Clinical Relevance of Collagen Protein Degradation Markers C3M and C4M in the Serum of Breast Cancer Patients Treated with Neoadjuvant Therapy in the GeparQuinto Trial.
ABSTRACT: Background: Remodeling of extracellular matrix through collagen degradation is a crucial step in the metastatic cascade. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential clinical relevance of the serum collagen degradation markers (CDM) C3M and C4M during neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. Methods: Patients from the GeparQuinto phase 3 trial with untreated HER2-positive operable or locally advanced breast cancer were enrolled between 7 November 2007, and 9 July 2010, and randomly assigned to receive neoadjuvant treatment with EC/docetaxel with either trastuzumab or lapatinib. Blood samples were collected at baseline, after four cycles of chemotherapy and at surgery. Cutoff values were determined using validated cutoff finder software (C3M: Low ?9.00 ng/mL, high >9.00 ng/mL, C4M: Low ?40.91 ng/mL, high >40.91 ng/mL). Results: 157 patients were included in this analysis. At baseline, 11.7% and 14.8% of patients had high C3M and C4M serum levels, respectively. No correlation was observed between CDM and classical clinical-pathological factors. Patients with high levels of CDM were significantly more likely to achieve a pathological complete response (pCR, defined as ypT0 ypN0) than patients with low levels (C3M: 66.7% vs. 25.7%, p = 0.002; C4M: 52.7% vs. 26.6%, p = 0.031). Median levels of both markers were lower at the time of surgery than at baseline. In the multivariate analysis including clinical-pathological factors and C3M levels at baseline and changes in C3M levels between baseline and after four cycles of therapy, only C3M levels at baseline (p = 0.035, OR 4.469, 95%-CI 1.115-17.919) independently predicted pCR. In a similar model including clinical-pathological factors and C4M, only C4M levels at baseline (p = 0.028, OR 6.203, 95%-CI 1.220-31.546) and tumor size (p = 0.035, OR 4.900, 95%-CI 1.122-21.393) were independent predictors of pCR. High C3M levels at baseline did not correlate with survival in the entire cohort but were associated with worse disease-free survival (DFS; p = 0.029, 5-year DFS 40.0% vs. 74.9%) and overall survival (OS; p = 0.020, 5-year OS 60.0% vs. 88.3%) in the subgroup of patients randomized to lapatinib. In the trastuzumab arm, C3M did not correlate with survival. In the entire patient cohort, high levels of C4M at baseline were significantly associated with shorter DFS (p = 0.001, 5-year DFS 53.1% vs. 81.6%) but not with OS. When treatment arms were considered separately, the association with DFS was still significant (p = 0.014, 5-year DFS 44.4% vs. 77.0% in the lapatinib arm; p = 0.023, 5-year DFS 62.5% vs. 86.2% in the trastuzumab arm). Conclusions: Collagen degradation markers are associated with response to neoadjuvant therapy and seem to play a role in breast cancer.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Excessive extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and a reactive stroma can affect T-cell infiltration and T-cell activity in the tumor and hereby influence response to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI). In the pursuit of finding biomarkers that predict treatment response, we evaluated the association between serum biomarkers of collagen and vimentin turnover and outcomes in metastatic melanoma patients treated with the anti-CTLA-4 antibody ipilimumab (IPI). METHODS:Type III collagen formation (PRO-C3), MMP-degraded type I, type III and type IV collagens (C1M, C3M and C4M), and citrullinated and MMP-degraded vimentin (VICM) were measured with ELISAs in serum from metastatic melanoma patients before (n = 66) and 3 weeks after (n = 52) initiation of IPI treatment. Biomarker levels were associated with Disease Control Rate (DCR) and survival outcomes. RESULTS:We found that baseline levels of PRO-C3 (p = 0.011), C1M (p = 0.003), C3M (p = 0.013) and C4M (p = 0.027) were significantly elevated in patients with progressive disease (PD). Univariate Cox regression analysis identified high PRO-C3 (p = 0.021) and C4M (p = 0.008) as predictors of poor overall survival (OS) and the biomarkers remained significant when evaluated with other covariates (PRO-C3 (p = 0.049) and C4M (p = 0.046)). Multivariate analysis identified VICM as a predictor of longer OS (p = 0.026). Similarly, a high C3M/PRO-C3 ratio predicted for increased OS (p = 0.034). Only C3M (p = 0.003) and VICM (p < 0.0001) increased 3 weeks after treatment. CONCLUSIONS:ECM and tissue remodeling quantified in pre-treatment serum were associated with response and survival outcomes in metastatic melanoma patients treated with IPI. This highlights the importance of addressing the ECM and stromal component non-invasively in future ICI studies.