Connecting the Dots in the Neuroglobin-Protein Interaction Network of an Unstressed and Ferroptotic Cell Death Neuroblastoma Model.
ABSTRACT: Neuroglobin is a heme protein of which increased levels provide neuroprotection against amyloid proteinopathy and hemorrhagic damage. These cellular stressors involve the promotion of ferroptosis-an iron-dependent, lipid peroxide-accreting form of cell death. Hence, we questioned whether neuroglobin could oppose ferroptosis initiation. We detected human neuroglobin (hNgb)-EGFP-expressing SH-SY5Y cells to be significantly more resistant to ferroptosis induction, identifying 0.68-fold less cell death. To elucidate the underlying pathways, this study investigated hNgb-protein interactions with a Co-IP-MS/MS approach both under a physiological and a ferroptotic condition. hNgb binds to proteins of the cellular iron metabolism (e.g., RPL15 and PCBP3) in an unstressed condition and shows an elevated binding ratio towards cell death-linked proteins, such as HNRNPA3, FAM120A, and ABRAXAS2, under ferroptotic stress. Our data also reveal a constitutive interaction between hNgb and the longevity-associated heterodimer XRCC5/XRCC6. Disentangling the involvement of hNgb and its binding partners in cellular processes, using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, resulted in the integration of hNgb in the ubiquitination pathway, mTOR signaling, 14-3-3-mediated signaling, and the glycolysis cascade. We also detected a previously unknown strong link with motor neuropathies. Hence, this study contributes to the elucidation of neuroglobin's involvement in cellular mechanisms that provide neuroprotection and the upkeep of homeostasis.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Traumatic brain injury triggers multiple cell death pathways, possibly including ferroptosis-a recently described cell death pathway that results from accumulation of 15-lipoxygenase-mediated lipid oxidation products, specifically oxidized phosphatidylethanolamine containing arachidonic or adrenic acid. This study aimed to investigate whether ferroptosis contributed to the pathogenesis of in vitro and in vivo traumatic brain injury, and whether inhibition of 15-lipoxygenase provided neuroprotection. DESIGN:Cell culture study and randomized controlled animal study. SETTING:University research laboratory. SUBJECTS:HT22 neuronal cell line and adult male C57BL/6 mice. INTERVENTIONS:HT22 cells were subjected to pharmacologic induction of ferroptosis or mechanical stretch injury with and without administration of inhibitors of ferroptosis. Mice were subjected to sham or controlled cortical impact injury. Injured mice were randomized to receive vehicle or baicalein (12/15-lipoxygenase inhibitor) at 10-15 minutes postinjury. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:Pharmacologic inducers of ferroptosis and mechanical stretch injury resulted in cell death that was rescued by prototypical antiferroptotic agents including baicalein. Liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry revealed the abundance of arachidonic/adrenic-phosphatidylethanolamine compared with other arachidonic/adrenic acid-containing phospholipids in the brain. Controlled cortical impact resulted in accumulation of oxidized phosphatidylethanolamine, increased expression of 15-lipoxygenase and acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 4 (enzyme that generates substrate for the esterification of arachidonic/adrenic acid into phosphatidylethanolamine), and depletion of glutathione in the ipsilateral cortex. Postinjury administration of baicalein attenuated oxidation of arachidonic/adrenic acid-containing-phosphatidylethanolamine, decreased the number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling positive cells in the hippocampus, and improved spatial memory acquisition versus vehicle. CONCLUSIONS:Biomarkers of ferroptotic death were increased after traumatic brain injury. Baicalein decreased ferroptotic phosphatidylethanolamine oxidation and improved outcome after controlled cortical impact, suggesting that 15-lipoxygenase pathway might be a valuable therapeutic target after traumatic brain injury.
Project description:Ferroptosis is an iron-dependent form of regulated necrosis. It is implicated in various human diseases, including ischemic organ damage and cancer. Here, we report the crucial role of autophagy, particularly autophagic degradation of cellular iron storage proteins (a process known as ferritinophagy), in ferroptosis. Using RNAi screening coupled with subsequent genetic analysis, we identified multiple autophagy-related genes as positive regulators of ferroptosis. Ferroptosis induction led to autophagy activation and consequent degradation of ferritin and ferritinophagy cargo receptor NCOA4. Consistently, inhibition of ferritinophagy by blockage of autophagy or knockdown of NCOA4 abrogated the accumulation of ferroptosis-associated cellular labile iron and reactive oxygen species, as well as eventual ferroptotic cell death. Therefore, ferroptosis is an autophagic cell death process, and NCOA4-mediated ferritinophagy supports ferroptosis by controlling cellular iron homeostasis.
