biosynthesis in the epidermis of snapdragon petals. The trafficking of IPP occurs unidirectionally from the plastids to cytosol. The MEP pathway operates in a rhythmic manner controlled by the circadian clock, which determines the rhythmicity of terpenoid emission.
Project description:Polygonum minus is an aromatic plant, which contains high abundance of terpenoids, especially the sesquiterpenes C15H24. Sesquiterpenes were believed to contribute to the many useful biological properties in plants. This study aimed to functionally characterize a full length sesquiterpene synthase gene from P. minus. P. minus sesquiterpene synthase (PmSTS) has a complete open reading frame (ORF) of 1689 base pairs encoding a 562 amino acid protein. Similar to other sesquiterpene synthases, PmSTS has two large domains: the N-terminal domain and the C-terminal metal-binding domain. It also consists of three conserved motifs: the DDXXD, NSE/DTE, and RXR. A three-dimensional protein model for PmSTS built clearly distinguished the two main domains, where conserved motifs were highlighted. We also constructed a phylogenetic tree, which showed that PmSTS belongs to the angiosperm sesquiterpene synthase subfamily Tps-a. To examine the function of PmSTS, we expressed this gene in Arabidopsis thaliana. Two transgenic lines, designated as OE3 and OE7, were further characterized, both molecularly and functionally. The transgenic plants demonstrated smaller basal rosette leaves, shorter and fewer flowering stems, and fewer seeds compared to wild type plants. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the transgenic plants showed that PmSTS was responsible for the production of β -sesquiphellandrene.
Project description:Terpenoids are a diverse group of over 55,000 compounds with potential applications as advanced fuels, bulk and fine chemicals, pharmaceutical ingredients, agricultural chemicals, etc. To facilitate their bio-based production, there is a need for plug-and-play hosts, capable of high-level production of different terpenoids. Here we engineer Yarrowia lipolytica platform strains for the overproduction of mono-, sesqui-, di-, tri-, and tetraterpenoids. The monoterpene platform strain was evaluated by expressing Perilla frutescens limonene synthase, which resulted in limonene titer of 35.9 mg/L and was 100-fold higher than when the same enzyme was expressed in the strain without mevalonate pathway improvement. Expression of Callitropsis nootkatensis valencene synthase in the sesquiterpene platform strain resulted in 113.9 mg/L valencene, an 8.4-fold increase over the control strain. Platform strains for production of squalene, complex triterpenes, or diterpenes and carotenoids were also constructed and resulted in the production of 402.4 mg/L squalene, 22 mg/L 2,3-oxidosqualene, or 164 mg/L ?-carotene, respectively. The presented terpenoid platform strains can facilitate the evaluation of terpenoid biosynthetic pathways and are a convenient starting point for constructing efficient cell factories for the production of various terpenoids. The platform strains and exemplary terpenoid strains can be obtained from Euroscarf.
Project description:Germacrene C was found by GC-MS and NMR analysis to be the most abundant sesquiterpene in the leaf oil of Lycopersicon esculentum cv. VFNT Cherry, with lesser amounts of germacrene A, guaia-6,9-diene, germacrene B, beta-caryophyllene, alpha-humulene, and germacrene D. Soluble enzyme preparations from leaves catalyzed the divalent metal ion-dependent cyclization of [1-3H]farnesyl diphosphate to these same sesquiterpene olefins, as determined by radio-GC. To obtain a germacrene synthase cDNA, a set of degenerate primers was constructed based on conserved amino acid sequences of related terpenoid cyclases. With cDNA prepared from leaf epidermis-enriched mRNA, these primers amplified a 767-bp fragment that was used as a hybridization probe to screen the cDNA library. Thirty-one clones were evaluated for functional expression of terpenoid cyclase activity in Escherichia coli by using labeled geranyl, farnesyl, and geranylgeranyl diphosphates as substrates. Nine cDNA isolates expressed sesquiterpene synthase activity, and GC-MS analysis of the products identified germacrene C with smaller amounts of germacrene A, B, and D. None of the expressed proteins was active with geranylgeranyl diphosphate; however, one truncated protein converted geranyl diphosphate to the monoterpene limonene. The cDNA inserts specify a deduced polypeptide of 548 amino acids (Mr = 64,114), and sequence comparison with other plant sesquiterpene cyclases indicates that germacrene C synthase most closely resembles cotton delta-cadinene synthase (50% identity).