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy is effective in inducing remission in Crohn's disease in 60% of patients. No serological biomarkers are available, which can predict response to anti-TNF. We aimed to investigate serological markers of collagen turnover reflecting tissue inflammation as predictors of response to anti-TNF. METHODS:In 2 retrospective observational cohorts, markers for matrix metalloproteinase-degraded type III and IV collagens (C3M and C4M, respectively) and for formation of type III and IV collagens (PRO-C3 and PRO-C4, respectively) were measured in serum and compared with standard C-reactive protein in patients with active Crohn's disease who started infliximab (IFX, n = 21) or adalimumab (ADA, n = 21). Disease activity was classified by the Harvey-Bradshaw index (active disease ?5); response was defined as clinical remission. RESULTS:Seventeen patients (81%) treated with IFX were in remission at week 14; 15 patients (71%) treated with ADA were in remission at week 8. Serum C4M at baseline was increased in nonresponders compared with responders (IFX: 35.0 ± 2.4 vs 23.2 ± 2.6, P = 0.04, ADA: 53.0 ± 3.2 vs 34.1 ± 2.8, P = 0.006). C4M levels at baseline predicted response in both cohorts (IFX: odds ratio 39 [95% confidence interval, 2.4-523.9] P = 0.02, cutoff 35.2 nmol/L; ADA: odds ratio 26 [95% confidence interval, 1.8-332.5], P = 0.01, cutoff 46.9 nmol/L). C-reactive protein was not able to predict response to anti-TNF. DISCUSSION:Response to anti-TNF therapy within the first 14 weeks of treatment can be predicted based on baseline levels of basement membrane marker C4M. This marker could be used as biomarker for response to anti-TNF and could aid in early therapy decision making. Validation in larger well-defined cohorts is needed.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Tissue released blood-based biomarkers can provide insight into drug mode of action and response. To understand the changes in extracellular matrix turnover, we analyzed biomarkers associated with joint tissue turnover from a phase 3, randomized, placebo-controlled study of baricitinib in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS:Serum biomarkers associated with synovial inflammation (C1M, C3M, and C4M), cartilage degradation (C2M), bone resorption (CTX-I), and bone formation (osteocalcin) were analyzed at baseline, and weeks 4 and 12, from a subgroup of patients (n =?240) randomized to placebo or 2-mg or 4-mg baricitinib (RA-BUILD, NCT01721057). Mixed-model repeated measure was used to identify biomarkers altered by baricitinib. The relationship between changes in biomarkers and clinical measures was evaluated using correlation analysis. RESULTS:Treatment arms were well balanced for baseline biomarkers, demographics, and disease activity. At week 4, baricitinib 4-mg significantly reduced C1M from baseline by 21% compared to placebo (p <?0.01); suppression was sustained at week 12 (27%, p <?0.001). Baricitinib 4-mg reduced C3M and C4M at week 4 by 14% and 12% compared to placebo, respectively (p <?0.001); they remained reduced by 16% and 11% at week 12 (p <?0.001). In a pooled analysis including all treatment arms, patients with the largest reduction (upper 25% quartile) in C1M, C3M, and C4M by week 12 had significantly greater clinical improvement in the Simplified Disease Activity Index at week 12 compared to patients with the smallest reduction (lowest 25% quartile). CONCLUSION:Baricitinib treatment resulted in reduced circulating biomarkers associated with joint tissue destruction as well as concomitant RA clinical improvement. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01721057 ; date of registration: November 1, 2012.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is characterized by excessive fibrosis throughout the body. This leads to the release of extracellular matrix (ECM) fragments into circulation, where they may be quantified as biomarkers. The objectives were to investigate levels of ECM turnover biomarkers and the diagnostic power of these. METHODS:Diffuse SSc patients (n = 40) fulfilling the ACR/EULAR 2013 classification criteria and asymptomatic controls were included. Patients were divided into early (<2 years of symptoms; n = 20) and late (>10 years of symptoms; n = 20) diffuse SSc. Biomarkers of type I (C1M), III (C3A, C3M), IV (C4M), V (C5M) and VI (C6M) collagen degradation and type I (PRO-C1), II (PRO-C2), III (PRO-C3), IV (PRO-C4), V (PRO-C5) and VI (PRO-C6) collagen formation were measured in serum. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to test for differences in biomarker levels and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to investigate the ability of the biomarkers to separate groups. RESULTS:In early diffuse SSc, formation biomarkers of type III, IV, V and VI collagen were significantly increased compared to asymptomatic controls (p<0.0001). Moreover, in early diffuse SSc formation biomarkers of type III, V and VI collagen were significantly increased compared to late diffuse SSc (p = 0.0006, 0.003 and 0.004, respectively). Type I (p<0.0001), III (C3M: p = 0.001, and C3A: p = 0.02), IV (p<0.0001) and VI (p<0.0001) collagen degradation biomarkers significantly increased in early diffuse SSc compared to controls. C4M, C6M, PRO-C4, PRO-C5 and PRO-C6 had an AUC of >0.85 when assessing asymptomatic controls vs. diffuse SSc. Biomarkers of type VI collagen (PRO-C6 and C6M) turnover had the best separation with an AUC's of >0.90. CONCLUSION:Formation biomarkers of ECM turnover were shown to be significantly different between asymptomatic controls and diffuse SSc. This pilot study suggest that serological biomarkers of the ECM turnover is potentially applicable in SSc.
Project description:BACKGROUND: We were able to demonstrate a predictive value of serum HER2 (sHER2) in patients receiving trastuzumab in the neoadjuvant GeparQuattro trial. However, the role of sHER2 in patients receiving neoadjuvant therapy (NT) with lapatinib is still unclear. METHODS: The neoadjuvant GeparQuinto trial compared trastuzumab vs lapatinib in addition to chemotherapy in HER2-positive primary breast cancer patients. The sHER2 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay in 210 patients, of whom 109 (52%) patients received trastuzumab and 101 (48%) lapatinib at three different time points. RESULTS: Twenty-two percent of patients had elevated baseline sHER2 levels (>15?ng?ml?¹). A decrease of sHER2 levels (>20%) in the trastuzumab and lapatinib-treated group during NT was seen in 44% and 24% of the patients, an increase of sHER2 levels (>20%) was seen in 6% and 41% of patients, respectively. Higher pre-chemotherapy sHER2 levels were associated with higher pathological complete remission (pCR) rates in the entire study cohort (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.02-3.2, P=0.043). A decline of sHER2 levels (>20%) during NT was a predictor for pCR in the lapatinib-treated patient group (OR: 11.7, 95% CI 1.3-110, P=0.031). CONCLUSION: Results of this study demonstrate that sHER2 levels change differently during NT depending on the anti-HER2 treatment strategy. Elevated baseline sHER2 levels (>15?ng?ml?¹) and a decrease of sHER2 levels (>20%) early after therapy initiation are both relevant criteria to predict response to lapatinib-based treatment.
Project description:Local inflammation in axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) leads to the release of collagen metabolites from the disease-affected tissue. We investigated whether collagen metabolites were associated with disease activity and could distinguish non-radiographic(nr)-axSpA from ankylosing spondylitis (AS). A total of 193 axSpA patients (nr-axSpA, n?=?121 and AS, n?=?72) and asymptomatic controls (n?=?100) were included. Serum levels of metalloproteinase (MMP)-degraded collagen type I (C1M), type II (C2M), type III (C3M) and type IV (C4M2) were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All metabolites were higher in axSpA than in controls (all p?<?0.001). Serum levels of C1M, C3M, and C4M2 were increased in AS compared to nr-axSpA (43.4?ng/mL vs. 34.6; p?<?0.001, 15.4 vs. 12.8; p?=?0.001, and 27.8 vs. 22.4; p?<?0.001). The best metabolite to differentiate between axSpA and controls was C3M (AUC 0.95; specificity 92.0, sensitivity 83.4). C1M correlated with ASDAS-CRP in nr-axSpA (??=?0.37; p?<?0.001) and AS (??=?0.57; p?<?0.001). C1M, C3M, and C4M2 were associated with ASDAS-CRP in AS and nr-axSpA after adjustment for age, gender, and disease duration. Serum levels of collagen metabolites were significantly higher in AS and nr-axSpA than in controls. Moreover, the present study indicates that collagen metabolites reflect disease activity and are useful biomarkers of axSpA.