Project description:The classical view of cell death has long assumed that, once initiated, the dying process is irreversible. However, recent studies reveal that recovery of dying cells can actually occur, even after initiation of a cell suicide process called apoptosis. This discovery raised fundamental key questions about which forms of the cell death process could be reversible and how reversal is mediated. Here, we uncover an unanticipated reversibility of ferroptotic cell death process. Unlike apoptosis reversal, removal of ferroptosis inducers, such as erastin and glutamate, is insufficient to allow ferroptotic dying cells to escape the cell death process. However, by removing the cell death inducer and providing the reduced form of glutathione or the radical-trapping antioxidant ferrostatin-1, ferroptotic dying cells can be rescued and promoted to recover. Interestingly, although ferroptotic inhibitors such as aminooxyacetic acid, deferoxamine, dopamine and vitamin C can prevent initiation of ferroptosis, added alone they are unable to reverse the initiated ferroptosis, suggesting regulatory distinctions between preventing and reversing ferroptosis. Together, these results reveal the first evidence that ferroptosis is reversible and suggest strategies to enhance its reversibility, thereby providing a useful model for studying the physiological, pathological and therapeutic potentials of this cell recovery process.
Project description:Energy stress depletes ATP and induces cell death. Here we identify an unexpected inhibitory role of energy stress on ferroptosis, a form of regulated cell death induced by iron-dependent lipid peroxidation. We found that ferroptotic cell death and lipid peroxidation can be inhibited by treatments that induce or mimic energy stress. Inactivation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a sensor of cellular energy status, largely abolishes the protective effects of energy stress on ferroptosis in vitro and on ferroptosis-associated renal ischaemia-reperfusion injury in vivo. Cancer cells with high basal AMPK activation are resistant to ferroptosis and AMPK inactivation sensitizes these cells to ferroptosis. Functional and lipidomic analyses further link AMPK regulation of ferroptosis to AMPK-mediated phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis. Our study demonstrates that energy stress inhibits ferroptosis partly through AMPK and reveals an unexpected coupling between ferroptosis and AMPK-mediated energy-stress signalling.
Project description:Ferroptosis is a type of regulated cell death driven by the iron-dependent accumulation of oxidized polyunsaturated fatty acid-containing phospholipids. There is no reliable way to selectively stain ferroptotic cells in tissue sections to characterize the extent of ferroptosis in animal models or patient samples. We address this gap by immunizing mice with membranes from lymphoma cells treated with the ferroptosis inducer piperazine erastin and screening ?4,750 of the resulting monoclonal antibodies generated for their ability to selectively detect cells undergoing ferroptosis. We find that one antibody, 3F3 ferroptotic membrane antibody (3F3-FMA), is effective as a selective ferroptosis-staining reagent. The antigen of 3F3-FMA is identified as the human transferrin receptor 1 protein (TfR1). We validate this finding with several additional anti-TfR1 antibodies and compare them to other potential ferroptosis-detecting reagents. We find that anti-TfR1 and anti-malondialdehyde adduct antibodies are effective at staining ferroptotic tumor cells in multiple cell culture and tissue contexts.
Project description:Ferroptosis is a newly characterized iron-dependent form of nonapoptotic regulated cell death triggered by lipid reactive oxygen species (LOOH). The dysregulation of ferroptosis is highly related to cancer, and the induction of ferroptosis is also proposed as a potential strategy for cancer therapy. Although several key regulators have been identified that are involved in ferroptosis, the molecular mechanism underlying this process remains largely unknown. Here, we report that Peroxiredoxin-6 (PRDX6) is a bona fide negative regulator of ferroptotic cell death. The knockdown of intracellular PRDX6 significantly enhances LOOH and ferroptotic cell death triggered by ferroptosis inducers (Erastin and RSL-3), which is correlated with the transcriptional activation of heme oxygenase-1. Moreover, overexpression of heme oxygenase-1 enhances both Erastin- and RSL-3-triggered LOOH, suggesting that heme oxygenase-1 mediates PRDX6 silencing-enhanced ferroptosis. More importantly, the application of a specific PRDX6 phospholipase A2 (iPLA2) inhibitor, MJ-33, synergistically enhances the ferroptosis induced by Erastin, suggesting that PRDX6 removes LOOH through its iPLA2 activity. Thus, our findings reveal an essential role of PRDX6 in protecting cells against ferroptosis and provide a potential target to improve the antitumor activity of ferroptosis-based chemotherapy.