Project description:Plant volatiles emitted by Medicago truncatula in response to feeding larvae of Spodoptera exigua are composed of a complex blend of terpenoids. The cDNAs of three terpene synthases (TPSs), which contribute to the blend of terpenoids, were cloned from M. truncatula. Their functional characterization proved MtTPS1 to be a beta-caryophyllene synthase and MtTPS5 to be a multi-product sesquiterpene synthase. MtTPS3 encodes a bifunctional enzyme producing (E)-nerolidol and geranyllinalool (precursors of C11 and C16 homoterpenes) from different prenyl diphosphates serving as substrates. The addition of jasmonic acid (JA) induced expression of the TPS genes, but terpenoid emission was higher from plants treated with JA and the ethylene precursor 1-amino-cyclopropyl-1-carboxylic acid. Compared to infested wild-type M. truncatula plants, lower amounts of various sesquiterpenes and a C11-homoterpene were released from an ethylene-insensitive mutant skl. This difference coincided with lower transcript levels of MtTPS5 and of 1-deoxy-D: -xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (MtDXS2) in the damaged skl leaves. Moreover, ethephon, an ethylene-releasing compound, modified the extent and mode of the herbivore-stimulated Ca2+ variations in the cytoplasm that is necessary for both JA and terpene biosynthesis. Thus, ethylene contributes to the herbivory-induced terpenoid biosynthesis at least twice: by modulating both early signaling events such as cytoplasmic Ca2+-influx and the downstream JA-dependent biosynthesis of terpenoids.
Project description:The growth of the mould Trichoderma viride on a defined medium containing either potassium d-glucose 6-O-sulphate or potassium d-galactose 6-O-sulphate as sole sources of both carbon and sulphur is marked by the production of an enzyme system capable of liberating inorganic SO(4) (2-) ions from either of the sulphate esters. The enzyme is not produced when the organism is grown with glucose (or galactose) and potassium sulphate or with glucose and methionine as sole sources of carbon and sulphur. Experimental conditions are described whereby inorganic SO(4) (2-) ions liberated from potassium glucose 6-O-sulphate by the growing mould appear in the culture medium after a constant lag period of 21-24hr. The enzyme has been shown to be a simple glycosulphatase that is active towards the 6-O-sulphate esters of d-glucose and d-galactose but not towards potassium glucose 3-O-sulphate. The properties of the crude glycosulphatase show the enzyme to be appreciably different from analogous molluscan enzymes that can degrade monosaccharide sulphate esters.
Project description:Fungal laccases are involved in a variety of physiological functions such as delignification, morphogenesis, and parasitism. In addition to these functions, we suggest that fungal laccases are involved in defense mechanisms. When the laccase secreting Trichoderma viride was grown in the presence of a range of microorganisms including bacteria and fungi, laccase secretion was enhanced in response to antagonistic organisms alone. In addition, growth of antagonistic microbes was restricted by the secreting fungi. Besides, our study for the first time shows the inability of the secreting fungi (T. viride) to compete with antagonistic organism when laccase activity is inhibited, further emphasizing its involvement in rendering a survival advantage to the secreting organism. When laccase inhibitor was added to the media, the zone of inhibition exerted by the antagonist organism was more pronounced and consequently growth of T. viride was significantly restricted. Based on these observations we accentuate that, laccase plays an important role in defense mechanism and provides endurance to the organism when encountered with an antagonistic organism in its surrounding.
Project description:Trichoderma (Ascomycetes, Hypocreales) strains that have warted conidia are traditionally identified as T. viride, the type species of Trichoderma. However, two morphologically distinct types of conidial warts (I and II) have been found. Because each type corresponds to a unique mitochondrial DNA pattern, it has been questioned whether T. viride comprises more than one species. Combined molecular data (sequences of the internal transcribed spacer 1 [ITS-1] and ITS-2 regions and of part of the 28S rRNA gene along with results of restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the endochitinase gene and PCR fingerprinting), morphology, physiology, and colony characteristics distinguish type I and type II as different species. Type I corresponds to "true" T. viride, the anamorph of Hypocrea rufa. Type II represents a new species, T. asperellum, which is, in terms of molecular characteristics, close to the neotype of T. hamatum.