Project description:Patients with end-stage liver disease develop acute decompensation (AD) episodes, which become more frequent and might develop into acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). However, it remains unknown how AD induces acceleration of liver disease. We hypothesized that remodeling of collagen type III plays a role in the acceleration of liver cirrhosis after AD and analyzed its formation (Pro-C3) and degradation (matrix metalloproteinase-degraded type III collagen [C3M]) markers in animal models and human disease. Bile duct ligation induced different stages of liver fibrosis in rats. Fibrosis development (hydroxyprolin content, sirius red staining, ?-smooth muscle actin immunohistochemistry, messenger RNA of profibrotic cytokines), necroinflammation (aminotransferases levels), fibrolysis (matrix metalloproteinase 2 expression and activity, C1M, C4M), and Pro-C3 and C3M were analyzed 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 weeks after bile duct ligation (n = 5 each group). In 110 patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis who underwent a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt procedure for AD, clinical and laboratory parameters as well as Pro-C3 and C3M were measured in blood samples from portal and hepatic veins and were collected just before the transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt placement and 1-3 weeks later. Animal studies showed increased markers of collagen type III deposition with fibrosis, necroinflammation, and decompensation of liver cirrhosis, defined as ascites development. Higher Pro-C3 levels were associated with injury, disease severity scores (Model for End-Stage Liver Disease, Child-Pugh, chronic liver failure-C AD), ACLF development, and mortality. C3M decreased with AD and the chronic liver failure-C AD score. Collagen type III deposition ratio increased with the risk of ACLF development and mortality. Conclusion: We show for the first time that AD boosts collagen type III deposition in experimental and human cirrhosis, possibly contributing to the worsened outcome in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. (Hepatology Communications 2018;2:211-222).
Project description:Background:Biomarkers of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity typically measure inflammation or autoimmunity (e.g. CRP, RF). C1M and C3M, metabolites of type I and III collagen, are markers reflecting tissue metabolism. These markers have been documented to provide additional prognostic and predictive value compared to commonly used biomarkers. We investigated the relationship of high serum levels of C1M or C3M to radiographic progression, and benchmarked them to CRP and RF. Methods:Placebo treated patients of the OSK1, 2 and 3 studies (Phase III clinical trials testing efficacy of fostamatinib) with baseline serum biomarkers C1M, C3M, CRP and RF were included (nBL = 474). Van der Heijde mTSS was calculated at baseline and 24-week (n24 = 261). Progression was defined as moderate or rapid by ΔmTSS ≥0.5 or ≥ 5 units/year. Patients were divided into subgroups; low (L), high (H) or very high (V) C1M, C3M and CRP, or RF negative, positive and high positive. Difference in clinical parameters were analyzed by Mann-Whitney or χ2tests, and modelling for prediction of progression by logistic regression including covariates (age, gender, BMI, and clinical assessment scores). Results:Levels of C1M, C3M, CRP and RF were significantly (p < 0.05) associated with measures of disease activity and mTSS at baseline. For prognostic measures, there were 2.5 and 4-fold as many rapid progressors in the C1MH and CRPH (p < 0.05), and in the C1MV and CRPV groups (p < 0.001) compared C1ML and CRPL, respectively. C1M and CRP performed similarly in the predictive analysis, where high levels predicted moderate and rapid progression with odds ratio of 2.1 to 3.8 and 3.7 to 13.1 after adjustment for covariates. C3M and RF did not provide prognostic value alone. Discussion:Serum C1M and CRP showed prognostic value and may be tools for enrichment of clinical trials with structural progressor. The two markers reflect two different aspect of disease pathogenesis (tissue turnover vs. inflammation), thus may provide individual and supplementary information.
