Goniothalamin Induces Necroptosis and Anoikis in Human Invasive Breast Cancer MDA-MB-231 Cells.
ABSTRACT: Goniothalamin (GTN) is toxic to several types of cancer cells in vitro. However, its effects on non-apoptotic cell death induction of human cancer cells have been poorly documented. Here, an investigation of the anti-cancer activity of GTN and the molecular signaling pathways of non-apoptotic cell death in the invasive human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cell line were undertaken. Apoptotic cell death was suppressed by using a pan-caspase inhibitor (Benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-[O-methyl]-fluoromethylketone), z-VAD-fmk) as a model to study whether GTN induced caspase-independent cell death. In the anoikis study, MDA-MB-231 cells were cultured on poly-(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)- or poly-HEMA- coated plates to mimic anoikis-resistance growth and determine whether GTN induced cell death and the mechanisms involved. GTN and z-VAD-fmk induced human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells to undergo necroptosis via endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and oxidative stresses, with increased expressions of necroptotic genes such as rip1, rip3, and mlkl. GTN induced MDA-MB-231 cells to undergo anoikis via reversed epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) protein expressions, inhibited the EGFR/FAK/Src survival signaling pathway, and decreased matrix metalloproteinase secretion.
Project description:Goniothalamin (GTN), a styryl-lactone, exhibits inhibitory effects on many kinds of cancer cells in vitro. The objectives of this study were to investigate the anticancer activities of GTN and molecular signaling pathways associated with cell death in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cell line. GTN inhibited the growth of MDA-MB-231 cells. Apoptosis was confirmed by annexin V-FITC and PI staining, and apoptotic morphology was observed by microscopy. Reduction of mitochondrial transmembrane potential and enhanced caspases activities were found in GTN-treated MDA-MB-231 cells. GTN significantly altered apoptosis-related protein expressions, including Noxa, PUMA, Bax, Bim, Bad, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and DIABLO, which was related to the gene expression levels. Mitochondrial calcium released to the cytosol and ER stress related proteins increased, which correlated with increases in ER stress gene expression levels. GTN induced hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion radicals in MDA-MB-231 cells associated with cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase, which was induced by phosphorylation and ATM gene expression. Moreover, GTN had synergistic effects when combined with cyclophosphamide, 5-fluorouracil, paclitaxel, and vinblastine, and additive effect with methotrexate through caspases enzyme-acceleration. In conclusion, goniothalamin-induced MDA-MB-231 cell apoptosis occurred via intrinsic and extrinsic pathways, along with ER stress. These pathways provide new targeted drug strategies for advancements in anticancer medicine.
Project description:Purpose:This study aimed to validate the synergistic effect of ABT-737 on docetaxel using MDA-MB-231, a triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell line overexpressing B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2). Methods:Western blot analysis was performed to assess expression levels of Bcl-2 family proteins and caspase-related molecules. Cell viability was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Cell cycle distribution was determined by flow cytometry analysis. Benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp(OMe)-fluoromethylketone (z-VAD-fmk) was used for pretreatment to assess the role of caspases. Results:Cell viability of MDA-MB-231 after combination treatment with ABT-737 and docetaxel was significantly lower than that after docetaxel or ABT-737 monotherapy based on MTT assay (both P < 0.001), with a combination index of 0.41. The proportion of sub-G1 population after combination treatment was significantly higher than that after docetaxel or ABT-737 monotherapy (P = 0.001, P = 0.003, respectively). Pretreatment with z-VAD-fmk completely restored cell viability of MDA-MB-231 from apoptotic cell death induced by combination therapy (P = 0.001). Although pro-caspase-8 or Bid did not show significant change in expression level, pro-casepase-9 showed significantly decreased expression after combination treatment. Cleaved caspase-3 showed increased expression while poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage was induced after combination treatment. However, hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 totally lost their expression after combination treatment. Conclusion:Combination of ABT-737 with docetaxel elicits synergistic therapeutic effect on MDA-MB-231, a TNBC cell line overexpressing Bcl-2, mainly by activating the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Therefore, adjunct of ABT-737 to docetaxel might be a new therapeutic option to overcome docetaxel resistance of TNBCs overexpressing Bcl-2.
