Families with BAP1-Tumor Predisposition Syndrome in The Netherlands: Path to Identification and a Proposal for Genetic Screening Guidelines.
ABSTRACT: Germline pathogenic variants in the BRCA1-associated protein-1 (BAP1) gene cause the BAP1-tumor predisposition syndrome (BAP1-TPDS, OMIM 614327). BAP1-TPDS is associated with an increased risk of developing uveal melanoma (UM), cutaneous melanoma (CM), malignant mesothelioma (MMe), renal cell carcinoma (RCC), meningioma, cholangiocarcinoma, multiple non-melanoma skin cancers, and BAP1-inactivated nevi. Because of this increased risk, it is important to identify patients with BAP1-TPDS. The associated tumors are treated by different medical disciplines, emphasizing the need for generally applicable guidelines for initiating genetic analysis. In this study, we describe the path to identification of BAP1-TPDS in 21 probands found in the Netherlands and the family history at the time of presentation. We report two cases of de novo BAP1 germline mutations (2/21, 9.5%). Findings of this study combined with previously published literature, led to a proposal of guidelines for genetic referral. We recommend genetic analysis in patients with ?2 BAP1-TPDS-associated tumors in their medical history and/or family history. We also propose to test germline BAP1 in patients diagnosed with UM <40 years, CM <18 years, MMe <50 years, or RCC <46 years. Furthermore, other candidate susceptibility genes for tumor types associated with BAP1-TPDS are discussed, which can be included in gene panels when testing patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Germline mutations in BAP1 have been associated with BAP1-Tumor Predisposition Syndrome (BAP1-TPDS), a predisposition to multiple tumors within a family that includes uveal melanoma (UM), cutaneous melanoma, malignant mesothelioma and renal cell carcinoma. Alternatively, somatic mutations in BAP1 in UM have been associated with high risk for metastasis. In this study, we compare the risk of metastasis in UM that carry germline versus somatic BAP1 mutations and mutation-negative tumors. METHODS:DNA extracted from 142 UM and matched blood samples was sequenced using Sanger or next generation sequencing to identify BAP1 gene mutations. RESULTS:Eleven of 142 UM (8%) carried germline BAP1 mutations, 43 (30%) had somatic mutations, and 88 (62%) were mutation-negative. All BAP1 mutations identified in blood samples were also present in the matched UM. There were 52 unique mutations in 54 tumors. All were pathogenic or likely pathogenic. A comparison of tumors carrying somatic vs. germline mutations, or no mutations, showed a higher frequency of metastasis in tumors carrying somatic mutations: 74% vs. 36%, P=0.03 and 74% vs. 26% P<0.001, respectively. Tumors with a somatic mutation compared to mutation-negative had an older age of diagnosis of (61.8 vs. 52.2 years, P=0.002), and shorter time to metastasis (16 vs. 26 months, P=0.04). Kaplan-Meier analysis further showed that tumors with somatic (vs. germline) mutations demonstrated a greater metastatic risk (P=0.03). Cox multivariate analysis showed in addition to chromosome-3 monosomy and larger tumor diameter, the presence of BAP1 somatic, but not germline mutations, was significantly associated with risk of metastasis(P=0.02). Personal or family history of BAP1-TPDS was available for 79 of the cases. All eight cases with germline mutations reported a history of BAP1-TPDS, which was significantly greater than what was observed in cases with somatic mutations (10 of 23, P=0.009) or mutation-negative cases (11 of 48, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Defining germline vs. somatic nature of BAP1 mutations in UM can inform the individual about both the risk of metastasis, and the time to metastasis, which are critically important outcomes for the individual. This information can also change the cascade screening and surveillance of family members.