Project description:In cancer cells the small compounds erastin and RSL3 promote a novel type of cell death called ferroptosis, which requires iron-dependent accumulation of lipid reactive oxygen species. Here we assessed the contribution of lipid peroxidation activity of lipoxygenases (LOX) to ferroptosis in oncogenic Ras-expressing cancer cells. Several 12/15-LOX inhibitors prevented cell death induced by erastin and RSL3. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated silencing of ALOX15 significantly decreased both erastin-induced and RSL3-induced ferroptotic cell death, whereas exogenous overexpression of ALOX15 enhanced the effect of these compounds. Immunofluorescence analyses revealed that the ALOX15 protein consistently localizes to cell membrane during the course of ferroptosis. Importantly, treatments of cells with ALOX15-activating compounds accelerated cell death at low, but not high doses of erastin and RSL3. These observations suggest that tumor ferroptosis is promoted by LOX-catalyzed lipid hydroperoxide generation in cellular membranes.
Project description:Ferroptosis, a newly discovered form of cell death mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation, has recently been shown to have an impact on various cancer types; however, so far there are only few studies about its role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The delicate equilibrium of ROS in cancer cells has found to be crucial for cell survival, thus increased levels may trigger ferroptosis in HCC. In our study, we investigated the effect of different ROS modulators and ferroptosis inducers on a human HCC cell line and a human hepatoblastoma cell line. We identified a novel synergistic cell death induction by the combination of Auranofin and buthionine sulfoxime (BSO) or by Erastin and BSO at subtoxic concentrations. We found a caspase-independent, redox-regulated cell death, which could be rescued by different inhibitors of ferroptosis. Both cotreatments stimulated lipid peroxidation. All these findings indicated ferroptotic cell death. Both cotreatments affected the canonical ferroptosis pathway through GPX4 downregulation. We also found an accumulation of Nrf2 and HO-1, indicating an additional effect on the non-canonical pathway. Our results implicate that targeting these two main ferroptotic pathways simultaneously can overcome chemotherapy resistance in HCC.
Project description:Cytotoxic activities of several Golgi-dispersing compounds including AMF-26/M-COPA, brefeldin A and golgicide A have previously been shown to induce autophagy or apoptosis. Here, we demonstrate that these Golgi disruptors also trigger ferroptosis, a non-apoptotic form of cell death characterized by iron-dependent oxidative degradation of lipids. Inhibitors of ferroptosis not only counteract cell death, but they also protect from Golgi dispersal and inhibition of protein secretion in response to several Golgi stress agents. Furthermore, the application of sublethal doses of ferroptosis-inducers such as erastin and sorafenib, low cystine growth conditions, or genetic knockdown of SLC7A11 and GPX4 all similarly protect cells from Golgi stress and lead to modulation of ACSL4, SLC7A5, SLC7A11 or GPX4 levels. Collectively, this study suggests a previously unrecognized function of the Golgi apparatus, which involves cellular redox control and prevents ferroptotic cell death.
Project description:Ferroptosis is widely involved in degenerative diseases in various tissues including kidney, liver and brain, and is a targetable vulnerability in multiple primary and therapy-resistant cancers. Accumulation of phospholipid hydroperoxides in cellular membranes is the hallmark and rate-limiting step of ferroptosis; however, the enzymes contributing to lipid peroxidation remain poorly characterized. Using genome-wide, CRISPR-Cas9-mediated suppressor screens, we identify cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) as necessary for ferroptotic cell death in cancer cells exhibiting inherent and induced susceptibility to ferroptosis. By genetic depletion of POR in cancer cells, we reveal that POR contributes to ferroptosis across a wide range of lineages and cell states, and in response to distinct mechanisms of ferroptosis induction. Using systematic lipidomic profiling, we further map POR's activity to the lipid peroxidation step in ferroptosis. Hence, our work suggests that POR is a key mediator of ferroptosis and potential druggable target for developing antiferroptosis therapeutics.