Project description:Cholesterol in lipid raft plays crucial role on cancer cell survival during metastasis of cancer cells. Cancer cells are reported to enrich cholesterol in lipid raft which make them more susceptible to cell death after cholesterol depletion than normal cells. Methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD), an amphipathic polysaccharide known to deplete the membrane cholesterol, induces cell death selectively in cancer cells. Present work was designed to identify the major form of programmed cell death in membrane cholesterol depleted cancer cells (MDA-MB 231 and 4T1) and its impact on migration efficiency of cancer cells.Membrane cholesterol alteration and morphological changes in 4T1 and MDA-MB 231 cancer cells by MβCD were measured by fluorescent microscopy. Cell death and cell proliferation were observed by PI, AO/EB and MTT assay respectively. Programme cell death was confirmed by flow cytometer. Caspase activation was assessed by MTT and PI after treatments with Z-VAD [OME]-FMK, mitomycin c and cycloheximide. Necroptosis, autophagy, pyroptosis and paraptosis were examined by cell proliferation assay and flow cytometry. Relative quantitation of mRNA of caspase-8, necroptosis and autophagy genes were performed. Migration efficiency of cancer cells were determined by wound healing assay.We found caspase independent cell death in cholesterol depleted MDA-MB 231 cells which was reduced by (3-MA) an autophagy inhibitor. Membrane cholesterol depletion neither induces necroptosis, paraptosis nor pyroptosis in MDA-MB 231 cells. Subsequent activation of caspase-8 after co-incubation of mitomycin c and cycloheximide separately, restored the cell viability in cholesterol depleted MDA-MB 231 cells. Down regulation of caspase-8 mRNA in cholesterol depleted cancer cells ensures that caspase-8 indirectly promotes the induction of autophagy. In another experiment we have demonstrated that membrane cholesterol depletion reduces the migration efficiency in cancer cells.Together our experimental data suggests that membrane cholesterol is the crucial for the recruitment and activation of caspase-8 as well as its non-apoptotic functions in cancer cells. Enriched cholesterol in lipid raft of cancer cells may be regulating the cross talk between caspase-8 and autophagy machineries to promote their survival and migration. Therefore it can be explored to understand and address the issues of chemotherapeutic and drugs resistance.
Project description:Metadherin (MTDH), the newly discovered gene, is overexpressed in more than 40% of breast cancers. Recent studies have revealed that MTDH favors an oncogenic course and chemoresistance. With a number of breast cancer cell lines and breast tumor samples, we found that the relative expression of MTDH correlated with tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) sensitivity in breast cancer. In this study, we found that knockdown of endogenous MTDH cells sensitized the MDA-MB-231 cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. Conversely, stable overexpression of MTDH in MCF-7 cells enhanced cell survival with TRAIL treatment. Mechanically, MTDH down-regulated caspase-8, decreased caspase-8 recruitment into the TRAIL death-inducing signaling complex, decreased caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-2 processing, increased Bcl-2 expression, and stimulated TRAIL-induced Akt phosphorylation, without altering death receptor status. In MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, sensitization to TRAIL upon MTDH down-regulation was inhibited by the caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk (benzyloxycarbonyl-VAD-fluoromethyl ketone), suggesting that MTDH depletion stimulates activation of caspases. In MCF-7 breast cancer cells, resistance to TRAIL upon MTDH overexpression was abrogated by depletion of Bcl-2, suggesting that MTDH-induced Bcl-2 expression contributes to TRAIL resistance. We further confirmed that MTDH may control Bcl-2 expression partly by suppressing miR-16. Collectively, our results point to a protective function of MTDH against TRAIL-induced death, whereby it inhibits the intrinsic apoptosis pathway through miR-16-mediated Bcl-2 up-regulation and the extrinsic apoptosis pathway through caspase-8 down-regulation.
Project description:Triple naegative breast cancer has an increased rate of distant metastasis and consequently poor prognosis. To metastasize, breast cancer cells must detach from the main tumour mass and resist anoikis, a programmed cell death induced by lack of cell-extracellular matrix communication. Although cancer cells must detach to metastasize in vivo, the viability of floating cancer cells in vitro is rarely investigated. Here we show that co-treatment of anoikis-resistant MDA-MB-231 cells with metformin and 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) increased the percentage of floating cells, of which about 95% were viable. Floating cells resumed their proliferation once they were reseeded in the pharmacological compound-free medium. Similar effects on detachment were observed on anoikis-prone MCF-7 cells. Co-treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells with metformin and 2-DG induced a strong activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which was reduced by AMPK inhibitor compound C that prevented detachment of MDA-MB-231 cells. However, direct AMPK activators A-769662 and AICAR did not have any major effect on the percentage of floating MDA-MB-231 cells, indicating that AMPK activation is necessary but not sufficient for triggering detachment of cancer cells. Our results demonstrate that separate analysis of floating and attached cancer cells might be important for evaluation of anti-cancer agents.
Project description:Hypoxia (lack of oxygen) is a physiological stress often associated with solid tumors. Hypoxia correlates with poor prognosis since hypoxic regions within tumors are considered apoptosisresistant. Autophagy (cellular "self digestion") has been associated with hypoxia during cardiac ischemia and metabolic stress as a survival mechanism. However, although autophagy is best characterized as a survival response, it can also function as a mechanism of programmed cell death. Our results show that autophagic cell death is induced by hypoxia in cancer cells with intact apoptotic machinery. We have analyzed two glioma cell lines (U87, U373), two breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231, ZR75) and one embryonic cell line (HEK293) for cell death response in hypoxia (<1% O(2)). Under normoxic conditions, all five cell lines undergo etoposide-induced apoptosis whereas hypoxia fails to induce these apoptotic responses. All five cell lines induce an autophagic response and undergo cell death in hypoxia. Hypoxia-induced cell death was reduced upon treatment with the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine, but not with the caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk. By knocking down the autophagy proteins Beclin-1 or ATG5, hypoxia-induced cell death was also reduced. The pro-cell death Bcl-2 family member BNIP3 (Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B 19kDainteracting protein 3) is upregulated during hypoxia and is known to induce autophagy and cell death. We found that BNIP3 overexpression induced autophagy, while expression of BNIP3 siRNA or a dominant-negative form of BNIP3 reduced hypoxia-induced autophagy. Taken together, these results suggest that prolonged hypoxia induces autophagic cell death in apoptosis-competent cells, through a mechanism involving BNIP3.