Project description:The clinical phenotype of BAP1 hereditary cancer predisposition syndrome (MIM 614327) includes uveal melanoma (UM), cutaneous melanoma (CM), renal cell carcinoma (RCC), and mesothelioma. However, the frequency of the syndrome in patients with UM and the association with other cancers are still not clear. In this study, we screened 46 previously untested, unrelated UM patients with high risk for hereditary cancer for germline mutation in BAP1. We also studied four additional patients with a personal or family history suggestive of BAP1 hereditary cancer syndrome. We identified three patients with germline pathogenic mutations (c.2050 C>T, pGln684*; c.1182C>G, p.Tyr394*, and c.1882_1885delTCAC, p. Ser628Profs*8) in BAP1. Two of these three patients presented with UM and the third with a metastatic adenocarcinoma likely from a hepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Reported family histories included UM, mesothelioma, RCC, CM, and several other internal malignancies. The results of this study confirm the association between germline BAP1 mutation and predisposition to UM, mesothelioma, CM and RCC. However, other cancers, such as cholangiocarcinoma and breast carcinoma may be part of the phenotype of this hereditary cancer predisposition syndrome. In addition, the results support the existence of other candidate genes in addition to BAP1 contributing to hereditary predisposition to UM.
Project description:Germline pathogenic variants in the BRCA1-associated protein-1 (BAP1) gene cause the BAP1 tumor predisposition syndrome (TPDS). BAP1 TPDS is associated with an increased risk of uveal and cutaneous melanoma, mesothelioma, renal cell carcinoma, and several other cancer subtypes. Here, we report a germline nonsense BAP1 variant (c.850G>T, p.Glu284Ter) in a patient with bladder cancer and a strong family history of malignancy. Concurrently, we identified a somatic frameshift BAP1 variant, and as expected, immunostaining validated the loss of BAP1 protein in patient-derived tumor specimens. Together, these data provide strong evidence of pathogenicity in this case. With the addition of bladder cancer to the tumor types reported with germline BAP1 mutations, our understanding of the BAP1 TPDS continues to evolve, and may affect future screening and surveillance guidelines.
Project description:Background:The BRCA1-associated protein-1 (BAP1) tumor predisposition syndrome (BAP1-TPDS) is a hereditary tumor syndrome caused by germline pathogenic variants in BAP1 encoding a tumor suppressor associated with uveal melanoma, mesothelioma, cutaneous melanoma, renal cell carcinoma, and cutaneous BAP1-inactivated melanocytic tumors. However, the full spectrum of tumors associated with the syndrome is yet to be determined. Improved understanding of the BAP1-TPDS is crucial for appropriate clinical management of BAP1 germline variant carriers and their families, including genetic counseling and surveillance for new tumors. Methods:We collated germline variant status, tumor diagnoses, and information on BAP1 immunohistochemistry or loss of somatic heterozygosity on 106 published and 75 unpublished BAP1 germline variant-positive families worldwide to better characterize the genotypes and phenotypes associated with the BAP1-TPDS. Tumor spectrum and ages of onset were compared between missense and null variants. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results:The 181 families carried 140 unique BAP1 germline variants. The collated data confirmed the core tumor spectrum associated with the BAP1-TPDS and showed that some families carrying missense variants can exhibit this phenotype. A variety of noncore BAP1-TPDS -associated tumors were found in families of variant carriers. Median ages of onset of core tumor types were lower in null than missense variant carriers for all tumors combined (P?<?.001), mesothelioma (P?<?.001), cutaneous melanoma (P?<?.001), and nonmelanoma skin cancer (P?<?.001). Conclusions:This analysis substantially increases the number of pathogenic BAP1 germline variants and refines the phenotype. It highlights the need for a curated registry of germline variant carriers for proper assessment of the clinical phenotype of the BAP1-TPDS and pathogenicity of new variants, thus guiding management of patients and informing areas requiring further research.