Project description:Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients have poor prognosis and poor response to treatment. This is largely due to PDAC being associated with a dense and active stroma and tumor fibrosis (desmoplasia). Desmoplasia is characterized by excessive degradation and formation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) generating collagen fragments that are released into circulation. We evaluated the association of specific collagen fragments measured in pre-treatment serum with outcome in patients with PDAC. Matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-degraded type I collagen (C1M), type III collagen (C3M), type IV collagen (C4M) and a pro-peptide of type III collagen (PRO-C3) were measured by ELISA in pre-treatment serum from a randomized phase 3 clinical trial of patients with stage III/IV PDAC treated with 5-fluorouracil based therapy (n?=?176). The collagen fragments were evaluated for their correlation (r, Spearman) with serum CA19-9 and for their association with overall survival (OS) based on Cox-regression analyses. In this phase 3 PDAC trial, pre-treatment serum collagen fragment levels were above the reference range for 67%-98% of patients, with median values in PDAC approximately two-fold higher than reference levels. Collagen fragment levels did not correlate with CA19-9 (r?=?0.049-0.141, p?=?ns). On a continuous basis, higher levels of all collagen fragments were associated with significantly shorter OS. When evaluating degradation (C3M) and formation (PRO-C3) of type III collagen further, higher PRO-C3 was associated with poor OS (>25th percentile cut-point, HR?=?2.01, 95%CI?=?1.33-3.05) and higher C3M/PRO-C3 ratio was associated with improved OS (>25th percentile cut-point, HR?=?0.53, 95%CI?=?0.34-0.80). When adjusting for CA19-9 and clinical covariates, PRO-C3 remained significant (HR?=?1.65, 95%CI?=?1.09-2.48). In conclusion, collagen remodeling quantified in pre-treatment serum as a surrogate measure of desmoplasia was significantly associated with OS in a phase 3 clinical PDAC trial, supporting the link between desmoplasia, tumorigenesis, and response to treatment. If validated, these biomarkers may have prognostic and/or predictive potential in future PDAC trials.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Macrophages play a significant role in chronic liver disease as reflected by elevated soluble (s)CD163 and mannose receptor (sMR) levels and associated with liver disease severity and prognosis. Extracellular matrix remodelling associated with fibrogenesis may be affected by systemic inflammation induced by bacterial translocation. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effect of rifaximin-?, an antibiotic with effect on gut bacteria, on sCD163, sMR, and collagen metabolites. METHODS:Fifty-four clinically stable patients with decompensated cirrhosis were randomized to 4 weeks treatment with rifaximin-? (n = 36) or placebo (n = 18). Macrophage markers sCD163, sMR and markers of collagen fibrogenesis (C3M and C4M) and formation (PRO-C3 and P4NPS7) were analysed in plasma before and after treatment. RESULTS:sCD163 and sMR levels were associated with liver disease severity (MELD score, sCD163 rho = 0.47, p<0.001 and sMR rho = 0.37, p = 0.005). There was no effect of Rifaximin-? on sCD163 levels (median (range) sCD163 5.64(2.02 to 10.8) at baseline versus 4.42(1.98 to 8.92) at follow-up in the rifaximin-? group and 4.85 (2.29 to 12.1) at baseline versus 4.32 (1.98 to 12.4) at follow-up in the placebo-group), p = 0.34); nor sMR levels, p = 0.34. Also in patients with elevated lipopolysaccharide binding protein (> 5.9 ?g/ml, 38 patients) there was no effect of rifaximin-? on sCD163 (p = 0.49) or sMR levels (p = 0.32). CONCLUSION:We confirmed that macrophage activation markers sCD163 and sMR are directly associated to liver disease severity (MELD score). However, rifaximin-? has no effect on sCD163, sMR or collagen markers in decompensated cirrhosis and does therefore not seem to interfere with macrophage activation or fibrogenesis.