Project description:The KIAA0100 gene was identified in the human immature myeloid cell line cDNA library. Recent studies have shown that its expression is elevated in breast cancer and associated with more aggressive cancer types as well as poor outcomes. However, its cellular and molecular function is yet to be understood. Here we show that silencing KIAA0100 by siRNA in the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 significantly reduced the cancer cells' aggressive behavior, including cell aggregation, reattachment, cell metastasis and invasion. Most importantly, silencing the expression of KIAA0100 particularly sensitized the quiescent cancer cells in suspension culture to anoikis. Immunoprecipitation, mass spectrometry and immunofluorescence analysis revealed that KIAA0100 may play multiple roles in the cancer cells, including stabilizing microtubule structure as a microtubule binding protein, and contributing to MDA-MB-231 cells Anoikis resistance by the interaction with stress protein HSPA1A. Our study also implies that the interaction between KIAA0100 and HSPA1A may be targeted for new drug development to specifically induce anoikis cell death in the cancer cell.
Project description:Physagulide P (PP), a new natural compound, was isolated from Physalis angulate L. in our laboratory. In this study, we demonstrated that PP potently suppressed cell proliferation by inducing G2/M phase arrest in MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells. Moreover, PP provoked apoptosis by decreasing the mitochondrial membrane potential and elevating the Bax/Bcl-2 protein expression ratio. The caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK partly restore cell viability, suggesting that apoptosis plays as an important role in the anti-proliferative effect of PP. PP-treated cells also underwent autophagy, as evidenced by the formation of autophagosomes and the accumulation of LC3BII. Furthermore, the knockdown of LC3B reduced PP-induced cytotoxicity, indicating that autophagy played an anticancer effect. PP also induced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and resulted in c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) activation. Accordingly, JNK siRNA significantly attenuated PP-triggered apoptosis and autophagy, and ROS scavengers almost completely reverse this apoptosis and autophagy. The ROS scavenger also blocked PP-induced G2/M phase arrest and the phosphorylation of JNK. Our results revealed that PP induced G2/M phase arrest, apoptosis and autophagy via the ROS/JNK signaling pathway in MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells. Therefore, PP is a promising candidate for the development of antitumor drugs for the treatment of triple-negative breast cancer.
Project description:Berberine is reported to have multiple biological effects, including antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor activities, and 13-alkyl-substituted berberines show higher activity than berberine against certain bacterial species and human cancer cell lines. In particular, 13-ethylberberine (13-EBR) was reported to have anti-inflammatory effects in endotoxin-activated macrophage and septic mouse models. Thus, in this study, we aimed to examine the anticancer effects of 13-EBR and its mechanisms in radiotherapy-resistant (RT-R) MDA-MB-231 cells derived from the highly metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells. When we compared the gene expression between MDA-MB-231 and RT-R MDA-MB-231 cells with an RNA microarray, RT-R MDA-MB-231 showed higher levels of anti-apoptotic genes and lower levels of pro-apoptotic genes compared to MDA-MB-231 cells. Accordingly, we examined the effect of 13-EBR on the induction of apoptosis in RT-R MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-231 cells. The results showed that 13-EBR reduced the proliferation and colony-forming ability of both MDA-MB-231 and RT-R MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, 13-EBR induced apoptosis by promoting both intracellular and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) and by regulating the apoptosis-related proteins involved in the intrinsic pathway, not in the extrinsic pathway. These results suggest that 13-EBR has pro-apoptotic effects in RT-R MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-231 cells by inducing mitochondrial ROS production and activating the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, providing useful insights into new potential therapeutic strategies for RT-R breast cancer treatment.
Project description:Tricyclic amides were successfully synthesised from ?-caryophyllene via the Ritter reaction. Amides 3c and 6b inhibited proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells. Compound 6b inhibited cell cycle progression and induced predominantly apoptotic cell death. A library of novel tricyclic amides has been synthesised via the Ritter reaction from ?-caryophyllene 1 and its monoepoxy derivative 4. The compounds were assessed for antiproliferative activities against the aggressive MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line. Of the synthesised compounds, eight were active. 3c and 6b were the most potent and inhibited proliferation with IC50 of 9.7 and 8.2 ?M, respectively. Mechanistic studies revealed differences in their antiproliferative actions. 6b inhibited cell cycle progression and induced predominantly apoptotic cell death. In contrast, 3c did not affect cell cycle kinetics and favoured necrotic over apoptotic pathways. Screening against mammalian cells (VERO cells) indicates that 3c and 6b were more active towards MDA-MB-231 cells than noncancerous cells. Facile synthesis and biological results suggest that these caryophyllene derived amides are viable lead compounds for further development.