Project description:BACKGROUND:To evaluate the prevalence of BAP1 germline mutations in a series of young patients with uveal melanoma (UM), diagnosed before age 30. MATERIALS AND METHODS:The study was carried out on 14 young uveal melanoma patients (average age 21.4 years, range 3 months to 29 years). Germline DNA was extracted from peripheral blood. BAP1 sequencing was carried out using direct sequencing of all exons and adjacent intronic sequences. We also tested for germline mutations in additional melanoma-associated candidate genes CDKN2A and CDK4 (exon 4). RESULTS:We identified one patient with a pathogenic mutation (c. 1717delC, p.L573fs*3) in BAP1. This patient was diagnosed with UM at age 18 years and had a family history of a father with UM and a paternal grandfather with cancer of unknown origin. One additional patient had an intronic variant of uncertain significance (c.123-48T?>?G) in BAP1 while the remaining 12 patients had no alteration. None of the patients had CDKN2A or CDK4 (Exon 4) mutations. Family history was positive for a number of additional malignancies in this series, in particular for cutaneous melanoma, prostate, breast and colon cancers. There were no families with a history of mesothelioma or renal cell carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS:This study suggests that a small subset of patients with early onset UM has germline mutation in BAP1. While young patients with UM should be screened for germline BAP1 mutations, our results suggest that there is a need to identify other candidate genes which are responsible for UM in young patients.
Project description:We have recently shown that the breast cancer (BRCA)1-associated protein-1 tumor suppressor gene (BAP1) is inactivated in a subset of clinically aggressive meningiomas that display rhabdoid histomorphology. Immunohistochemistry for BAP1 protein provides a rapid and inexpensive method for screening suspected cases. Notably, some patients with BAP1-mutant meningiomas have germline BAP1 mutations and BAP1 tumor predisposition syndrome (TPDS). It appears that nearly all patients with germline BAP1 mutations develop malignancies by age 55, most frequently uveal melanoma, cutaneous melanoma, pleural or peritoneal malignant mesothelioma, or renal cell carcinoma, although other cancers have also been associated with BAP1 TPDS. Therefore, when confronted with a patient with a potentially high-grade rhabdoid meningioma, it is important that neuropathologists assess the BAP1 status of the tumor and that the patient's family history of cancer is carefully ascertained. In the appropriate clinical setting, genetic counseling and germline BAP1 DNA sequencing should be performed. A cancer surveillance program for individuals who carry germline BAP1 mutations may help identify tumors such as uveal melanoma, cutaneous melanoma, and renal cell carcinoma at early and treatable stages. Because BAP1-mutant meningiomas are rare tumors, multi-institutional efforts will be needed to evaluate therapeutic strategies and to further define the clinicopathologic features of these tumors.
Project description:Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common phenotype in patients with germline BAP1 mutation. This study aimed to identify selection criteria for BAP1 germline testing and assessed the role of large deletion/duplication and epigenetic inactivation. One hundred seventy-two UM patients with high risk of hereditary cancer were included. Germline variants in BAP1 were assessed by direct sequencing and large deletion/duplication by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. BAP1 expression in unaffected choroid tissue from a patient with UM was assessed by quantitative RT-PCR and methylation by pyrosequencing. Twenty-eight patients had one or more germline sequence variants in BAP1; seven of these were pathogenic. One hundred forty patients were assessed for large deletion/duplication and in one BAP1 whole gene deletion was detected. In total, eight patients (4.7%) had pathogenic alterations in BAP1 with the highest frequencies of in patients with a personal/family history of ?2 BAP1-related cancers 6/16 (38%), age of onset <35?years 4/21 (19%) and familial UM 6/34 (18%). One of 19 non-tumor choroid tissues tested showed uncharacteristically low expression as compared to the controls decrease in BAP1 RNA expression but no evidence of constitutional promotor hypermethylation was detected. UM patients with a strong personal or family history of cancers associated with BAP1, early age of onset and familial UM should be assessed for germline variants in BAP1, including large deletions.
Project description:Germline mutations in the tumor suppressor gene BRCA1-associated protein-1 (<i>BAP1</i>) lead to <i>BAP1</i> tumor predisposition syndrome (<i>BAP1</i>-TPDS), characterized by high susceptibility to several tumor types, chiefly melanoma, mesothelioma, renal cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma. Here, we present the results of our ten-year experience in the molecular diagnosis of <i>BAP1</i>-TPDS, along with a clinical update and cascade genetic testing of previously reported <i>BAP1</i>-TPDS patients and their relatives. Specifically, we sequenced germline DNA samples from 101 individuals with suspected <i>BAP1</i>-TPDS and validated pathogenic variants (PVs) by assessing <i>BAP1</i> somatic loss in matching tumor specimens. Overall, we identified seven patients (7/101, 6.9%) carrying six different germline <i>BAP1</i> PVs, including one novel variant. Consistently, cascade testing revealed a total of seven <i>BAP1</i> PV carriers. In addition, we explored the mutational burden of <i>BAP1</i>-TPDS tumors by targeted next-generation sequencing. Lastly, we found that certain tumors present in PV carriers retain a wild-type <i>BAP1</i> allele, suggesting a sporadic origin of these tumors or a functional role of heterozygous <i>BAP1</i> in neoplastic development. Altogether, our findings have important clinical implications for therapeutic response of <i>BAP1</i>-TPDS patients.
Project description:Like cancer generally, malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a genetic disease at the cellular level. DNA copy number analysis of mesothelioma specimens has revealed a number of recurrent sites of chromosomal loss, including 3p21.1, 9p21.3, and 22q12.2. The key inactivated driver genes located at 9p21.1 and 22q12.2 were discovered two decades ago as being the tumor suppressor loci CDKN2A and NF2, respectively. Only relatively recently was the BAP1 gene determined to be the driver gene at 3p21.1 that is somatically inactivated. In 2011, we reported germline mutations in BAP1 in two families with a high incidence of mesothelioma and other cancers such as uveal melanoma (UM). As a result of a flurry of research activity over the last 5-6 years, the BAP1 gene is now firmly linked causally to a novel tumor predisposition syndrome (TPDS) characterized by increased susceptibility to mesothelioma, UM, cutaneous melanoma (CM) and benign melanocytic tumors, as well as several other cancer types. Moreover, results from recent in vivo studies with genetically engineered Bap1-mutant mouse models and new functional studies have provided intriguing biological insights regarding BAP1's role in tumorigenesis. These and other recent findings offer new possibilities for novel preventative and therapeutic strategies for MM patients.
Project description:Germline BAP1 (BRCA1-associated protein-1) mutations are involved into a novel specific cancer syndrome and strictly associated with a high cancer susceptibility. Recent data suggest that BAP1 has activity toward target substrates explaining why loss of BAP1 causes a pro-tumorigenic deregulation of gene expression. The recently published data reviewed raise the hypothesis that BAP1 regulates a common subset of substrates, which in turn causes a pro-tumorigenic deregulation of gene expression, and alternatively suggest the role of BAP1 as tumorigenesis suppressor/promoter also by independent mechanisms. The clinical phenotype of BAP1 alterations includes MBAITs (melanocytic BAP1-mutated atypical intradermal tumors), uveal melanoma (UM), cutaneous melanoma (CM), renal cell carcinoma (RCC), mesothelioma (MM), and possibly several other tumors. In clinical practice, early diagnosis is crucial for curative resection of all these tumor types. The uniformed and unambiguous definition of MBAITs as clinical/pathological predictive markers could provide physicians means to identify patients who may carry germline BAP1 mutations and thus could be at high risk of developing CM, UM, MM, RCC, and possibly other tumors. As part of a novel multidisciplinary approach, physicians, pathologists, and clinicians involved into diagnostics should be aware of the histological features and the spectrum of tumors associated with BAP1 loss. Further clinical, epidemiological, and functional studies are required to fully explain the roles of BAP1 and its interaction partners in neoplasia, to define mechanisms behind shared and non-shared clinical and pathological criteria.